Sunday, March 3, 2024

UPSC Prelims Negative Marking Calculator

March 03, 2024 0
UPSC Prelims Negative Marking Calculator
IAS Prelims Negative Marking Calculator

General Studies

CSAT


How to Calculate 1/3 Negative Marking in UPSC Prelims? (1/3 Negative Marking Means in UPSC)

The UPSC Civil Services Preliminary Examination is a crucial step for aspirants aiming to embark on a career in the Indian Administrative Service (IAS). A distinctive feature of this exam is the negative marking system, designed to penalize incorrect answers. In this article, we will delve into how negative marking operates for both the General Studies (GS) and the Civil Services Aptitude Test (CSAT), shedding light on the intricacies of each.

1. General Studies (GS):

Marking Scheme:

  • Total Questions: 100
  • Marks for Correct Answer: +2
  • Marks for Incorrect Answer: -0.66

Calculation Example:

Let's say a candidate attempts 80 questions:
  • Correct Answers: 60
  • Incorrect Answers: 20

Total Marks=(60×2)−(20×0.66)
Total Marks=120−13.2
Total Marks=106.8


Explanation:

  • The candidate receives +2 for each correct answer, leading to a cumulative total of 120 marks.
  • For each incorrect answer, 0.66 marks are deducted, resulting in a penalty of 13.2 marks.
  • The final total is 106.8 marks.


2. Civil Services Aptitude Test (CSAT):

Marking Scheme:

  • Total Questions: 80
  • Marks for Correct Answer: +2.5
  • Marks for Incorrect Answer: -0.83

Calculation Example:

Suppose a candidate attempts 70 questions:
  • Correct Answers: 50
  • Incorrect Answers: 20

Total Marks=(50×2.5)−(20×0.83)
Total Marks=125−16.6
Total Marks=108.4


Explanation:

  • Each correct answer fetches +2.5 marks, accumulating to 125 marks for 50 correct responses.
  • For every incorrect answer, 0.83 marks are deducted, resulting in a penalty of 16.6 marks.
  • The final total stands at 108.4 marks.


Understanding the negative marking system is crucial for UPSC aspirants, as it emphasizes the importance of accuracy over blind guessing. The penalty for incorrect responses is substantial, underlining the need for a strategic approach to maximize overall scores. Aspirants are advised to carefully consider the potential impact of negative marking while attempting questions, aiming for a balanced and informed approach in both the General Studies and the Civil Services Aptitude Test.

Sunday, February 25, 2024

How to Prepare Current Affairs for UPSC?

February 25, 2024 0
How to Prepare Current Affairs for UPSC?

How to Prepare UPSC Current Affairs?

Preparing for the UPSC (Union Public Service Commission) examination requires a well-rounded approach, and staying updated on current affairs is a crucial aspect. In this article, we will delve into a systematic guide on how to prepare for UPSC current affairs, covering everything from understanding the syllabus to engaging in group discussions and mock interviews.


The UPSC conducts various competitive examinations, such as the Civil Services Examination, Indian Forest Service Examination, and others, to recruit candidates for various administrative and civil service positions in the Indian government.


Current affairs play a significant role in the UPSC examination process because they assess a candidate's awareness of and ability to analyze current events, which is essential for administrative and leadership roles in the civil services. UPSC current affairs cover a wide range of topics, including national and international politics, economics, science and technology, environment, culture, and more.


To prepare for the UPSC examination, candidates need to stay informed about the latest developments and issues in these areas. They often use newspapers, magazines, online resources, and current affairs materials specifically designed for UPSC preparation to stay updated with relevant information. Additionally, the UPSC may include current affairs-related questions in the preliminary and mains stages of the examination, so a thorough understanding of current events is crucial for success.


Here are some tips to help you prepare for current affairs effectively:


1. Understand the UPSC Syllabus:

To excel in UPSC current affairs, it's essential to have a solid grasp of the UPSC syllabus. Familiarize yourself with the UPSC syllabus. This will help you know the specific topics that you need to focus on.



2. Stay Updated Regularly: 

  • Newspapers like The Hindu, The Indian Express, and others provide comprehensive coverage of national and international news. 
  • Focus on the editorial and opinion sections as well.



