Tuesday, October 31, 2023


Leopard UPSC

The leopard (Panthera pardus) is one of the five species in the genus Panthera, which also includes lions, tigers, jaguars, and snow leopards. Leopards are known for their distinctive yellowish-brown coat covered with dark rosettes, which are circular markings with a central spot. These rosettes help leopards blend into their natural habitats and provide them with effective camouflage.

Leopards are listed as a vulnerable species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). They face various threats, including habitat loss, human-wildlife conflict, and illegal wildlife trade.

Leopards are fascinating creatures and play a vital role in maintaining the balance of ecosystems. Conservation efforts are ongoing to protect these big cats and their habitats.

Table of Contents

  • Leopard Characteristics
    • Classification
    • Scientific Name
    • Subspecies
    • Habitat
    • Physical Appearance
    • Size and Weight
    • Diet
    • Behavior
    • Reproduction
    • Lifespan
    • Speed
  • Black Leopard
  • White Leopard
  • Indian leopard
  • Leopard Population in India
  • Leopard Conservation Status
  • Threats
  • International Leopard Day
  • Leopard UPSC Question

Leopard Characteristics

Leopards are renowned for their unique characteristics and adaptations that make them well-suited for their diverse habitats and hunting strategies. Here are some of the key characteristics of leopards:

1. Classification:

Leopards are classified within the animal kingdom as follows:

  • Kingdom: Animalia
  • Phylum: Chordata
  • Class: Mammalia
  • Order: Carnivora
  • Family: Felidae 
  • Genus: Panthera
  • Species: Panthera pardus

2. Leopard Scientific Name:

The scientific name for the leopard is Panthera pardus. 

3. Subspecies:

Leopards have several subspecies with different ranges and adaptations. Here are some of the recognized leopard subspecies:

(i) African Leopard (Panthera pardus pardus): This is the most widespread leopard subspecies and is found across various parts of Africa. It includes several regional variations.

(ii) Indian Leopard (Panthera pardus fusca): Found in the Indian subcontinent, including India, Nepal, Bhutan, and Bangladesh.

(iii) Amur Leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis): Also known as the Far Eastern leopard, this subspecies is critically endangered and is native to the Russian Far East and parts of China.

(iv) Arabian Leopard (Panthera pardus nimr): This subspecies is critically endangered and found in the Arabian Peninsula, including Oman and Yemen.

(v) Javan Leopard (Panthera pardus melas): Native to the Indonesian island of Java, this subspecies is endangered.

(vi) Sri Lankan Leopard (Panthera pardus kotiya): Found in Sri Lanka, this subspecies is endangered.

(vii) Indochinese Leopard (Panthera pardus delacouri): This subspecies is found in Southeast Asia, including parts of Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, and southern China.

(viii) North Chinese Leopard (Panthera pardus japonensis): Native to northern China, this subspecies is critically endangered.

(ix) Persian Leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor): Found in Iran and parts of Central Asia, this subspecies is endangered.

(x) South Arabian Leopard (Panthera pardus jarvisi): This subspecies is found in southern Yemen and is critically endangered.

4. Habitat:

Leopards are highly adaptable and can be found in a wide range of habitats, including:

(i) Savannas and Grasslands: Leopards are commonly found in open savannas and grasslands where they can stalk and ambush their prey. These habitats provide a mix of cover for stealthy hunting and open areas for pursuit.

(ii) Forests: Leopards can thrive in both tropical and temperate forests. Their spotted coats provide excellent camouflage among the trees and undergrowth, making them effective forest hunters.

(iii) Mountainous Terrain: Some leopard subspecies are adapted to high-altitude mountainous regions, including the Himalayas and the Central Asian mountains.

(iv) Deserts: Leopards can also inhabit arid regions, such as the deserts of Africa, where they are often associated with rocky outcrops and canyons.

(v) Swamps and Wetlands: In some areas, leopards have adapted to wetland environments, where they may feed on aquatic prey.

(vi) Human-Altered Landscapes: Leopards are known for their ability to adapt to human-altered environments, including agricultural areas and even urban areas in some cases. They are highly adaptable and have been known to live near human settlements.

Leopards are territorial animals, and the size and nature of their territory can vary depending on factors like the availability of prey, water sources, and competition with other leopards. The adaptability of leopards to various habitats is one of the reasons they have a wide geographic range and can be found in diverse ecosystems.

