Wednesday, April 17, 2024

Balphakram National Park

April 17, 2024 0

Balphakram National Park UPSC

Balpakram National Park is located in the Meghalaya, India. It is a protected area known for its diverse flora and fauna, as well as its stunning landscapes.


Table of Contents

  • Balphakram National Park Location
  • Balphakram National Park History
  • Balphakram National Park Area
  • Balphakram National Park Hills
    • Garo Hills
  • Balphakram National Park River
    • Simsang River (Goneshwari River)
  • Balphakram National Park Caves
    • Siju-Dobkhakol Cave
  • Balphakram National Park Tribe
    • Garo Tribe
  • Balphakram National Park Flora
    • Tropical Deciduous Trees
    • Subtropical Vegetation
    • Grassland
    • Bamboo Forest
    • Carnivorous Plants
  • Balphakram National Park Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptiles
  • Balphakram National Park UPSC Questions


Balphakram National Park Location

Balphakram National Park is located in South Garo Hills district of Meghalaya, India. It is located at an altitude of about 910 meters (3,000 feet).


Balphakram National Park Nearest Airport:

  • Guwahati Airport


Balphakram National Park Nearest Railway Station:

  • Guwahati Railway Station




Balphakram National Park History

Balphakram National Park has a rich history that is closely tied to the indigenous tribes and cultural heritage of the region. Here's a brief overview of the historical significance of Balphakram National Park:


1. National Park Status: In 1987, Balphakram National Park was established as a protected area to safeguard the unique biodiversity of the region. The park's establishment aimed to protect the natural habitat and wildlife species found in the Garo Hills, ensuring their long-term survival and promoting conservation.


2. UNESCO Tentative List: The government of India has nominated the Garo Hills Conservation Area (GHCA), straddling South and West Garo Hills district in Meghalaya, as a World Heritage Site, which includes Balpakram National Park. It has been listed in UNESCO World Heritage tentative list.




Balphakram National Park Area

Balphakram National Park covers an area of approximately 220 square kilometers (85 square miles). This protected area encompasses diverse landscapes, including hills, valleys, grasslands, forests, and riverine ecosystems.




Balphakram National Park Hills

Balphakram National Park is located in the southern part of the Garo Hills in Meghalaya, India. The park is characterized by its hilly terrain, as it is situated within the Garo Hills region, which is known for its undulating landscapes.


Nokrek National Park

April 17, 2024 0

Nokrek National Park UPSC

Nokrek National Park is a prominent national park located in the state of Meghalaya in northeastern India. It is one of the most significant biodiversity hotspots in the region and has been designated as a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve


The Nokrek National Park is home to diverse ecosystems, including tropical and subtropical forests, grasslands, and high-altitude plateaus. It encompasses the Nokrek Biosphere Reserve, which consists of the Nokrek Peak, the highest peak in the Garo Hills region.


Table of Contents

  • Nokrek National Park Location
  • Nokrek National Park History
  • Nokrek National Park Area
  • Nokrek National Park Hills
    • Garo Hills
    • Nokrek Range
  • Nokrek National Park River
    • Simsang River
    • Ganol River
    • Dareng River
    • Nitai River
    • Bhugi River
  • Nokrek National Park Tribe
    • Garo Tribe
  • Nokrek National Park Flora
  • Nokrek National Park Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptiles
  • Nokrek National Park UPSC Questions


Nokrek National Park Location

Nokrek National Park is located in the West Garo Hills district of the state of Meghalaya, which is in northeastern India. It is situated about 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) from Tura Peak and 45 Kms from Tura, the district headquarters of West Garo Hills. 


Tura is approximately 220 kilometers (137 miles) west of the state capital, Shillong. The park spans an area in the southeastern part of the Garo Hills region, near the border with Bangladesh.


Nokrek National Park Nearest Airport:

The Nearest Airport is Guwahati which is almost 140 Kms away


Nokrek National Park Nearest Railway Station:

The nearest railway station is Guwahati which is 160 Kms away.




Nokrek National Park History

Nokrek National Park has a rich history that spans several decades. Here is a brief overview of its history:


1. Establishment: In 1986, Nokrek National Park was established. The park was created to protect and conserve the unique biodiversity and ecosystems found in the Garo Hills region of Meghalaya.