3. Use Standard Reference Material:

  • Refer to standard reference books and magazines like Yojana, Kurukshetra, and Frontline for in-depth analysis and coverage of current affairs topics. 
  • Monthly magazines and compilations can help you consolidate information.



4. Current Affairs Magazines:

Subscribe to current affairs magazines that focus on UPSC exam preparation. These publications often provide concise and well-analyzed content, saving you time and ensuring you cover a wide range of topics.



5. Watch News Programs:

  • Watch news programs on television for visual and audio updates on current events. 
  • Follow government press releases and official statements.



6. Make Notes:

  • Maintain a separate notebook or digital document for current affairs.
  • Summarize key points, facts, and figures.
  • Categorize information under different sections like national, international, economic, environmental, etc.



7. Revise Regularly:

  • Periodically revise your notes to reinforce the information.
  • Create a revision schedule to cover important topics consistently.



8. Use Online Platforms:

  • Follow reputable online platforms, websites, and blogs that focus on current affairs for UPSC.
  • Engage in discussions on forums or social media to gain different perspectives.



9. Refer to Government Reports and Publications:

  • Study official reports and publications released by government bodies and international organizations.
  • Pay attention to economic surveys, budget documents, and other policy-related documents.



10. Stay Informed about Historical Context:

  • Understand the historical context of current events to grasp the significance and implications.
  • Connect current affairs to relevant subjects in the UPSC syllabus.



11. Practice Answer Writing:

  • Practice incorporating current affairs in your answers while writing mock exams.
  • Enhance your answer writing skills and ability to articulate your thoughts concisely.



12. Practice Previous Year Question Papers:

Solve previous year question papers to understand the exam pattern and identify areas that require additional focus. This practice will also help you manage time effectively during the actual exam.



13. Group Discussions and Mock Interviews:

Engage in group discussions with fellow aspirants to exchange ideas and gain different perspectives. Additionally, participate in mock interviews to simulate the interview process and enhance your communication and interpersonal skills.



14. Stay Analytical:

  • Develop the ability to analyze events critically, understanding their causes and effects.
  • Connect current events to broader themes like governance, ethics, and socio-economic issues.


Mastering UPSC current affairs demands a multi-faceted approach, combining diligent study habits, analytical thinking, and practical skills. By following this comprehensive guide, aspirants can navigate the vast landscape of current affairs with confidence and increase their chances of success in the UPSC examination.

Himalayan Yak

February 25, 2024 0

Himalayan Yak UPSC

The Himalayan yak (Bos grunniens) is a large, domesticated bovine species native to the Himalayan region of South Central Asia, including countries like India, Nepal, Bhutan, Tibet, and parts of China. 


Yaks have been domesticated for various purposes by local communities in the Himalayan region. They serve as multipurpose animals, providing milk, meat, wool, and hides. Their dung is also used as fuel, and they are utilized as pack animals for transporting goods across difficult terrains.


The Himalayan yak plays a significant role in the livelihoods and culture of the people in the region, serving as a reliable source of sustenance and support in the challenging mountainous terrain.


Table of Contents

  • Himalayan Yak Characteristics
    • Classification
    • Scientific Name
    • Habitat
    • Physical Appearance
    • Diet
    • Behavior
    • Reproduction
    • Lifespan
    • Importance
  • Himalayan Yak in India
  • Protection Status
  • Conservation
  • Threats
  • Himalayan Yak UPSC Question


Himalayan Yak Characteristics

What are the characteristics of a Himalayan yak?

The Himalayan yak possesses several distinctive characteristics that enable it to thrive in the challenging environments of the high-altitude regions. Here are some key features:


1. Classification:

The Himalayan yak belongs to the family Bovidae and the genus Bos. Specifically, it is classified as Bos grunniens. Here is its classification at different taxonomic levels:

  • Kingdom: Animalia
  • Phylum: Chordata
  • Subphylum: Vertebrata
  • Class: Mammalia
  • Order: Artiodactyla
  • Family: Bovidae
  • Genus: Bos
  • Species: Bos grunniens


The domestic yak (Bos grunniens) is closely related to the wild yak (Bos mutus), and both species are found in the Himalayan region. Yaks are part of the subfamily Bovinae, which also includes other cattle such as domestic cattle (Bos taurus) and bison (Bison spp.). 



2. Scientific Name:

The scientific name of the Himalayan yak is Bos grunniens.