5. Physical Appearance:

Leopards are known for their distinctive physical appearance, which includes various characteristics that make them easily recognizable. Here are the key physical features and characteristics of leopards:

(i) Coat Color and Pattern:

  • Leopards have a golden-yellow to light brown background coat color, which helps them blend into their surroundings.
  • Their coat is adorned with dark, solid spots and rosettes (open circular markings with a central spot). These rosettes are irregular in shape and vary in size, providing effective camouflage in a variety of habitats.
  • Some individuals, known as melanistic leopards, have a genetic condition that results in a nearly all-black coat. These individuals are often referred to as "black panthers."

(ii) Body Size and Shape:

  • Leopards are medium-sized big cats, with males typically larger than females.
  • They have a sleek, muscular body with strong, powerful limbs.
  • The shoulders are higher than the hindquarters, giving them a sloping appearance.

(iii) Head:

  • Leopards have a broad head with a strong jaw and sharp teeth.
  • Their eyes are usually golden to greenish-yellow, and they have excellent vision for both day and night hunting.

(iv) Ears and Whiskers:

  • They have rounded ears with a white spot on the back, which can be used for communication and as a focal point for cubs to follow.
  • Leopards have long, sensitive whiskers on their faces, which help them navigate in low-light conditions.

(v) Tail:

  • Leopards have a long, thick tail, which is spotted and often tipped with white. The tail is used for balance and communication.

(vi) Paws:

Their paws are padded and equipped with sharp retractable claws. These claws are used for hunting and climbing, and they are hidden when not in use.

Leopards' physical appearance, with their striking coat pattern and keen features, plays a crucial role in their ability to blend into their surroundings and ambush their prey effectively.

6. Size and Weight:

The size and weight of leopards can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, geographic location, and subspecies. Here are some general guidelines for the size and weight of leopards:

(i) Size:

  • On average, leopards stand about 2 to 2.3 feet (60 to 70 centimeters) tall at the shoulder.
  • The body length (excluding the tail) typically ranges from 3.5 to 6.25 feet (1 to 1.9 meters).
  • The tail can measure an additional 2.6 to 3.3 feet (0.8 to 1 meter) in length.

(ii) Weight:

  • The weight of a leopard can vary widely. Female leopards are generally smaller and lighter than males.
  • Adult female leopards typically weigh between 27 to 59 kilograms (60 to 130 pounds).
  • Adult male leopards are larger and can weigh between 45 to 91 kilograms (100 to 200 pounds).
  • The largest recorded leopards can exceed these averages, with some males weighing up to 100 kilograms (220 pounds) or more.

It's important to note that these are general guidelines, and individual leopards may fall outside of these ranges. The size and weight of leopards in different geographic regions and subspecies may also vary. Larger leopards are typically found in areas with abundant prey and suitable habitat.

7. Diet:

What does Leopard eat?

Leopards are carnivorous predators with a diverse diet. Their adaptability and stealthy hunting skills allow them to feed on a wide range of prey. Their diet can include:

(i) Ungulates: Leopards commonly prey on a variety of hoofed mammals, such as:

  • Impalas
  • Gazelles
  • Springboks
  • Wildebeests
  • Warthogs
  • Deer
  • Bovids

(ii) Small to Medium-Sized Mammals: Leopards also hunt smaller mammals, which can include:

  • Hares
  • Baboons and other primates
  • Rock hyraxes
  • Rodents, including rats and mice

(iii) Birds: Leopards are skilled climbers and can hunt birds in trees or on the ground. They may prey on:

  • Guinea fowl
  • Peafowl
  • Pigeons
  • Waterfowl

(iv) Reptiles: While not their primary food source, leopards will eat reptiles, including:

  • Lizards
  • Snakes
  • Crocodile eggs

(v) Insects: On occasion, leopards have been observed consuming insects.

(vi) Carrion: Leopards are opportunistic feeders and will scavenge when the opportunity arises. They may feed on the remains of kills made by other predators, such as lions or hyenas.

Leopards are solitary hunters and are known for their stalking and ambushing techniques. They use their powerful jaws and sharp teeth to deliver a lethal bite to their prey. They are also skilled at carrying their kills up into trees to protect them from scavengers and to eat at their leisure.

