Friday, July 14, 2023

Sandi Bird Sanctuary

Sandi Bird Sanctuary UPSC

Sandi Bird Sanctuary is a freshwater marsh in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. It is a haven for avian biodiversity. Established in 1990, the sanctuary spans an area of 309 hectares and is characterized by its picturesque lake, known as "Dahar Jheel." 

Designated as a protected Ramsar site in September 2019, the sanctuary aims to conserve and protect the natural habitats and aquatic vegetation for both local and migratory bird species.

Table of Contents

  • Sandi Bird Sanctuary Location
  • Sandi Bird Sanctuary History
  • Sandi Bird Sanctuary Area
  • Sandi Bird Sanctuary River
    • River Garra
  • Sandi Bird Sanctuary Lake
    • Dahar Jheel
  • Sandi Bird Sanctuary Flora
  • Sandi Bird Sanctuary Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptile
  • Sandi Bird Sanctuary UPSC Questions

Sandi Bird Sanctuary Location

Sandi Bird Sanctuary is located in the Bilgram tehsil of the Hardoi district in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. It is situated just 1 kilometer from the town of Sandi, 19 kilometers from the city of Hardoi, and approximately 129 kilometers from Lucknow, the capital city of Uttar Pradesh.

Sandi Bird Sanctuary Nearest Airport:

The nearest airport to the Sandi Bird Sanctuary is Amausi Airport, also known as Chaudhary Charan Singh International Airport, located in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh. It is approximately 129 kilometers away from the sanctuary.

Sandi Bird Sanctuary Nearest Railway Station:

As for the nearest railway station, the Sandi Bird Sanctuary is close to the Sandila Railway Station, which is located in Sandila, Hardoi district. However, please note that this railway station might not be well-connected to major cities or have direct trains from all locations. For more convenient access, you can consider reaching the Hardoi Railway Station, which is around 19 kilometers away from the sanctuary and has better connectivity to various cities in Uttar Pradesh.

Sandi Bird Sanctuary History

Ancient Name: The Sandi Bird Sanctuary is often referred to by its ancient name, "Dahar Jheel." The term "Jheel" translates to "lake" in English, reflecting the presence of a significant water body within the sanctuary. This lake, along with the surrounding habitats, forms a unique and important ecosystem for birdlife.

Establishment: In 1990, the Sandi Bird Sanctuary was established. It serves as a vital refuge for both local and migratory bird species, safeguarding their natural habitats and aquatic vegetation.

Sandi Bird Sanctuary Ramsar Site

Designation as a Ramsar Site: In recognition of its ecological significance, the Sandi Bird Sanctuary was designated as a protected Ramsar site on September 26, 2019. Ramsar sites are wetlands of international importance, designated under the Ramsar Convention—a global treaty aimed at conserving and sustainably utilizing wetlands.

Sandi Bird Sanctuary Area

The Sandi Bird Sanctuary encompasses an area of 309 hectares, which is equivalent to approximately 3.09 square kilometers. This area primarily comprises the lake, known as "Dahar Jheel," and the surrounding habitats that provide a conducive environment for a variety of bird species.

The 309-hectare expanse of the sanctuary offers ample space for diverse avian populations to thrive and find suitable nesting, feeding, and breeding grounds. The lake, with its associated wetlands and aquatic vegetation, contributes significantly to the overall biodiversity and ecological balance within the sanctuary.

Sandi Bird Sanctuary River

The Sandi Bird Sanctuary is located near the River Garra, which was previously known as Garun Ganga. The river serves as an important water source and plays a significant role in shaping the surrounding landscape and ecosystems.

The presence of the River Garra near the sanctuary contributes to the overall biodiversity and ecological balance within the area. It provides a source of freshwater for the lake and associated wetlands, creating a favorable habitat for various bird species.

The proximity of the river to the sanctuary also presents additional opportunities for birdwatchers and visitors to observe birds that depend on both the lake and the river for their survival. It creates a dynamic and interconnected environment where birds can find different habitats and resources throughout their life cycles.

Sandi Bird Sanctuary Lake

The Sandi Bird Sanctuary is characterized by the presence of a significant lake, known as "Dahar Jheel." The lake serves as a prominent feature of the sanctuary and plays a crucial role in attracting and sustaining a diverse range of bird species.

The lake in the Sandi Bird Sanctuary is a wetland that exhibits characteristics typical of the Indo-Gangetic plains. These plains are known for their fertile soil, extensive agricultural lands, and diverse wetland ecosystems. The sanctuary's lake is a part of this wider ecosystem, contributing to the overall biodiversity of the region.

The primary source of water for the lake is the monsoon rains. The Indo-Gangetic plains, including the Sandi area, experience a distinct monsoon season characterized by heavy rainfall. These rains replenish the lake, ensuring a sufficient water supply for the wetland and the surrounding vegetation.

Sandi Bird Sanctuary Flora

The Sandi Bird Sanctuary is known for its diverse flora, comprising various types of vegetation that provide essential habitats and food sources for the bird species residing in the sanctuary. Here are some common types of flora that can be found in the Sandi Bird Sanctuary:

(1) Aquatic Plants:

The sanctuary's lake and wetland areas are home to a variety of aquatic plants. These include water lilies, lotus, duckweeds, water hyacinths, and various submerged and floating plants. Aquatic plants not only contribute to the visual appeal of the sanctuary but also provide nesting sites, shelter, and food sources for birds.

(2) Marsh and Wetland Plants:

The marshy and wetland areas of the Sandi Bird Sanctuary support the growth of plants that are well-adapted to waterlogged conditions. Examples of marsh and wetland plants include reeds, sedges, rushes, cattails, and various types of grasses. These plants help stabilize the wetland ecosystems, provide cover for birds, and offer foraging opportunities.

(3) Trees and Shrubs:

The Sandi Bird Sanctuary is also characterized by the presence of trees and shrubs that offer nesting sites, perching spots, and food sources for birds. Common tree species found in the sanctuary may include babul, neem, peepal, banyan, mango, and eucalyptus. Shrubs such as lantana, Indian gooseberry, and ber can also be found.

(4) Grasslands and Meadow Plants:

Open grasslands and meadow areas within the sanctuary may host a range of grass species, including elephant grass, wild oat grass, and various herbaceous plants. These areas are essential for ground-dwelling birds, providing nesting sites, foraging grounds, and protective cover.

Sandi Bird Sanctuary Fauna (Sandi Bird Sanctuary Animals)

The Sandi Bird Sanctuary is home to a diverse range of fauna, including various bird species, mammals, reptiles, and other wildlife. Here are some examples of the fauna that can be found in the sanctuary:


The Sandi Bird Sanctuary supports a variety of mammal species. You may encounter animals such as Indian gray mongoose, jungle cat, Indian flying fox, Indian palm civet, Indian porcupine, and Indian gerbil. Some larger mammals, like spotted deer and wild boar, may also visit the sanctuary in search of food and water.


  • Common Teal 
  • Red-crested Pochard 
  • Ferruginous Duck 
  • Sarus crane


The wetland habitats in the sanctuary provide suitable conditions for reptiles. Reptile species that can be found include Indian rock python, common monitor lizard, Indian rat snake, Indian flapshell turtle, and several species of freshwater turtles.

Sandi Bird Sanctuary UPSC Questions

Q. Where is Sandi Bird Sanctuary?

A. Sandi Bird Sanctuary is located in the Bilgram tehsil of the Hardoi district in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India.

Sandi Bird Sanctuary

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