3. Habitat:

The Himalayan yak is adapted to harsh, high-altitude environments and is primarily found in the mountainous regions of South Central Asia, including the Himalayas. Their habitat spans across countries such as India, Nepal, Bhutan, Tibet, and parts of China. The specific features of their habitat include:


1. Altitude:

Yaks are well-suited to high altitudes, often inhabiting regions above 3,000 meters (10,000 feet) and reaching up to 6,000 meters (20,000 feet) or more. They are particularly well-adapted to the thin air and low oxygen levels of these elevated environments.


2. Mountainous Terrain:

Yaks thrive in rugged and mountainous terrains with steep slopes and rocky landscapes. Their sturdy build and strong hooves enable them to navigate such challenging topography.


3. Pasturelands:

Yaks primarily graze on alpine meadows and pastures found in the high-altitude regions. These areas provide the grasses and vegetation necessary for their diet.


4. Cold Climate:

The thick, shaggy coat of yaks is an adaptation to the cold temperatures of their habitat. The coat provides insulation against the harsh weather conditions, including snow and low temperatures.


5. Nomadic Lifestyle:

In many cases, yaks are part of nomadic pastoralist communities that move seasonally in search of suitable grazing grounds. This lifestyle allows yaks to access different pastures as the seasons change.



4. Physical Appearance:

The Himalayan yak (Bos grunniens) has a distinctive physical appearance, characterized by features that enable it to thrive in the high-altitude environments of the Himalayan region. Here are some key aspects of their physical appearance:


(i). Size and Build:

  • Yaks are large, robust animals with a sturdy build, well-suited for the rugged and mountainous terrain they inhabit.
  • Adult males (bulls) are generally larger than females (cows).


(ii). Weight:

  • Males weigh 350 to 585 kg; females weigh 225 to 255 kg.
  • Wild yaks can be substantially heavier, with bulls reaching weights of up to 1,000 kg.


(iii). Height:

  • Domestic yak males are 111–138 cm at the withers; females are 105–117 cm.


(iv). Coat:

What color is a yak?

  • Yaks have a dense, long, and shaggy coat that provides insulation against the cold temperatures of high altitudes.
  • Fur hangs down lower than the belly, sometimes touching the ground.
  • The coat can vary in color, including black, brown, or white. The coloration may differ between individual yaks.


(v). Horns:

Do female yaks have horns?

  • Smooth and generally dark in color.
  • Both male and female yaks typically have long, curved horns that extend outward from their heads.
  • Males have longer, sweeping horns (48 to 99 cm) that curve backward.
  • Females have smaller, more upright horns (27 to 64 cm).
  • The horns are often used for defense and may be a distinguishing feature between males and females.


(vi). Head:

  • Yaks have a broad and square-shaped head.
  • Their facial features include a wide forehead, a strong jaw, and a slightly drooping nose.


(vii). Hump:

  • Yaks have a noticeable hump over their shoulders, which is more prominent in males. 
  • This hump is composed of muscle and fat and is an adaptation for storing energy.


(viii). Tail:

  • Yaks have a bushy tail, often with a tuft of hair at the end.


(ix). Hooves:

  • Yaks have strong and well-adapted hooves that provide traction on rocky and uneven terrain.


(x). Adaptations for High Altitude:

  • Physiologically, yaks have adaptations to thrive in high-altitude environments, including larger hearts and lungs to extract more oxygen from the thin mountain air.
  • It can tolerate temperatures as low as-40 degrees Celsius.



5. Diet:

What do Himalayan yaks eat?

Yaks are herbivorous animals with a diet primarily consisting of grasses, sedges, herbs, and dwarf shrubs. Their feeding habits are adapted to the high-altitude environments where they are commonly found. Here are some key aspects of the yak's diet:


(i) Grazing Herbivores:

Yaks are classified as grazing herbivores, meaning they predominantly feed on vegetation found on the ground.


(ii) Grasses and Sedges:

Wild yaks and domestic yaks alike feed on grasses and sedges that grow in alpine meadows and pastures. These grasses provide essential nutrients for their diet.


(iii) Herbs and Dwarf Shrubs:

In addition to grasses, yaks may also consume various herbs and dwarf shrubs that are available in their habitat. This diversity in plant sources helps meet their nutritional needs.