2. Biosphere Reserve: In 1988, the Government of India officially declared Nokrek National Park as a biosphere reserve, acknowledging its immense ecological importance. 


3. UNESCO Biosphere Reserve: In 2009, Nokrek National Park was designated as a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve. This recognition acknowledges the park's significance in terms of its ecological value and sustainable development.


4. Endangered Species Conservation: The park gained recognition for its efforts in conserving endangered species, especially the Western Hoolock gibbon. This small ape species is found only in northeastern India and neighboring countries, and Nokrek National Park serves as an important sanctuary for its conservation.




Nokrek National Park Area

Nokrek National Park covers an area of approximately 47 square kilometers (18 square miles). The Park is small, but it serves as the core area of the Nokrek Biosphere Reserve (82,000 ha). 


Within its boundaries, the park encompasses a range of ecosystems, including tropical and subtropical forests, grasslands, and high-altitude plateaus. 


Nokrek National Park Height

The highest point in Nokrek National Park is the Nokrek Peak, which has an elevation of 1,412 meters (4,633 feet) above sea level. 

Monday, April 15, 2024

Sirohi (Shirui) National Park

April 15, 2024 0

Sirohi (Shirui) National Park UPSC

Sirohi National Park, also known as Shirui National Park, is a protected area located in the state of Manipur, India. 


The national park is named after the Shirui Lily (Lilium mackliniae), a rare and endangered flower species that is found in the park. The Shirui Lily is the state flower of Manipur and is known for its vibrant colors and exquisite beauty. The park was established primarily to protect and conserve this unique flower species.


Sirohi National Park is not only of ecological importance but also holds cultural significance for the local communities. The Shirui Lily Festival, held annually in the park, showcases the rich cultural heritage of the region and promotes awareness about the conservation of the flower and its habitat.


Table of Contents

  • Sirohi National Park Location
  • Sirohi National Park History
  • Sirohi National Park Area
  • Sirohi National Park Hills
    • Shirui Kashong Range
  • Shirui National Park River
  • Sirohi National Park Tribe
    • Tangkhul Naga Tribe
  • Sirohi National Park Flora
    • Shirui Lily (Lilium mackliniae)
  • Sirohi National Park Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptiles
  • Sirohi National Park UPSC Questions


Sirohi (Shirui) National Park Location

Sirohi National Park is located in the Ukhrul district of the state of Manipur, India. It is situated in the northeastern part of the country, bordering Myanmar. The park is specifically located near the town of Ukhrul, which is approximately 86 kilometers (53 miles) east of Imphal, the capital city of Manipur.


The park is nestled in the picturesque Eastern Himalayas and is surrounded by beautiful mountain ranges and dense forests.


To reach Sirohi National Park, one can travel by road from Imphal to Ukhrul, which takes about 3-4 hours depending on the road conditions. Imphal is well-connected by air and road to major cities in India. The nearest airport is the Imphal International Airport, which has regular flights from various cities in India.


Sirohi (Shirui) National Park Nearest Airport:

  • Imphal International Airport (103 km).


Sirohi (Shirui) National Park Nearest Railway Station:

  • The nearest railway station is Dimapur.




Sirohi (Shirui) National Park History

Sirohi National Park, also known as Shirui National Park, has a rich history that dates back several decades. Here is a brief overview of its history:


1. Recognition of the Shirui Lily: The park gained prominence due to the presence of the Shirui Lily (Lilium mackliniae), a rare and endemic flower species found in the area. The Shirui Lily was officially recognized as the state flower of Manipur in 1989, which led to increased efforts for its conservation and protection. The flower is considered an endangered species.


2. Establishment of the Park: Sirohi National Park was established on 11th April 1982. The park was primarily created to safeguard the habitat of the Shirui Lily and other flora and fauna species in the region.


3. Importance for Local Communities: The park holds cultural significance for the local communities, especially the Tangkhul Naga tribe who inhabit the area. The Shirui Lily Festival, celebrated annually in the park, is a major cultural event that showcases the local traditions, customs, and folk dances. The festival helps raise awareness about the importance of conserving the Shirui Lily and its habitat.

