Thursday, September 7, 2023

Kazhuveli Wetland Bird Sanctuary

Kazhuveli Wetland Bird Sanctuary UPSC

The Kazhuveli Wetland Bird Sanctuary is situated in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. The sanctuary is the 16th Bird Sanctuary in Tamil Nadu. Kazhuveli is referred to as the second-largest brackish water lake in South India, after Pulicat Lake.

The Kazhuveli Wetland Bird Sanctuary is ecologically significant due to its diverse flora and fauna. It serves as a habitat for long-distance migrant birds from Central Asia and Siberia. The sanctuary is known for its international importance as a wetland.

It is a well-known raptor roosting site for species like the Eastern Imperial Eagle, Greater Spotted Eagle, Red-necked Falcon, and several harriers. The sanctuary is home to the Grey-tailed Tattler, a rare migratory wader, which is recorded only here and in Pulicat across the country.

Table of Contents

  • Kazhuveli Wetland Bird Sanctuary Location
  • Kazhuveli Wetland Bird Sanctuary History
  • Kazhuveli Wetland Bird Sanctuary Area
  • Kazhuveli Wetland Bird Sanctuary Flora
  • Kazhuveli Wetland Bird Sanctuary Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptile
  • Kazhuveli Wetland Bird Sanctuary UPSC Questions

Kazhuveli Wetland Bird Sanctuary Location

The Kazhuveli Wetland Bird Sanctuary is located in the Villupuram district of Tamil Nadu, India. It is situated along the east coast of Tamil Nadu, adjacent to the Bay of Bengal. The sanctuary covers parts of Vanur taluk and Marakkanam taluks in the Villupuram district. 

Kazhuveli Wetland Bird Sanctuary Nearest Airport:

The nearest airport to the Kazhuveli Wetland Bird Sanctuary is Chennai International Airport. Chennai International Airport is the closest major airport to the sanctuary and is located approximately 100-120 kilometers to the north of the sanctuary. Travelers can reach the sanctuary by road from the airport.

Kazhuveli Wetland Bird Sanctuary Nearest Railway Station:

The nearest railway station to the Kazhuveli Wetland Bird Sanctuary is the Villupuram Junction Railway Station. Villupuram Junction is a major railway station in the region and is approximately 30-40 kilometers away from the sanctuary. Travelers can take a train to Villupuram Junction and then continue their journey to the sanctuary by road.

Kazhuveli Wetland Bird Sanctuary History

The history of the Kazhuveli Wetland Bird Sanctuary is a relatively recent development, as it was declared a bird sanctuary in the 21st century. Here's a summary of the sanctuary's history based on the provided information:

Early History: Prior to its designation as a bird sanctuary, Kazhuveli was an ecologically important wetland area located in Villupuram district, Tamil Nadu, along the east coast of India.

Reservation of Southern Part: In the year 2001, a significant step was taken to protect the wetland when the southern part of the area was declared as reserved land. This designation likely aimed to conserve the natural ecosystem and wildlife in the region.

Official Declaration as a Bird Sanctuary: The Kazhuveli Wetland Bird Sanctuary was officially established as the 16th Bird Sanctuary in Tamil Nadu in the year 2021. This declaration was made under subsection (1) of section 18 of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.

Kazhuveli Wetland Bird Sanctuary Area

The Kazhuveli Wetland Bird Sanctuary covers a total area of approximately 5,151.60 hectares in the Vanur taluk and an additional 3,027.25 hectares in the Marakkanam taluks of Villupuram district, Tamil Nadu, India. 

This expansive area makes it one of the significant wetland bird sanctuaries in the region, providing ample habitat for a diverse range of bird species, including both resident and migratory birds.

Kazhuveli Wetland Bird Sanctuary Flora

Here are some common types of flora that are found in wetland areas like Kazhuveli:

(1) Aquatic Plants:

These plants are specially adapted to grow in water or in soil that is saturated with water. Examples include water lilies, lotus, and various types of submerged and floating plants.

(2) Reeds and Rushes:

Wetlands often feature tall grass-like plants such as cattails, bulrushes, and sedges. These plants are important for providing habitat and nesting sites for birds and other wildlife.

(3) Grasses:

Various grass species, both native and non-native, can be found in wetlands, serving as important food sources for herbivorous birds and other animals.

(4) Sedges and Mosses:

These low-growing plants are well-suited to wetland conditions and can be important components of the ecosystem.

Kazhuveli Wetland Bird Sanctuary Fauna (Kazhuveli Wetland Bird Sanctuary Animals)

The Kazhuveli Wetland Bird Sanctuary is known for its diverse and significant fauna. Here are some of the notable fauna found in this sanctuary:


Small mammals such as rats, mice, and shrews.


  • Fulvous Whistling-Duck
  • Great Egret
  • Intermediate Egret
  • Cattle Egret
  • Glossy Ibis
  • Black-headed Ibis
  • Pied Kingfisher
  • Lesser Whistling-Duck
  • Garganey
  • Northern Shoveler
  • Indian Spot-billed Duck
  • Northern Pintail
  • Indian Peafowl
  • Gray Francolin
  • Little Grebe
  • Eurasian Collared-Dove
  • Spotted Dove
  • Greater Coucal
  • Asian Koel
  • Asian Palm Swift
  • Eurasian Moorhen
  • Eurasian Coot
  • Gray-headed Swamphen
  • Watercock
  • White-breasted Waterhen
  • Black-winged Stilt
  • Red-wattled Lapwing
  • Little Ringed Plover
  • Greater Painted-Snipe
  • Pheasant-tailed Jacana


  • Snakes
  • Lizards

Kazhuveli Wetland Bird Sanctuary UPSC Questions

Q. Which district is Kazhuveli Bird Sanctuary in?

A. The Kazhuveli Wetland Bird Sanctuary is located in the Villupuram district of Tamil Nadu, India.

Q. Which is the 16th wildlife sanctuary in Tamil Nadu?

A. The Kazhuveli Wetland Bird Sanctuary is the 16th wildlife sanctuary in Tamil Nadu. It was officially declared as the 16th bird sanctuary in Tamil Nadu in the year 2021.

Q. What is the Kazhuveli Bird Sanctuary famous for?

A. The Kazhuveli Wetland Bird Sanctuary, located in Tamil Nadu, India, is famous for its ecological importance as a wetland habitat and its significance as a haven for various bird species. Some of the notable features and reasons for its fame include:

(i) Bird Diversity: Kazhuveli is renowned for being a congregation site for numerous bird species, both migratory and resident. It attracts a wide variety of avian species, making it a popular destination for birdwatchers and ornithologists.

(ii) Raptor Roosting: It is known as a roosting site for raptors such as the Eastern Imperial Eagle, Greater Spotted Eagle, and Red-necked Falcon, among others.

(iii) Migratory Birds: The sanctuary falls along the Central Asian migratory path of birds, making it a crucial stopover for migratory species traveling between their breeding and wintering grounds.

(iv) Unique Species: It is home to unique and rare bird species, including the Grey-tailed Tattler, a rare migratory wader that is recorded only in Kazhuveli and Pulicat across the country.

(v) Brackish Water Lake: Kazhuveli is known for having one of the second-largest brackish water lakes in South India, second only to Pulicat Lake.

Kazhuveli Wetland Bird Sanctuary

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