(iv) Efficient Nutrient Extraction:

Yaks have a specialized digestive system adapted to their diet. Compared to domestic cattle, the rumen of yaks is unusually large relative to the omasum. This adaptation allows them to consume greater quantities of low-quality food at a time and to ferment it longer to extract more nutrients.


(v) Foraging Behavior:

Yaks are known for their ability to forage in challenging terrains, including steep slopes and rocky landscapes. Their sturdy build and hooves enable them to navigate these environments in search of suitable vegetation.


(vi) Daily Food Consumption:

Yaks consume the equivalent of 1% of their body weight daily. This is a lower percentage compared to domestic cattle, which typically require around 3% of their body weight to maintain condition.


Tuesday, February 20, 2024

Best Newspaper for Current Affairs

February 20, 2024 0
Best Newspaper for Current Affairs

Best Newspaper for UPSC Current Affairs

For UPSC (Union Public Service Commission) exam preparation, it's essential to rely on newspapers that provide in-depth and well-rounded coverage of current affairs, which includes national and international events, government policies, socio-economic issues, and other topics relevant to the civil services examination. The following newspapers are commonly recommended for UPSC aspirants:



1. The Hindu: 

The Hindu is often considered one of the best newspapers for UPSC IAS Exam preparation due to its comprehensive and unbiased reporting. It covers a wide range of topics in detail and is known for its editorial quality. It is known for its in-depth coverage of national and international events, and it provides comprehensive analysis and background information on various issues.


Here are some reasons why The Hindu is often recommended for UPSC aspirants:


(i) Comprehensive Coverage: The Hindu covers a wide range of topics, including politics, economy, international relations, science and technology, environment, and more. This breadth of coverage helps candidates stay well-informed about various subjects relevant to the UPSC syllabus.


(ii) Quality Reporting: The newspaper is known for its accurate and reliable reporting. UPSC aspirants can rely on The Hindu for authentic information, which is crucial for answering questions in the exams.


(iii) Analytical Articles: The editorial and opinion pieces in The Hindu provide in-depth analysis and perspectives on current affairs. These articles can help aspirants develop a deeper understanding of issues and improve their analytical and critical thinking skills.


(iv) Editorial Focus: The editorial team of The Hindu maintains a balanced and unbiased approach in its reporting and analysis. This is important for candidates aiming to develop a holistic understanding of various topics.


(v) Language: The language used in The Hindu is generally considered to be of a high standard. Reading articles from the newspaper can also enhance the aspirant's language and comprehension skills, which are essential for the UPSC exams.



2. The Indian Express:

The Indian Express is also considered a reputable and valuable source for UPSC IAS (Indian Administrative Service) exam preparation, particularly for current affairs. Like The Hindu, The Indian Express provides in-depth coverage of a wide range of topics and offers analysis and insights into various issues. Here are some reasons why The Indian Express is often recommended for UPSC aspirants:


(i) Comprehensive Coverage: The Indian Express covers a diverse range of topics, including national and international news, politics, economy, science and technology, environment, and more. This comprehensive coverage helps candidates stay well-informed about current affairs relevant to the UPSC syllabus.


(ii) Analytical Reporting: The newspaper is known for its analytical and investigative reporting. The articles often provide in-depth analysis and perspectives on various issues, helping aspirants develop a deeper understanding of the subject matter.


(iii) Opinion and Editorials: The editorial and opinion pieces in The Indian Express offer diverse viewpoints on current affairs. Reading these pieces can help aspirants develop critical thinking skills and form well-rounded opinions on different topics.


(iv) Language and Writing Style: Similar to The Hindu, The Indian Express is known for its use of a high standard of language and writing style. Regular reading of articles from The Indian Express can contribute to improving language and comprehension skills, which are crucial for success in the UPSC exams.


(v) Focus on Contemporary Issues: The newspaper often covers contemporary issues and challenges faced by the country and the world. This is beneficial for UPSC aspirants as it helps them stay abreast of the latest developments.



3. Livemint:

Livemint, the business and financial daily from the Hindustan Times group, is generally considered a valuable source for UPSC exam preparation, especially for candidates interested in the economic and financial aspects of current affairs. Here are some aspects to consider:


(i) Economic Focus: Livemint has a strong focus on economic and financial news. It provides insights into business, markets, and economic policies. For candidates interested in economics and related topics, Livemint can be a useful source.


