Tuesday, April 2, 2024

Sariska National Park

Sariska National Park UPSC

Sariska National Park is a renowned wildlife sanctuary located in the state of Rajasthan, India. It is situated in the Aravalli Range and covers an area of approximately 800 square kilometers. 

Sariska National Park was declared a wildlife reserve in 1955 and later became a national park in 1979. It gained significant attention for its successful tiger conservation program. The park is known for its diverse flora and fauna, including several species of animals, birds, and reptiles.

One of the park's main attractions is the Royal Bengal Tiger. Sariska was once known for its tiger population, but due to poaching and other factors, it faced a decline in tiger numbers. However, efforts have been made to reintroduce tigers into the park, and there has been some success in recent years.

Table of Contents

  • Sariska National Park Location
  • Sariska National Park History
  • Sariska National Park Area
  • Sariska National Park Hills
    • Aravali Hills
    • Pandupol Hills
    • Bhairon Vilas Hills
  • Sariska National Park River
    • Ruparel River
  • Sariska National Park Lake
    • Siliserh Lake
  • Sariska National Park Flora
    • Tree
    • Shrubs and Grasses
    • Wildflowers
  • Sariska National Park Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptiles
  • Sariska National Park UPSC Questions

Sariska National Park Location

Sariska National Park is located in the Alwar District of Rajasthan in India. It is situated in Aravali hills. The park is easily accessible by road from nearby cities and towns, making it a popular destination for wildlife enthusiasts and nature lovers.


Sariska National Park Nearest Airport:

The nearest airport to Sariska National Park is the Jaipur International Airport, located in Jaipur, Rajasthan. It is approximately 107 kilometers (66 miles) away from the park. From the airport, you can hire a taxi or take a bus to reach Sariska National Park.

Sariska National Park Nearest Railway Station:

The nearest railway station to Sariska National Park is Sawai Madhopur. It is situated around 11 kilometers from the park. From Sawai Madhopur, you can hire a taxi or take a local bus to reach Sariska National Park. 

Sariska National Park History

Sariska National Park is not only renowned for its stunning landscapes and abundant wildlife but also boasts a captivating history that spans centuries. From ancient civilizations to royal hunting grounds, the park has witnessed significant historical events and transitions. Let us embark on a journey to uncover the intriguing history of Sariska National Park.

1. Ancient Origins: The roots of Sariska's history can be traced back to ancient times. Archaeological evidence reveals human habitation in the area during the Mesolithic and Neolithic periods, showcasing the enduring connection between humans and the natural environment. The region flourished under the rule of the Rajputs in the 8th century, contributing to its cultural and historical significance.

2. Royal Hunting Grounds: During the British colonial era, Sariska's dense forests became a hunting grounds for the Maharajas of Alwar. The abundance of wildlife, including majestic tigers, attracted hunters who embarked on expeditions to experience the thrill of the chase. These hunting activities not only impacted the wildlife population but also laid the foundation for recognizing the need for conservation in the area.

3. Rise of Sariska Wildlife Sanctuary: In 1955, Sariska was officially recognized as a wildlife sanctuary. This development solidified its importance as a conservation area and afforded greater protection to its ecosystems. The sanctuary encompassed a substantial portion of the Sariska region, providing a safe haven for the diverse range of wildlife species that inhabited the area.

4. Tiger Reserve Status: In 1978, Sariskawas declared a tiger reserve under the Project Tiger initiative to conserve and protect the population of tigers in India.

5. Elevation to National Park Status: A year later, in 1979, Sariska Wildlife Sanctuary achieved another milestone by being declared a national park. This upgrade to national park status reflected the growing significance of Sariska in the realm of conservation and its inclusion in the national network of protected areas.

6. Challenges and Conservation Efforts: In the early 2000s, Sariska National Park faced a grave crisis when the tiger population experienced a severe decline due to rampant poaching. This shocking revelation posed a threat to the survival of tigers in the region and called for immediate action. Conservation authorities swiftly responded by implementing comprehensive measures, including the relocation of tigers from other reserves and stringent anti-poaching initiatives. These efforts aimed to restore the once-vibrant tiger population and ensure the long-term conservation of Sariska's wildlife.

Sariska National Park Area

Sariska National Park covers an area of approximately 800 square kilometers, making it one of the largest national parks in the state of Rajasthan. 

The Sariska National Park is divided into two main areas - the core area and the buffer zone. The core area covers approximately 500 square kilometers and is strictly protected, with limited human activity allowed. The buffer zone covers the remaining area and is used for sustainable development activities such as forestry and agriculture.

The topography of the park is characterized by steep slopes and narrow valleys, and the altitude ranges from 300 to 700 meters above sea level.

Sariska National Park Hills

Sariska National Park is situated in the Aravalli Range, which is one of the oldest mountain ranges in the world. The highest point in the Sariska National Park is the Kankwari Fort. Apart from the Kankwari Fort, there are several other hills in the park that are popular with visitors. These include the Pandupol Hills and the Bhairon Vilas Hills. 

(1) Aravali Range:

The Aravali Range is one of the oldest mountain ranges in the world, and is located in western India, spanning the states of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Haryana, and Delhi. The range extends for approximately 670 km (420 mi) from the southwestern tip of Gujarat to Delhi.

The Aravali Range is characterized by rugged hills and rocky outcrops, with an average elevation of around 600 meters above sea level. The highest peak in Aravali Range is Guru Shikhar on Mount Abu at 1,722 m (5,650 ft). 

