Tuesday, April 18, 2023

Mukundra Hills National Park

Mukundra Hills National Park UPSC

Mukundra Hills National Park is a wildlife sanctuary located in Rajasthan, India. It is home to a variety of flora and fauna. The Mukundra Hills National Park was established in 2004 and is situated on the Mukundra Hills range.


The Mukundra Hills National Park is known for its diverse wildlife, including tigers, leopards, hyenas, sloth bears, chitals, sambar deer, and various species of birds. The terrain of the park is hilly, with the Mukundra Hills being the main feature of the landscape. 


Table of Contents

  • Mukundra Hills National Park Location
  • Mukundra Hills National Park History
  • Mukundra Hills National Park Area
    • Darrah Wildlife Sanctuary
    • National Chambal Sanctuary
    • Jawahar Sagar Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Mukundra Hills National Park Hills
    • Mukundra Hills Range
    • Darrah Peak
  • Mukundra Hills National Park River
    • Chambal River
    • Kali River
    • Ahu River
    • Ramzan River
  • Mukundra Hills National Park Lake
    • Gagron Lake
    • Talab-e-Shahi
  • Mukundra Hills National Park Flora
    • Dry Deciduous Forests
    • Thorny Shrubs
    • Grasslands
  • Mukundra Hills National Park Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptiles
    • Fish Species
  • Asiatic Lion Reintroduction Project
  • Top Things to do in Mukundra Hills National Park
  • Mukundra Hills National Park UPSC Questions


Mukundra Hills National Park Location

Mukundara Hills National Park is located in the Kota district of Rajasthan, India. The park is situated on the Mukundra Hills range, which is an extension of the Aravalli Range. It is situated in the southeastern part of Rajasthan, approximately 50 kilometers away from the city of Kota. 


The nearest major city to the Mukundra Hills National Park is Kota. The park is easily accessible by road, and visitors can hire taxis or take buses from Kota to reach the park. The nearest airport is in Jaipur.


Mukundra Hills National Park Nearest Airport:

The nearest airport to Mukundra Hills National Park is the  Jaipur International Airport, which is located about 240 kilometers away from Mukundra Hills National Park. Jaipur International Airport offers better flight options and connectivity.


Mukundra Hills National Park Nearest Railway Station:

The nearest railway station to Mukundra Hills National Park is the Kota Junction Railway Station. It is a major railway station in Rajasthan and is well connected to various cities across India. The railway station is approximately 50 kilometers away from the national park. From Kota Junction, one can hire a taxi or use local transportation to reach Mukundra Hills National Park.



Mukundra Hills National Park History

Mukundra Hills National Park has an interesting history. Here are some key points:


Early Settlement: The region where Mukundra Hills National Park is located has a long history of human settlement. It has been inhabited by various communities for centuries.


Wildlife Sanctuary: In 1955, the Rajasthan government declared a part of the region as a wildlife sanctuary, known as Mukundra Hills Wildlife Sanctuary. The sanctuary aimed to protect the diverse flora and fauna found in the area.


National Park Status: In 2004, the Mukundra Hills Wildlife Sanctuary was upgraded to the status of a national park, officially becoming Mukundra Hills National Park. This upgrade provided enhanced protection and conservation measures for the park's biodiversity.


Tiger Reserve Status: In 2013, Mukundra Hills was notified as a Tiger Reserve.


Tiger Reintroduction Project: One of the significant initiatives in the park's history is the Tiger Reintroduction Project. In 2018, three tigers were relocated from Ranthambore National Park to Mukundra Hills National Park as part of efforts to reestablish a tiger population in the area. The reintroduction of tigers is a crucial step in conserving the endangered Bengal tiger species.




Mukundra Hills National Park Area

Mukundara Hills National Park covers an area of 759.99 km2 (293.43 sq mi). The park is situated on the Mukundra Hills range. It's terrain is hilly, with the hills being the main feature of the landscape. 


Mukundara Hills National Park consists of three wildlife sanctuaries: 

  • Darrah Wildlife Sanctuary
  • National Chambal Sanctuary
  • Jawahar Sagar Wildlife Sanctuary


(1) Darrah Wildlife Sanctuary:

The Darrah Wildlife Sanctuary is the core area of the Mukundra Hills National Park and is home to the park's highest peak, the Darrah Peak, which is 1164 meters (3819 feet) high. 


(2) National Chambal Sanctuary:

The National Chambal Sanctuary is located along the Chambal River and is home to a large population of crocodiles. 


(3) Jawahar Sagar Wildlife Sanctuary:

The Jawahar Sagar Wildlife Sanctuary is located near the Jawahar Sagar Dam.




Mukundra Hills National Park Hills

Mukundra Hills National Park is situated on the Mukundra Hills range. The park is named after the Mukundra Hills range, which is the main feature of the park's landscape. The highest peak in the park is Darrah Peak.


(1) Mukundra Hills Range:

The Mukundra Hills range is an extension of the Aravalli Range and is composed of granite and quartzite rocks. The Mukundra Hills Range are mostly covered with dry deciduous and thorn scrub forests, which are home to a variety of wildlife.


The Mukundra Hills Range provide a scenic backdrop to the park's natural beauty and offer visitors the opportunity to enjoy trekking, hiking, and camping. 


(2) Darrah Peak:

The highest peak in the Mukundra Hills National Park is Darrah Peak, which is located in the Darrah zone of the park. Darrah Peak is 1164 meters (3819 feet) high and offers panoramic views of the park and surrounding areas. The peak is accessible by trekking.