(ii) In-Depth Analysis: The newspaper often includes in-depth analysis and opinion pieces on economic and financial issues. This can help UPSC aspirants develop a deeper understanding of the economic landscape, government policies, and their implications.


(iii) Sectoral Coverage: Livemint covers various sectors of the economy, including banking, finance, technology, and industry. Aspirants looking to stay updated on sector-specific developments may find this aspect beneficial.


(iv) Contemporary Relevance: Livemint covers contemporary issues and trends in the business and financial world. Keeping abreast of these developments is crucial for the UPSC exam, as questions related to the economy and policies are common in the paper.



4. Business Standard:

Business Standard, a financial daily, is also considered a valuable source for UPSC exam preparation, especially for candidates interested in economic and business-related current affairs. Here are some aspects to consider:


(i) Economic and Business Focus: Business Standard primarily focuses on economic and business news. It provides in-depth coverage of financial markets, corporate developments, economic policies, and related issues. As such, it can be particularly useful for aspirants with an interest in economics and commerce.


(ii) Expert Analysis: The newspaper often includes expert opinions and analyses by economists, business leaders, and policymakers. This can provide aspirants with valuable insights into the implications of economic policies and developments.


(iii) Market Trends: Business Standard covers stock market trends, commodity prices, and other financial indicators. Aspirants who want to stay informed about the economic indicators and market dynamics may find this coverage beneficial.


(iv) Policy Updates: The newspaper regularly reports on government policies related to the economy, commerce, and industry. Keeping abreast of these policy updates is crucial for the UPSC exam, as questions related to economic policies are common.



5. Economic and Political Weekly (EPW):

Economic and Political Weekly (EPW) is a well-respected academic journal that covers a wide range of topics, including economics, politics, sociology, and other social sciences. While it is not a daily newspaper, EPW is often considered a valuable resource for UPSC IAS (Indian Administrative Service) exam preparation, especially for candidates looking for in-depth analysis and scholarly perspectives on current affairs. Here are some aspects to consider:


(i) In-Depth Analysis: EPW publishes scholarly articles, research papers, and critical analyses written by experts in various fields. This can provide a deeper understanding of complex issues, making it valuable for candidates who want to delve into the details of specific topics.


(ii) Varied Content: EPW covers a broad spectrum of subjects, including economic policies, social issues, political developments, and more. This diversity can be beneficial for UPSC aspirants seeking a comprehensive understanding of the subjects covered in the exam.


(iii) Critical Perspectives: The journal often presents diverse and critical perspectives on current affairs. This can help candidates develop a well-rounded view of different issues, which is important for the UPSC exams that often require candidates to analyze topics from various angles.


(iv) Research Orientation: EPW includes research-based articles and studies, which can be particularly useful for candidates aiming for a deeper understanding of the economic and political dimensions of current affairs.



6. BBC News:

BBC News is an internationally recognized news source that provides extensive coverage of global events, including news from India. While BBC News can be a valuable resource for staying informed about international affairs and global perspectives, it may not be sufficient as the primary source for UPSC IAS exam preparation, which requires a specific focus on Indian current affairs.


Here are some considerations regarding using BBC News for UPSC exam preparation:


(i) International Perspective: BBC News offers a broad international perspective on news and events. This can be beneficial for candidates seeking a global context for various issues, especially those related to international relations.


(ii) Quality Reporting: BBC News is known for its reliable and credible reporting. Aspirants can trust the accuracy of information presented by the BBC.


(iii) Supplementary Source: While BBC News can serve as a supplementary source to broaden one's understanding of global affairs, it is advisable to complement it with dedicated Indian newspapers for comprehensive coverage of national and regional current affairs.


(iv) Limited Focus on India: BBC News may not cover Indian news in as much detail as local newspapers. For UPSC exams, candidates need a thorough understanding of domestic issues, policies, and governance, which may not be covered comprehensively by an international news outlet.



7. Reuters:

Reuters is an international news agency known for providing global news coverage, including news related to India. Reuters can be a valuable source for staying informed about international affairs and global events for UPSC exam preparation.


Here are some considerations regarding using Reuters for UPSC exam preparation:


(i) International Perspective: Reuters offers a global perspective on news and events. This can be beneficial for candidates seeking insights into international relations and global developments.