The exact composition of a leopard's diet can vary depending on its location and the availability of prey. They are highly adaptable and can adjust their hunting strategies based on the resources in their habitat.

8. Behavior:

Leopards exhibit a range of behaviors that are essential for their survival as solitary predators. Here are some key aspects of leopard behavior:

(i) Solitary Nature: Leopards are typically solitary animals, and each individual maintains its own territory. Males and females come together primarily for mating and raising cubs. Their solitary lifestyle reduces competition for food.

(ii) Territorial: Leopards are territorial animals and mark their territories using scent markings, vocalizations, and physical signs like scratch marks on trees. Territories can vary in size but are often larger for males than for females.

(iii) Nocturnal and Crepuscular: Leopards are primarily nocturnal and crepuscular, which means they are most active during the night and dawn/dusk. This behavior helps them avoid the heat of the day and allows them to ambush prey when it is active.

(iv) Stalking and Ambushing: Leopards are renowned for their stealth and hunting techniques. They stalk their prey, getting as close as possible before launching a surprise attack. Their spotted coat aids in camouflage.

(v) Tree Climbing: Leopards are proficient climbers and are known to haul their kills into trees to keep them away from scavengers such as hyenas and lions.

(vi) Communication: Leopards communicate with each other through vocalizations, including growls, roars, and chuffing sounds. These vocalizations are used for mating, warning off intruders, and maintaining territory boundaries.

(vii) Scavenging: While primarily hunters, leopards are opportunistic and will scavenge the kills of other predators when the opportunity arises.

(viii) Territorial Disputes: Territories often overlap, leading to occasional territorial disputes between leopards. These disputes can result in physical confrontations.

(ix) Adaptability: Leopards are highly adaptable and can be found in a wide range of habitats, from forests to grasslands and even near human settlements.

(x) Grooming: Leopards groom themselves regularly to keep their fur clean and in good condition. This self-grooming helps remove dirt and parasites.

Leopards' solitary and secretive nature, along with their ability to adapt to a variety of habitats and hunting techniques, contributes to their success as one of the most widespread big cat species in the world.

9. Reproduction:

Leopard reproduction involves the mating and parenting behaviors of these solitary big cats. Here's an overview of leopard reproduction:

(i) Mating and Courtship:

  • Leopards do not have a specific breeding season and can mate throughout the year.
  • Females come into estrus, or "heat," for a period of about 6-7 days. During this time, they release pheromones to attract males.
  • Males may travel significant distances to find receptive females.
  • Courtship involves vocalizations, rubbing against each other, and sometimes even aggressive behaviors.
  • Mating is brief but may occur multiple times during the estrus period.

(ii) Gestation:

  • After mating, the female has a gestation period of about 90 to 105 days (approximately 3 months).
  • During this time, the female may become more solitary, as she prepares for the birth of her cubs.

(iii) Birth and Parenting:

  • Leopards usually give birth to a litter of two to three cubs, although litters of one to four cubs have been reported.
  • The cubs are born with their eyes closed and are entirely dependent on their mother for care and nourishment.
  • The mother will hide the cubs in a den, rocky crevice, or thick vegetation to protect them from potential threats.
  • Cubs are born with a coat that lacks the distinctive rosettes found in adults, and their fur may be grayish.
  • The mother will nurse her cubs for several months, providing them with her milk, which is rich in nutrients.
  • As the cubs grow, she will also introduce them to solid food, beginning with small kills.
  • The mother will continue to protect and teach her cubs essential hunting and survival skills.

(iv) Independence:

  • Leopard cubs become more independent as they mature and learn to hunt. They will typically stay with their mother for about 18-24 months before setting out on their own.
  • At this point, the mother may become more receptive to mating again.

(v) Survival:

  • Leopard cub mortality can be high, with factors such as predation by other animals and disease posing threats.
  • Only a fraction of leopard cubs survive to adulthood.

Leopard reproduction is characterized by a combination of solitary behavior and maternal care. Female leopards invest significant time and effort in raising and protecting their cubs, contributing to the survival of the next generation of these remarkable big cats.