The Aravali Range is the oldest geological feature on Earth, having its origin in the Proterozoic era. The hills are mainly composed of quartzite and granite, and are covered with a mix of dry deciduous forests and scrub vegetation. 

Several wildlife reserves and national parks are located in the Aravali Range, including Sariska National Park, Mount Abu Wildlife Sanctuary, and Kumbhalgarh Wildlife Sanctuary. 

The Aravali Range is also an important cultural and historical region, with several ancient forts and temples located in the hills. Many of these structures date back to the medieval period and are a testament to the rich history and culture of the region.

(2) Pandupol Hills:

Pandupol Hills is a scenic spot located within the Sariska National Park in Rajasthan, India. The hills are named after the legendary warrior Bhima, one of the Pandavas from the Indian epic Mahabharata, who is said to have rested here during his exile.

The hills offer a beautiful view of the surrounding landscape, and visitors can also explore the ancient Pandupol Temple, dedicated to Lord Hanuman, which is believed to have been built during the Mahabharata era. 

(3) Bhairon Vilas Hills:

Bhairon Vilas Hills is another scenic spot located within the Sariska National Park. The hills are named after the Bhairon Vilas Palace, which was built by Maharaja Jai Singh of Alwar in the 19th century. The palace was used as a hunting lodge by the royals and is now a heritage hotel.

The Bhairon Vilas Hills offer a stunning view of the surrounding landscape, and visitors can also explore the Bhairon Temple, which is located on top of the hills. The temple is dedicated to Lord Bhairon, an incarnation of Lord Shiva, and is believed to be one of the oldest temples in the region. 

Sariska National Park River

Ruparel river passes through Sariska National Park. The Ruparel River is an important source of water for the wild animals of the Sariska National Park.

Ruparel River:

Ruparel river is an important river of the Rajasthan state of India. Ruparel River is also known as Bara River. It is a tributary of the Yamuna River. The catchment area of the Ruparel River is 4488 square kilometers, and the total length of the river is 104 kilometers. 

The origin of Ruparel river is from the Udyanath peak situated in the eastern slope of Toda village of Thana Ghazi tehsil of Alwar district in Rajasthan, India. 

Ruparel river enters Uttar Pradesh while flowing through the two districts of Rajasthan (Alwar and Bharatpur) and joins the Yamuna River between Agra and Mathura. 

Sariska National Park Lake

Sariska National Park is home to a few lakes and water bodies, which serve as important habitats for various species of wildlife. One of the prominent lake near the park is the Siliserh Lake.

Siliserh Lake:

One of the most important water bodies in the Sariska National Park is the Siliserh Lake, which is situated on the edge of the park's buffer zone. It cover an area of about 7 square km.

The Siliserh lake was constructed in the late 19th century by Maharaja Vinay Singh of Alwar as a reservoir to supply water to the city of Alwar. 

Today, the Siliserh  lake is an important habitat for a variety of aquatic wildlife, including several species of fish, turtles, and birds. The lake also offers boating and other recreational activities for visitors.

Sariska National Park Flora 

What flora is found in Sariska National Park?

Sariska National Park is located in a semi-arid region and is characterized by dry deciduous forests and scrub vegetation. The park is home to a wide variety of flora, including several species of trees, shrubs, and grasses.


  • Dhok (Anogeissus pendula)
  • Salar (Shorea robusta)
  • Khair (Acacia catechu)
  • Ber (Ziziphus mauritiana)

Shrubs and Grasses:

  • Rohida (Tecomella undulata)
  • Goria (Lannea coromandelica)
  • Pharwa (Capparis decidua)


  • Kachnar (Bauhinia variegata)
  • Dhak (Butea monosperma)
  • Semal (Bombax ceiba)

Sariska National Park Fauna (Sariska National Park Animals)

Sariska National Park is famous for which animal?

Sariska National Park is home to a diverse range of fauna, including several iconic and endangered species. The park's varied ecosystems, which include forests, grasslands, and rocky terrain, provide habitats for numerous animals, making it a significant wildlife destination in India. 

Here are some of the notable fauna species found in Sariska National Park:


  • Tiger
  • leopards
  • Nilgai
  • Sambar Deer
  • Spotted Deer
  • Four-horned Antelope
  • Hyenas
  • Caracal
  • Jungle Cat
  • Ratel
  • WildPig
  • Common Mongoose
  • Ruddy Mongoose
  • Palm Civet
  • Pangolin
  • Porcupine


  • Indian Peafowl
  • Grey Francolin
  • Golden-backed Woodpecker
  • Indian Pitta


  • Indian Python
  • Russell's Viper
  • Saw-scaled Viper

Sariska National Park UPSC Questions

Q. Sariska National Park is located in which state?/Where is Sariska National Park situated?

A. Sariska National Park is located in the Alwar District of Rajasthan, India.

Q. What is the difference between Sariska Tiger Reserve and Sariska National Park?

A. Sariska was declared tiger reserve in 1978 and become a National Park in 1979.

Q. Why Sariska National Park is famous?

A. Sariska National Park is famous for Tiger Reserve, Kankarwadi fort, Pandupol Hanumanji Temple, Sariska Palace etc.

Q. Which river passes through Sariska National Park?

A. Ruparel river passes through Sariska National Park.

Q. When was Sariska declared National Park?

A. Sariska was declared National Park in 1979.

Sariska National Park

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