(ii) Reliable Reporting: Reuters is widely recognized for its accurate and reliable reporting. Aspirants can trust the information presented by Reuters.


(iii) Supplementary Source: While Reuters can serve as a supplementary source to broaden one's understanding of global affairs, it is advisable to complement it with dedicated Indian newspapers for comprehensive coverage of national and regional current affairs.


(iv) Limited Focus on India: Reuters may not cover Indian news in as much detail as local newspapers. For UPSC exams, candidates need a thorough understanding of domestic issues, policies, and governance, which may not be covered comprehensively by an international news agency.



It's a good practice to read multiple newspapers and compare their coverage to get a well-rounded perspective on current affairs. Additionally, consider using UPSC-specific current affairs magazines and websites, as they often distill and curate content relevant to the UPSC examination.

Sunday, February 18, 2024

Himalayan Goral

February 18, 2024 0

Himalayan Goral UPSC

The Himalayan goral, also known as the gray goral or Naemorhedus goral, is a small to medium-sized ungulate found in the Himalayan region. Gorals belong to the Bovidae family and are closely related to goats and sheep. They are known for their distinctive appearance and habitat preferences.


These gorals are adapted to rugged, mountainous terrain and are found in the Himalayan region, including countries like India, Nepal, Bhutan, Pakistan and southern Tibet. They inhabit steep, rocky slopes and cliffs, preferring altitudes ranging from 1,000 to 4,500 meters.


The conservation status of Himalayan gorals varies depending on the specific species. Some populations are considered vulnerable or near-threatened due to habitat loss, hunting, and competition with domestic livestock.


Table of Contents

  • Himalayan Goral Characteristics
    • Classification
    • Scientific Name
    • Habitat
    • Physical Appearance
    • Diet
    • Behavior
    • Reproduction
    • Lifespan
  • Himalayan Goral in India
  • Himalayan Goral Protection Status
  • Himalayan Goral Conservation
  • Threats
  • Himalayan Goral UPSC Question


Himalayan Goral Characteristics

What are the characteristics of the Himalayan Goral?

The Himalayan goral possesses several distinctive characteristics that help it adapt to its mountainous habitat and way of life. Here are some key features:


1. Classification:

The Himalayan goral belongs to the genus Naemorhedus within the family Bovidae. The Bovidae family includes a diverse group of ungulates, such as goats, sheep, antelopes, and cattle. Here is the classification of the Himalayan goral:

  • Kingdom: Animalia
  • Phylum: Chordata
  • Subphylum: Vertebrata
  • Class: Mammalia
  • Order: Artiodactyla
  • Family: Bovidae
  • Subfamily: Caprinae
  • Genus: Naemorhedus
  • Species: Naemorhedus goral



2. Scientific Name:

The scientific name for the Himalayan goral is Naemorhedus goral. The genus name is Naemorhedus, and the species name is goral.


3. Habitat:

The Himalayan goral inhabits mountainous regions in the Himalayas, spanning across several countries including India, Nepal, Bhutan, Pakistan and parts of Tibet. Their habitat is characterized by rugged, steep, and rocky terrain with elevations ranging from 1,000 to 4,500 meters (approximately 3,280 to 14,760 feet) above sea level.


Key features of the Himalayan goral habitat include:


(i) Mountainous Terrain:

Gorals are adapted to living in areas with challenging topography, including cliffs, rocky slopes, and steep mountainsides. They are well-suited for navigating such terrain with their agile climbing abilities.


(ii) Elevation Range:

They are found at various altitudes within the specified range, showcasing their ability to adapt to different elevations within the mountainous landscape. It most commonly occurs from 900 to 2,750 m (2,950 to 9,020 ft) above sea level, but has been recorded in Pakistan at elevations of 1,000 to 4,000 m (3,300 to 13,100 ft).


(iii) Vegetation:

The vegetation in their habitat typically consists of a variety of plants, including grasses, shrubs, and other mountainous flora. Gorals are herbivores and feed on this vegetation.



4. Physical Appearance:

The Himalayan goral has distinct physical features that help it adapt to its mountainous habitat. Here are the key aspects of its physical appearance:


(i) Size and Weight:

Gorals are small to medium-sized ungulates, with males being slightly larger than females. They have a stocky build, which provides stability in rocky and uneven terrain.