10. Lifespan:

The lifespan of a leopard in the wild and in captivity can vary due to factors such as habitat, food availability, and human impact. Here are some general guidelines for leopard lifespans:

(i) Wild Leopards:

  • In the wild, leopards typically have a shorter lifespan compared to those in captivity.
  • On average, wild leopards can live for around 10 to 15 years.
  • However, many wild leopards do not reach their full lifespan due to various factors, including predation, territorial disputes, and human-related threats such as poaching and habitat loss.

(ii) Leopards in Captivity:

  • Leopards kept in captivity, such as in zoos and wildlife reserves, tend to have longer lifespans compared to their wild counterparts.
  • In captivity, leopards can live into their late teens or even early twenties, and some have been known to live longer with proper care and medical attention.

11. Leopard Speed:

Leopards are known for their impressive speed and agility, which are essential for their hunting success. Here are some key points about the speed of leopards:

(i) Sprinting Speed: Leopards are capable of sprinting at remarkable speeds over short distances. They can reach speeds of up to 58 to 64 kilometers per hour (36 to 40 miles per hour). This burst of speed allows them to chase down and catch their prey.

(ii) Acceleration: Leopards are incredibly agile and can accelerate rapidly when stalking or chasing prey. They can go from a standstill to their top speed within a few seconds.

(iii) Maneuverability: Leopards are skilled at changing direction while running, allowing them to navigate through dense vegetation or make sudden turns to catch their prey.

(iv) Endurance: While they excel in short bursts of speed, leopards do not have the same level of endurance as some other big cats like cheetahs. Cheetahs are known for their incredible sprinting ability but can only maintain those high speeds for a short time. Leopards rely on stealth and ambush more than prolonged chases.

(v) Hunting Technique: Leopards often use a stealthy approach to get as close to their prey as possible before launching a surprise attack. Their speed and agility are crucial for closing the gap quickly and securing a successful kill.

Leopards' speed, combined with their remarkable camouflage and stalking skills, makes them highly effective hunters in a variety of habitats, from grasslands to forests. Their ability to chase down prey over short distances is a key part of their hunting strategy.

Black Leopard

A black leopard, often referred to as a "black panther," is a melanistic color variant of the leopard (Panthera pardus). Melanism is a genetic condition that results in an excess of dark pigmentation, causing the leopard's fur to appear almost entirely black. While the term "panther" is commonly used to describe these black-coated leopards, it is not a distinct species. Black panthers can be leopards or jaguars, depending on their geographic location.

Here are some key points about black leopards:

1. Appearance: Black leopards have a black coat that makes them stand out from the typical yellowish-brown or golden background color of standard leopards. Their spots and rosettes are still present but are often difficult to see against the dark fur. In certain lighting conditions, the spots may be faintly visible.

2. Melanism: Melanism is a hereditary genetic condition caused by an increased production of melanin, the pigment responsible for the coloration of skin, hair, and fur. It is the opposite of albinism, which results in a lack of melanin.

3. Geographic Distribution: Black leopards have been reported in various parts of the world, including Africa and Asia. They are relatively rare compared to their more common spotted counterparts.

4. Adaptations: While the reasons for melanism in leopards are not entirely clear, it is believed that the dark coloration can provide some advantages in certain environments, such as dense forests, by offering better camouflage in low-light conditions.

5. Behavior and Biology: Black leopards share the same behaviors, biology, and hunting strategies as standard leopards. Their melanistic coloration does not affect their behavior or hunting abilities.

6. Conservation: Black leopards face the same conservation challenges as regular leopards. Habitat loss, poaching, and human-wildlife conflict are significant threats to their populations. Conservation efforts are essential to protect these unique big cats.

It's important to note that while black leopards are visually striking, they are not a separate species but rather a color variant of the common leopard. Black leopards have fascinated people for generations, and they continue to be a subject of scientific study and conservation efforts.

White Leopard

A white leopard, often referred to as a "white panther," is not a distinct species but rather a rare color variant of the common leopard (Panthera pardus). These leopards have a condition known as leucism, which causes a reduction in pigmentation in the fur, giving them a nearly white or very pale appearance. Leucism is different from albinism because it affects the color of the fur while still allowing the animal to have pigmented eyes and skin.

Here are some key points about white leopards:

1. Appearance: White leopards have a light or off-white coat with faint or no visible spots or rosettes. Their eyes may be blue, green, or another color, and their skin and facial features can also show reduced pigmentation.