Keibul Lamjao National Park

April 15, 2024 0

Keibul Lamjao National Park UPSC

Keibul Lamjao National Park is located in the state of Manipur in northeastern India. It is the only floating national park in the world and is renowned for being the last natural refuge of the endangered Sangai, also known as the Manipur brow-antlered deer or dancing deer.


The most distinctive feature of Keibul Lamjao National Park is the Phumdis. Phumdis are circular floating mats of vegetation that support the park's flora and fauna. 


Keibul Lamjao National Park has been recognized as a Ramsar Site, highlighting its international significance as a wetland habitat.


Table of Contents

  • Keibul Lamjao National Park Location
  • Keibul Lamjao National Park History
  • Keibul Lamjao National Park Area
  • Keibul Lamjao National Park River
    • Manipur River
  • Keibul Lamjao National Park Lake
    • Loktak Lake
  • Keibul Lamjao National Park Tribe
    • Meitei Community
  • Keibul Lamjao National Park Flora
    • Phumdi Vegetation
    • Aquatic Plants
    • Marshland Flora
    • Riparian Vegetation
    • Terrestrial Forests
  • What is Phumdi?
  • Keibul Lamjao National Park Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptiles
    • Fishes
  • Sangai Deer
  • Keibul Lamjao National Park UPSC Questions


Keibul Lamjao National Park Location

Keibul Lamjao National Park is located in the Bishnupur district of the state of Manipur, India. It is situated in the southern part of Loktak Lake, which is the largest freshwater lake in northeastern India and well known for the floating biomass called phumdis. 


The Keibul Lamjao National Park is surrounded by the wetlands and marshes of the Loktak lake.


Keibul Lamjao National Park Nearest Airport:

  • Imphal International Airport (Tulihal International Airport) (30 Kms)


Keibul Lamjao National Park Nearest Railway Station:

  • Jiribam Railway Station (240 Kms).


Keibul Lamjao National Park By Road:

  • NH-2, NH-37 and NH-29 (240 Kms from District Hq.)




Keibul Lamjao National Park History

Keibul Lamjao National Park has a unique history that revolves around the conservation of the Sangai deer and the preservation of its habitat. Here's a brief overview of the park's history:


1. Early Conservation Efforts: The conservation efforts for the Sangai deer and its habitat began in the 1950s. The Sangai deer, endemic to Manipur, faced severe threats from habitat loss, hunting, and human disturbances. Realizing the need to protect this endangered species, the government of Manipur initiated measures to safeguard its habitat.


2. Establishment of Keibul Lamjao Sanctuary: In 1966, Keibul Lamjao Sanctuary was established to protect the Sangai deer and its habitat. Initially, it covered an area of 40 square kilometers (15 square miles) within the Loktak Lake region. The sanctuary aimed to provide a safe haven for the deer and conserve the unique floating vegetation and wetland ecosystem.


3. Recognition as a National Park: In 1977, Keibul Lamjao Sanctuary was upgraded to the status of a national park, becoming Keibul Lamjao National Park. This upgrade provided additional protection and conservation measures for the Sangai deer and its habitat. It also highlighted the international significance of the park as a wetland ecosystem.


4. Ramsar Site Designation: In 1990, Keibul Lamjao National Park was designated as a Ramsar Site, recognizing its international importance as a wetland habitat. This designation further emphasized the need for conservation and sustainable management of the park's wetland ecosystem.


5. Montreux Record: The park was also listed under the Montreux Record in 1993, "a record of Ramsar sites where changes in ecological character have occurred, are occurring or are likely to occur"




Keibul Lamjao National Park Area

Keibul Lamjao National Park covers an area of approximately 40 square kilometers (15 square miles). The actual size of the park may slightly vary due to natural fluctuations in the floating vegetation and the dynamics of the wetland ecosystem. 


Keibul Lamjao National Park is an integral part of Loktak Lake (140 km2). South western portion of Loktak Lake forms the Keibul Lamjao National Park which is a continuous mass of Phumdi occupying an area of 40 km2.


Sunday, April 14, 2024

Dehing Patkai National Park

April 14, 2024 0

Dehing Patkai National Park UPSC

Dehing Patkai National Park, also known as the Dehing Patkai Wildlife Sanctuary, is a protected area located in the state of Assam, India. The Dehing Patkai Wildlife Sanctuary is also known as the Jeypore Rainforest.