  • Length: 95 to 130 cm (37 to 51 in)
  • Weight: 35–42 kg (77–93 lb)


(ii) Coat:

  • The coat of the Himalayan goral is rough and dense.
  • The coloration ranges from reddish-brown to grayish-brown, helping them blend into their rocky surroundings.
  • There is often a darker dorsal stripe along their spine, and the undersides are lighter in color.


(iii) Manes:

Males have short manes on their necks.


(iv) Horns:

Both males and females have backward-curving horns, with those of males being larger and more noticeable. The horns are present on the forehead and add to the distinct appearance of gorals.


(v) Facial Features:

Gorals have a relatively short and rounded face. Their eyes are positioned laterally, providing a wide field of view, which is useful for detecting predators.


(vi) Limbs:

They have short legs, which, along with their strong build, aid in navigating steep and rocky slopes. The hooves are adapted for climbing, providing traction on uneven surfaces.


(vii) Size Differences:

Males are slightly larger than females, both in body size and in the size of their horns.


(viii) Pre-orbital Gland Absence:

Gorals lack a pre-orbital gland, distinguishing them from closely related Himalayan serows.


Wednesday, February 7, 2024

UPSC Syllabus - IAS Prelims & Mains Syllabus

February 07, 2024 0
UPSC Syllabus - IAS Prelims & Mains Syllabus

UPSC Syllabus - IAS Prelims & Mains Syllabus 2024 (Union Public Service Commission Syllabus)

  • UPSC IAS Exam Stages
    • UPSC IAS Prelims Exam Pattern
    • UPSC IAS Mains Exam Pattern
    • UPSC IAS Exam Interview
    • UPSC IAS Final Merit
  • UPSC Prelims Syllabus 2024
    • Paper- I (General Studies‐I)
    • Paper- II (General Studies‐II) (UPSC CSAT Syllabus)
  • UPSC Mains Syllabus 2024
    • Paper- A and Paper-B (Qualifying & Compulsory)
    • PAPER‐I: Essay
    • PAPER‐II: General Studies‐I
    • PAPER‐III: General Studies‐ II
    • PAPER‐IV: General Studies‐ III
    • PAPER‐V: General Studies‐ IV (GS 4 Syllabus, Ethics Syllabus UPSC)
  • UPSC CSE Optional Subject List 2024

UPSC IAS Exam Stages

The UPSC IAS exam is a three-stage process that consists of:

1.Preliminary Examination
2.Mains Examination
3.Interview

1. Preliminary Examination: This is the first stage of the IAS exam. It is an objective type test consisting of two papers – General Studies and Civil Services Aptitude Test. The General Studies paper comprises questions related to current affairs, Indian history, Indian polity, geography, and economics, while the Civil Services Aptitude Test paper tests the candidates’ analytical and comprehension skills.

2. Main Examination: Those who qualify for the preliminary examination are eligible to appear for the Main examination. It consists of 9 papers, out of which 7 are considered for ranking purposes. The papers include Indian languages, English, essay, general studies, and optional subjects.

3. Personality Test (Interview): Those who qualify for the Main examination are called for the personality test or interview. It is the final stage of the IAS exam and comprises a personal interview conducted by a board of experts to assess the candidate’s personality, mental ability, and suitability for the civil services.

The final merit list is prepared based on the marks obtained in the Main examination and the interview.

1. UPSC IAS Prelims Exam Pattern

The UPSC IAS Prelims Exam Pattern comprises of two papers – General Studies (GS) and Civil Services Aptitude Test (CSAT). Both the papers are conducted on the same day in two sessions, and each paper is of 200 marks.

The General Studies Paper I consists of 100 questions, each carrying 2 marks. It covers topics such as Current events of national and international importance, History of India and Indian National Movement, Indian Polity and Governance, Economic and Social Development, Environmental Ecology, Biodiversity, and Climate Change, and General Science.

The General Studies Paper II or CSAT paper is the second paper of the Prelims. The CSAT paper is of qualifying nature, and a candidate needs to score a minimum of 33% marks in this paper to qualify for the Main exam.

The CSAT paper is designed to test the candidate’s aptitude and analytical skills, and it includes topics like comprehension, logical reasoning, analytical ability, decision-making, problem-solving, basic numeracy, and data interpretation.