2. Rarity: White leopards are exceptionally rare in the wild, and their occurrence is estimated to be in the range of one in several hundred or even thousands of leopards.

3. Leucism: Leucism is a genetic condition that results in a loss of pigmentation in the fur, but it does not affect the animal's overall health. Unlike albinism, leucistic animals typically retain normal eye and skin pigmentation.

4. Geographic Distribution: Reports of white leopards have come from various regions, including Africa and Asia. However, they are extremely rare and not limited to specific geographic areas.

5. Behavior and Biology: White leopards share the same behaviors, biology, and hunting strategies as standard leopards. Their coloration does not affect their behavior or hunting abilities.

6. Conservation: White leopards, like their normally pigmented counterparts, face conservation challenges due to habitat loss, poaching, and human-wildlife conflict. Conservation efforts are crucial to protect these unique and rare big cats.

Indian leopard (Panthera pardus fusca)

The Indian leopard (Panthera pardus fusca) is a subspecies of leopard found in the Indian subcontinent. It is one of the most widely distributed leopard subspecies and is adapted to a variety of habitats in the region. Here are some key characteristics and information about the Indian leopard:

1. Geographic Range:

The Indian leopard is found in various parts of the Indian subcontinent, including India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka. Their range extends across a diverse array of ecosystems, from dense forests to human-dominated landscapes.

2. Physical Appearance:

Indian leopards typically have a tawny or yellowish-brown coat with dark rosettes. These rosettes are circular markings with a central spot. The specific coloration and pattern of the coat can vary based on the individual and local environmental conditions.

3. Size and Weight:

The size and weight of Indian leopards can vary, but on average, males typically weigh between 45 to 73 kilograms (100 to 160 pounds), while females are smaller, weighing between 29 to 50 kilograms (64 to 110 pounds). They stand about 2 feet (60 to 70 centimeters) tall at the shoulder.

4. Habitat:

Indian leopards are highly adaptable and can be found in a wide range of habitats, including dense forests, grasslands, scrublands, mountains, and even in and around human settlements.

5. Behavior:

  • Indian leopards are solitary and territorial animals. They mark their territories with scent markings and are known for their stealth and hunting prowess.
  • They primarily hunt at night but are also active during dawn and dusk.
  • Indian leopards are opportunistic hunters and will prey on a variety of animals, including ungulates, smaller mammals, birds, and occasionally reptiles.

6. Conservation Status:

The Indian leopard is generally considered to be a subspecies of least concern in terms of conservation status. However, local populations may face threats due to habitat loss, human-wildlife conflict, and poaching.

Conservation efforts are in place to protect Indian leopards and their habitats, as they play a vital role in maintaining the balance of ecosystems in the Indian subcontinent.

Leopard Population in India

The leopard population in India was estimated to be significant, with various estimates placing their numbers in the thousands. The "Status of leopards in India, 2018" report highlights the increase in leopard populations in the country, with an estimated count of 12,852 leopards, representing a 60% increase from the 2014 estimates.

Status of leopards in India, 2018

The "Status of leopards in India, 2018" report is an important document that provides valuable information about the leopard population in India. This report was released by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change in India and offers insights into the status, distribution, and conservation of leopards in the country.

Key points from the report, as you mentioned, include:

(i). An estimated 60% increase in the leopard population count in India from the 2014 estimates.

(ii). The population was estimated to be approximately 12,852 leopards, which is a substantial increase from the 2014 estimates.

(iii). The states of Madhya Pradesh (3,421) followed by Karnataka (1,783) and Maharashtra (1,690) had the highest numbers of leopards.

(iv). The distribution of leopards in different regions, with central India and the Eastern Ghats (8,071 leopards) having the highest number of leopards, followed by the Western Ghats (3,387 leopards), Shivalik and Gangetic Plains (1,253 leopards), and the northeast hills (141 leopards).

(v). The report highlighted the alarming shrinking of leopard habitat areas over the past century.

(vi). Various techniques, including camera traps, satellite imaging, and fieldwork conducted by the Wildlife Institute of India and the National Tiger Conservation Authority, were used to gather data for the report.

This report provides essential data for conservationists, researchers, and policymakers to understand the population dynamics of leopards in India and to plan and implement conservation measures effectively. 