Dehing is the name of the river that flows through this park and Patkai is the hill at the foot of which the national park lies. It is part of the larger Dehing Patkai Elephant Reserve, which encompasses both forested areas and grasslands. 


The Dehing Patkai National Park is characterized by its evergreen rainforests, which are among the last remaining lowland rainforests in India. 


Table of Contents

  • Dehing Patkai National Park Location
  • Dehing Patkai National Park History
  • Dehing Patkai National Park Area
  • Dehing Patkai National Park Hills
    • Patkai Bum Range
  • Dehing Patkai National Park River
    • Dehing River
  • Dehing Patkai National Park Tribe
  • Dehing Patkai National Park Flora
  • Dehing Patkai National Park Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptiles
  • Dehing Patkai National Park UPSC Questions


Dehing Patkai National Park Location

Dehing Patkai National Park is located in the Dibrugarh and Tinsukia districts of Assam, India. The national park is situated in the eastern part of Assam, near the border with Arunachal Pradesh. 


It is located within the larger Dehing Patkai Elephant Reserve, which spreads across the coal- and oil-rich districts of Upper Assam (Dibrugarh and Tinsukia districts). The oldest refinery of Asia in Digboi and ‘open cast’ coal mining at Lido are located near the sanctuary.


Dehing Patkai National Park Nearest Airport:

Dibrugarh Airport is the nearest airport, at a distance of approx. 103km from Dehing Patkai National Park.


Dehing Patkai National Park Nearest Railway Station:

 Nearest railway station is Naharkatia which is around 8 km from the park.




Dehing Patkai National Park History

The history of Dehing Patkai National Park is closely linked to the region's natural and cultural heritage. Here is a brief overview:


1. Early Human Habitation: The region surrounding Dehing Patkai National Park has a long history of human habitation. Indigenous communities, such as the Tai Phake, Khamti, and Singpho tribes, have been residing in this area for generations, maintaining a close relationship with the surrounding forests and wildlife.


2. Protected Forest Area: The area that encompasses Dehing Patkai National Park was initially designated as a Reserved Forest in 1924 under the British Raj. It was aimed at conserving the region's natural resources, including its diverse flora and fauna.


3. Dehing Patkai Wildlife Sanctuary: In 2004, the area was officially declared the Dehing Patkai Wildlife Sanctuary, recognizing its ecological significance and the need for conservation.


4. Established as a National Park: On 13 December 2020 Government of Assam upgraded it into a national park. On 9 June 2021 Forest Department of Assam officially notified it as a national park. 




Dehing Patkai National Park Area

Dehing Patkai National Park covers an area of approximately 231.65 km2 (89.44 sq mi)


The park area is characterized by its evergreen rainforests, which are among the last remaining lowland rainforests in India. 


Dehing Patkai National Park is a part of the 937 sq. km Dehing Patkai Elephant Reserve that includes the British-era coal mines and oil refinery town Digboi.


Raimona National Park

April 14, 2024 0

Raimona National Park UPSC

Raimona National Park is a protected area located in the Assam, India. It is known for its rich biodiversity and unique ecosystem. It is home to various species of flora and fauna.


Table of Contents

  • Raimona National Park Location
  • Raimona National Park History
  • Raimona National Park Area
  • Raimona National Park River
    • Sonkosh River
    • Saralbhanga River
    • Pekua River
  • Raimona National Park Flora
  • Raimona National Park Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptiles
  • Raimona National Park UPSC Questions


Raimona National Park Location

Raimona National Park is located in the Gossaigaon and Kokrajhar subdivisions of Kokrajhar district of Assam, India. It is situated in the extreme western part of Assam.


The Raimona National Park is within the Bodoland Territorial Region. The Bodoland Territorial Region (BTR) is an autonomous region and a proposed state in Assam, India.


The Raimona National Park is surrounded by the Phipsoo Wildlife Sanctuary in Bhutan to its north, the Buxa Tiger Reserve in West Bengal to its west and the Manas National Park to its east.