The CSAT paper has 80 questions and is of 200 marks. The duration of the paper is 2 hours. The questions in the CSAT paper are of objective type, with multiple-choice options.

It is important for candidates to prepare well for the CSAT paper, as it is a qualifying paper, and a candidate’s score in this paper does not count towards the merit list. However, qualifying the CSAT paper is essential for a candidate to be eligible for the Main exam.

PaperTotal QuestionTotal MarksTimeNegative MarkingType of Paper
Paper- I (General Studies‐I)1002002 HoursYes (1/3)Objective
Paper- II (General Studies‐II)802002 HoursYes (1/3)Objective

Note 1 : Paper-II of the Civil Services (Preliminary) Examination will be a qualifying paper with minimum qualifying marks fixed at 33%.

Note 2 : The questions will be of multiple choice, objective type.

Note 3 : It is mandatory for the candidate to appear in both the Papers of Civil Services (Prelim) Examination for the purpose of evaluation. Therefore a candidate will be disqualified in case he/she does not appear in both the papers of Civil Services (Prelim) Examination.

2. UPSC IAS Mains Exam Pattern

  • Candidates who qualify for the Prelims are eligible to appear for the Main exam.
  • The Main exam consists of 9 descriptive type papers, out of which 7 papers are counted for merit ranking.
  • The Main exam is conducted over a period of 5-7 days.
  • The 7 papers are: Paper-I (Essay), Paper-II (General Studies-I), Paper-III (General Studies-II), Paper-IV (General Studies-III), Paper-V (General Studies-IV), Paper-VI (Optional Paper-I), Paper-VII (Optional Paper-II).
PaperTotal MarksTimePaper Type
Paper- A (Indian Languages)3003 HoursSubjective
Paper-B (English)3003 HoursSubjective
PAPER‐I (Essay)2503 HoursSubjective
PAPER‐II (General Studies‐I)2503 HoursSubjective
PAPER‐III (General Studies‐II)2503 HoursSubjective
PAPER‐IV (General Studies‐III)2503 HoursSubjective
PAPER‐IV (General Studies‐III)2503 HoursSubjective
PAPER‐VI (Optional-I)2503 HoursSubjective
PAPER‐VII (Optional-II)2503 HoursSubjective

Note: The marks of both the qualifying papers (Paper A: Compulsory Indian Language & Paper B: English) are not added for final merit. Both the question papers are of 300-300 marks. The minimum qualifying marks in Indian language is 25% (75) and in English also the minimum qualifying marks are 25% (75).

3. UPSC IAS Exam Interview

  • Candidates who qualify the Main exam are called for the Personality Test/Interview.
  • The interview is conducted by a panel of experts and is for a duration of 30-40 minutes.
  • The interview tests the candidate’s personality, suitability for a career in civil services, and general knowledge.
PaperTotal Marks
Interview/Personality Test275

(i) The candidate will be interviewed by a Board who will have before them a record of the candidate’s career. The candidate will be asked questions on matters of general interest. The object of the Interview/Personality Test is to assess the personal suitability of the candidate for a career in public service by a Board of competent and unbiased observers. The Interview/Personality Test is intended to judge the mental calibre of a candidate. In broad terms this is really an assessment of not only intellectual qualities but also social traits and interest in current affairs. Some of the qualities to be judged are mental alertness, critical powers of assimilation, clear and logical exposition, balance of judgement, variety and depth of interest, ability for social cohesion and leadership, intellectual and moral integrity.

(ii) The technique of the Interview/Personality Test is not that of a strict cross-examination but of a natural, though directed and purposive conversation which is intended to reveal the mental qualities of the candidate.

(iii) The Interview/Personality Test is not intended to be a test either of the specialized or general knowledge of the candidates which has been already tested through their written papers. Candidates are expected to have taken an intelligent interest not only in their special subjects of academic study but also in the events which are happening around them both within and outside their own State or Country as well as in modern currents of thought and in new discoveries which should rouse the curiosity of well-educated youth.

4. UPSC IAS Final Merit

The final selection of candidates is based on the candidate’s performance in the Main exam and Personality Test/Interview.

PaperMarks
Written Exam (Mains Exam)1750 Marks
Interview/Personality Test275 Marks
Total2025 Marks

Note: The final merit and rank is made by adding the marks of the candidate’s main examination and interview.