The increase in leopard numbers is a positive development, but the challenges related to habitat loss and human-leopard conflict still require attention and action to ensure the long-term survival of this species. Conservation efforts and public awareness are key to protecting leopards in India and their ecosystems.

Leopard Conservation Status

The conservation status of leopards and their legal protection under international and national laws, reflects the efforts made to safeguard these big cats. The conservation status and legal protection of leopards were as follows:

1. Leopard IUCN Status:

The IUCN classified leopards as "Vulnerable." This status indicates that leopard populations are at risk due to habitat loss, poaching, and other threats, and their survival is a matter of conservation concern.

The "Vulnerable" status indicates that while leopards are not yet in immediate danger of extinction, they are at risk, and their populations need conservation attention and protection to ensure their long-term survival.


Leopards are listed in Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). This is the most stringent level of protection under CITES and restricts international trade in leopard specimens and products.

3. Wildlife Protection Act 1972:

In India, leopards are listed under Schedule I of the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972. This schedule provides the highest level of protection and imposes stringent penalties for offenses related to these threatened species.


What is the biggest threat to Leopards?

Leopards face several significant threats to their populations and habitat, which contribute to their "Vulnerable" conservation status. The primary threats to leopards include:

1. Habitat Loss and Fragmentation:

The conversion of natural habitats into agricultural land, urban areas, and infrastructure development has led to the loss of leopard habitats. Habitat fragmentation makes it difficult for leopards to find suitable territories and prey.

2. Human-Wildlife Conflict:

As human populations expand into leopard habitats, conflicts can arise. Leopards may prey on livestock, leading to retaliatory killings by farmers protecting their livelihoods.

3. Poaching and Illegal Trade:

Leopards are often poached for their skins, bones, and body parts, which are in demand for traditional medicine and the illegal wildlife trade. This trade poses a significant threat to their survival.

4. Reduction of Prey Base:

The depletion of prey species due to hunting and habitat loss can lead to food scarcity for leopards. They may then turn to domestic animals, increasing conflicts with humans.

5. Climate Change:

Changes in climate can affect leopard habitats, altering prey distribution and reducing water sources. This can lead to further challenges in their survival.

6. Road Mortality:

Leopards may be killed or injured in accidents when crossing roads, particularly in areas with high traffic.

7. Disease:

Diseases, such as canine distemper and tuberculosis, can affect leopard populations, particularly in areas where they come into contact with domestic animals.

Conservation efforts are essential to mitigate these threats and protect leopard populations. These efforts include creating and managing protected areas, implementing anti-poaching measures, reducing human-leopard conflicts through community-based initiatives, and raising public awareness about the importance of leopard conservation. Additionally, international and national regulations, such as those under CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora), play a crucial role in regulating the trade in leopard parts and products.

International Leopard Day

International Leopard Day is observed on May 3rd each year, providing an opportunity for people worldwide to celebrate these majestic creatures and raise awareness about the conservation challenges they face. 

Raising awareness is essential for the protection and preservation of leopard populations and their habitats. It's encouraging to see efforts to highlight the importance of leopards and the need for their conservation.

Leopard UPSC Question

Q. How many Leopard in India?

A. As of the "Status of leopards in India, 2018" report released by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, the estimated leopard population in India was approximately 12,852 leopards. 

Q. Leopard belongs to which family?

A. Leopards belong to the family Felidae. This family, also known as the cat family, includes a wide variety of both big and small cat species. Leopards, scientifically known as Panthera pardus, are one of the "big cats" within the Felidae family, which also includes lions, tigers, and jaguars, among others.

Q. What is the IUCN status of the Indian Leopard?

A. The IUCN status of the Indian leopard (Panthera pardus fusca), which is a subspecies of leopard found in the Indian subcontinent, was classified as "Vulnerable." This status indicates that Indian leopards are facing a higher risk of extinction in the wild due to various threats such as habitat loss, poaching, and human-wildlife conflict.

Q. Which state has highest Leopard in India?

A. According to the "Status of leopards in India, 2018" report released by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Madhya Pradesh had the highest estimated population of leopards in India. In that report, it was estimated that Madhya Pradesh was home to approximately 3,421 leopards, making it one of the states with the highest leopard populations in India.


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