Raimona National Park is bounded on the west by the Sonkosh river and the Saralbhanga river on the east. Both the rivers are tributaries of Brahmaputra. The Pekua river defines park’s southern boundary.


Raimona National Park Nearest Airport:

The nearest Airport to Raimona National Park is Lokpriya Gopinath Bordoloi Airport, Guwahati. 


Raimona National Park Nearest Railway Station:

The Kokrajhar Railway Station is the nearest to Raimona National Park. The National Park is almost 53 kilometres away from Kakrojhar.




Raimona National Park History

National Park Status: In 2021, Raimona National Park was declared a national park. It is the sixth National Park of Assam. Assam now has 7 National Parks: Kaziranga, Nameri, Orang, Manas, Dibru-Saikhowa, Dehing Patkai and Raimona.


Assam is the state with the second highest number of national parks in the country, after Madhya Pradesh’s 11. The Union Territory of Andaman and Nicobar has 9 national parks.




Raimona National Park Area

Raimona National Park covers an area of approximately 422 square kilometers (163 square miles). This area includes diverse habitats such as forests, grasslands, wetlands, and riverine ecosystems. 


The area of the Raimona National Park includes the northern part of the notified Ripu Reserve Forest, which forms the western-most buffer to the Manas National Park that straddles the India-Bhutan border.

Orang National Park

April 14, 2024 0

Orang National Park UPSC

Orang National Park, also known as Rajiv Gandhi Orang National Park, is a national park located in the state of Assam, India. It is also known as Mini Kaziranga National Park.


Orang National Park is renowned for its rich biodiversity and serves as a vital wildlife conservation area. It is particularly famous for its population of the Indian rhinoceros, which is listed as an endangered species. 


Table of Contents

  • Orang National Park Location
  • Orang National Park History
  • Orang National Park Area
  • Orang National Park River
    • Pachnoi River
    • Dhanshiri River
    • Belsiri River
  • Orang National Park Flora
    • Grasses
    • Aquatic Plants
    • Trees
    • Orchids
    • Medicinal Plants
  • Orang National Park Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptiles
  • Mini Kaziranga National Park
  • Orang National Park UPSC Questions


Orang National Park Location

Orang National Park is located in the Darrang and Sonitpur districts of Assam, India. It is situated on the north bank of the Brahmaputra River.


Orang National Park Nearest Airport:

Nearest airport is at Salonibari village in Tezpur, about 60 Km from the Orang National Park.


Orang National Park Nearest Railway Station:

Nearest railway stations are Saloni and Rangapara railway stations. 




Orang National Park History

Orang National Park, also known as Rajiv Gandhi Orang National Park, has an interesting history that spans several decades. 


Here is a brief overview of its history:


1. Game Reserve: The area that is now Orang National Park has a long history of conservation. It was initially declared a Game Reserve in 1915 to protect the rhinoceros population in the region.


2. Orang Wildlife Sanctuary: In 1985, Orang was designated as a wildlife sanctuary under the Wildlife Protection Act of India, 1972. The sanctuary aimed to safeguard the diverse flora and fauna present in the area, including the Indian rhinoceros, elephants, tigers, and various bird species.


3. Renamed in 1992: The Orang Wildlife Sanctuary was renamed the Rajiv Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary in 1992.


4. Established as a National Park: Recognizing the ecological significance of Orang Wildlife Sanctuary, it was upgraded to a national park on 13th April 1999. The park was renamed Rajiv Gandhi Orang National Park in honor of former Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi.


5. Tiger Reserve: Orang was declared as a tiger reserve in 2016 under Project Tiger. It is the 49th Tiger Reserve in India.


6. Rajiv Gandhi Orang National Park New Name: The Assam cabinet passed a resolution to rename Rajiv Gandhi National Park as Orang National Park in 2021.


7. Conservation Efforts: In 2022, the Assam government has issued a preliminary notification to make Orang National Park more than thrice its existing size for conserving Gharials. The notification says for adding 200.32 sq. km to the 78.82 sq. km Orang National Park.




Orang National Park Area

Orang National Park covers an area of approximately 78.81 square kilometers (30.42 square miles). The park is relatively compact compared to some other national parks in India but is still significant in terms of biodiversity and conservation efforts.