Mukundra Hills National Park River

Chambal, Kali, Ahu and Ramzan river flow through Mukundara Hills National Park.


(1) Chambal River:

The Chambal River flows through Mukundra Hills National Park and an important feature of the park's ecosystem. It supports a wide range of aquatic life, including fish, turtles, and various species of birds. Chambal river is home to a large population of crocodiles and other aquatic species. Visitors to Mukundra Hills National Park can enjoy a river safari along the Chambal River.


The Chambal River flowing through the states of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh. The river is about 1,024 km (636 mi) long and is a tributary of the Yamuna River. The Chambal River enters Uttar Pradesh and joins the Yamuna River in Etawah District.


(2) Kali River:

Kali river flow through Mukundara Hills National Park.


(3) Ahu River:

Ahu River is a small stream that flow through Mukundara Hills National Park.


(4) Ramzan River:

Ramzan river flow through Mukundara Hills National Park.




Mukundra Hills National Park Lake

Mukundra Hills National Park has several lakes and water bodies, which provide a habitat for a variety of aquatic animals and add to the park's natural beauty. 


(1) Gagron Lake:

The most prominent lake in the park is the Gagron Lake, which is located in the southern part of the park. Gagron Lake is a man-made lake that was built in the 12th century by Raja Bijaldev of Jhalawar. 


The Gagron lake is surrounded by hills and provides a picturesque view of the Mukundra Hills National Park. The lake also has a fort and a temple located on its banks, which are popular tourist attractions.


(2) Talab-e-Shahi:

Another lake in the Mukundra Hills National Park is the Talab-e-Shahi, which is located near the Mukundra Fort. The lake is believed to have been built during the reign of Mughal emperor Jahangir and is a popular spot for birdwatching.




Mukundra Hills National Park Flora

Mukundra Hills National Park is home to a diverse range of flora. The park's vegetation includes dry deciduous forests, thorny shrubs, and grasslands.


(1) Dry Deciduous Forests:

The dry deciduous forests of Mukundra Hills National Park are dominated by trees such as teak, tendu, khair, and dhak. Other common trees in the park include babul, kadam, and neem. The Mukundra Hills National Park also has a variety of fruit trees, including mango, ber, and custard apple.


(2) Thorny Shrubs:

The thorny shrubs in the Mukundra Hills National Park include species such as 

  • Khejri
  • Gugal
  • Acacia


(3) Grasslands:

The grasslands of Mukundra Hills National Park are home to a variety of grass species, including: 

  • Spear Grass
  • Elephant Grass
  • Cenchrus Grass





Mukundra Hills National Park Fauna

Mukundra Hills National Park is home to a diverse range of fauna, including a number of rare and endangered species. The park's location in the Aravalli Range and the presence of the Chambal River make it an important habitat for a variety of animals.


Mammals:

  • Bengal Tiger
  • Indian Wolf
  • Indian Leopard
  • Chital
  • Sambar Deer
  • Wild Boar
  • Nilgai
  • Sloth Bear
  • Chinkara


Birds:

  • Vultures
  • Eagles
  • Falcons
  • Owls


Reptiles:

  • Mugger Crocodile
  • Gharial


Fish Species:

  • Mahseer
  • Catfish




Asiatic Lion Reintroduction Project

Mukandara Hills National Park was once considered for the reintroduction of the Asiatic lion.


The Asiatic Lion Reintroduction Project is a conservation initiative aimed at restoring the population of Asiatic lions in India. The project involves translocating a group of lions from their current habitat in Gir National Park in Gujarat to other protected areas in India where the species once occurred but has since disappeared.


The Asiatic lion was once widespread across the Indian subcontinent, but their population declined drastically due to hunting, habitat loss, and human-wildlife conflict. By the late 19th century, the only surviving population of Asiatic lions was restricted to the Gir National Park and surrounding areas in Gujarat, India.


To increase the Asiatic lion population and distribution, the Indian government started the Asiatic Lion Reintroduction Project in 1995. The project involved relocating a group of lions to the Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary in Madhya Pradesh, which has a similar habitat to Gir National Park in Gujarat, India.




Top Things to do in Mukundra Hills National Park

Here are some of the top things to do in Mukundra Hills National Park:


  • Wildlife Safari
  • Trekking
  • Bird Watching:
  • Photography
  • Camping
  • Visit the Garadia Mahadev Temple
  • Visit the Hadoti Palace




Mukundra Hills National Park UPSC Questions

Q. Where is Mukundra Hills National Park?/Mukundra Hills National Park in which district?/Which state is Mukundra National Park in?

A. Mukundara Hills National Park is located in Kota district of Rajasthan.


Q. What is Mukundra Hills National Park also known as?

A. Mukundra Hills National Park also known as Mukundara Hills Tiger Reserve.


Q. When did Mukundra hills become National Park?

A. Mukundara Hills become national park in 2004.


Q. Mukundra Hills National Park famous for?

A. Mukundra Hills National Park famous for Bengal Tiger.


Q. How many wildlife sanctuaries are in Mukundra Hills National Park?

A. Mukundara Hills National Park consists of 3 wildlife sanctuaries: 

  • Darrah Wildlife Sanctuary
  • National Chambal Sanctuary
  • Jawahar Sagar Wildlife Sanctuary


Q. Which animal is protected in Mukundra Hills National Park?

A. Bengal Tiger is protected in Mukundra Hills National Park.

Mukundra Hills National Park

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