Monday, May 1, 2023

Bandhavgarh National Park

Bandhavgarh National Park UPSC

Bandhavgarh National Park is a renowned wildlife sanctuary located in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. The park covers an area of approximately 105 square kilometers (40 square miles) and is situated amidst the Vindhya Hills.


Bandhavgarh National Park is one of the most popular and well-known national parks in India, particularly famous for its tiger population. It is considered one of the best places in India to spot tigers in their natural habitat. The park has a high density of tigers, making it a prime tiger conservation area. It is known for its successful tiger conservation efforts.


The national park derives its name from the ancient Bandhavgarh Fort located within its boundaries. The fort is believed to have historical and mythological significance and offers panoramic views of the surrounding forests and landscapes.


Table of Contents

  • Bandhavgarh National Park Location
  • Bandhavgarh National Park History
  • Bandhavgarh National Park Area
  • Bandhavgarh National Park Hills
    • Vindhya Hills Range
    • Bandhavgarh Hill
  • Bandhavgarh National Park River
  • Bandhavgarh National Park Lake
    • Mahaman Pond
  • Bandhavgarh National Park Tribe
    • Gond Tribe
    • Baiga Tribe
    • Kol Tribe
  • Bandhavgarh National Park Flora
  • Bandhavgarh National Park Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptiles
  • Highest Tiger Density
  • White Tiger
  • Reintroduction of Gaur
  • Top Things to do in Bandhavgarh National Park
  • Bandhavgarh National Park UPSC Questions


Bandhavgarh National Park Location

Bandhavgarh National Park is located in the Umaria district of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. It is situated in the central part of India, specifically in the Vindhya Hills region. 


The park is approximately 197 kilometers (122 miles) northeast of Jabalpur, a major city in Madhya Pradesh. The nearest town to Bandhavgarh National Park is Tala, which is around 35 kilometers (22 miles) away.


Bandhavgarh National Park Nearest Airport:

The nearest airport to Bandhavgarh National Park is Jabalpur Airport, also known as Dumna Airport. It is located approximately 197 kilometers (122 miles) away from the park. Jabalpur Airport is well-connected to major cities in India and operates regular domestic flights.


Bandhavgarh National Park Nearest Railway Station:

As for the nearest railway station, the Umaria railway station is the most convenient option for reaching Bandhavgarh National Park. Umaria railway station is located approximately 35 kilometers (22 miles) from the park and is well-connected to major cities in India through regular train services. From Umaria, visitors can hire taxis or arrange transportation to reach the national park.




Bandhavgarh National Park History

Bandhavgarh National Park has a rich history that dates back to ancient times. 


Ancient Origins: Bandhavgarh National Park holds a significant historical heritage that traces back to ancient times. The park is located on the site of the ancient Bandhavgarh Fort, believed to have been constructed approximately 2000 years ago. This fort is associated with the Gond kings who ruled the region during that era.


The Hunting Reserve of the Maharajas of Rewa: During the later years, the Bandhavgarh Fort and its surrounding areas came under the control of the Maharajas of Rewa, a princely state in Central India. The fort and its vast landscapes served as a hunting reserve for the Maharajas, who would engage in recreational hunting activities in the region.


Bandhavgarh as a Hunting Ground: Until 1968, Bandhavgarh remained a prominent hunting spot exclusively reserved for the Maharajas of Rewa. The dense forests and abundance of wildlife attracted the royalty and British officials during the colonial period, who would partake in hunting expeditions.


National Park Declaration: In 1968, recognizing the ecological significance and the need to preserve the unique flora and fauna of the region, the Indian government declared the Bandhavgarh Fort and its surrounding areas as a national park. This step aimed to protect the natural heritage and promote the conservation of the diverse ecosystem found within the park's boundaries.


Tiger Reserve Status: In 1993, Bandhavgarh National Park was given the prestigious status of a tiger reserve under the government's Project Tiger initiative. This recognition highlighted the park's importance in tiger conservation efforts. The project aimed to safeguard the habitat and promote the conservation of the endangered Bengal tigers that thrive in the region.




Bandhavgarh National Park Area

Bandhavgarh National Park covers an core area of about 105 square kilometers (40.5 square miles) and a buffer area of approximately 400 sq km. in the Umaria district of Madhya Pradesh, India. 


The core area of the Bandhavgarh National Park is reserved for the protection of wildlife and is not accessible to visitors. The remaining area of the park is divided into various zones, where visitors can go on guided jeep safaris or elephant safaris to view the park's wildlife.


Bandhavgarh National Park Zones:

The Park has been divided into 3 major zones, namely-

  • Tala
  • Magdhi
  • Khitauli




Bandhavgarh National Park Hills

Bandhavgarh National Park is situated in the eastern Vindhya Hills range, and the park's terrain is characterized by a series of rugged hills and cliffs. 


Bandhavgarh Hill:

The highest point in the Bandhavgarh National Park is Bandhavgarh Hill, which rises to a height of 807 meters (2,648 feet) above sea level. Bandhavgarh Hill, in particular, is of great historical and cultural significance, as it is the site of the ancient Bandhavgarh Fort. 




Bandhavgarh National Park River

Bandhavgarh National Park is home to several small streams. The most important stream that flows through the park are: 

  • Johilla
  • Janadh
  • Charanganga
  • Damnar
  • Banbei
  • Ambanala
  • Andhiyari Jhiria 


Note- These streams merge into the Son river. Son river is tributary of the river Ganga.




Bandhavgarh National Park Lake

Bandhavgarh National Park does not have any natural lakes within its boundaries. However, the park is home to several man-made water bodies, including several small ponds and lakes that have been created to provide additional sources of water for the park's wildlife during the dry season.


Mahaman Pond:

One of the most popular man-made lakes in Bandhavgarh National Park is the Mahaman Pond. It is an important source of water for the park's wildlife, and it plays a crucial role in maintaining the park's ecosystem.


Mahaman Pond is also known as the "Place of Quench the Thirst." It is a popular spot where a variety of herbivores and carnivores can be found, seeking refreshment from the pond's waters.




Bandhavgarh National Park Tribe

There are several tribal communities that live in and around Bandhavgarh National Park, including the Gond, Baiga, and Kol tribes. These tribes have lived in the region for generations and have a deep connection to the land and its wildlife.


(1) Gond Tribe:

The Gond tribe is one of the largest and most prominent tribal communities in the region surrounding Bandhavgarh National Park. The Gonds are an indigenous people who have lived in the region for generations and have a deep connection to the land and its wildlife.


The Gonds are skilled hunters and farmers, and they have a rich cultural heritage that includes traditional crafts, music, and dance. 


(2) Baiga Tribe:

The Baiga tribe is another important indigenous community that lives in the region surrounding Bandhavgarh National Park. The Baigas are an indigenous tribe who have a deep connection to the forest and its wildlife.


The Baigas are known for their traditional knowledge of medicinal plants and herbs. They have a rich tradition of herbal medicine, and their knowledge of the forest and its resources is highly valued.


(3) Kol Tribe:

The Kol tribe is a smaller community, but they have a long history of living in the region and have a deep connection to the land and its wildlife. They are skilled in agriculture and traditional crafts, and they have a rich cultural heritage that includes traditional songs and dances.


The Kol people are primarily dependent on agriculture, fishing, and hunting for their livelihood. They speak various dialects of the Dravidian language and follow their traditional customs and rituals.




Bandhavgarh National Park Flora

Which flora is found in Bandhavgarh National Park?

Bandhavgarh National Park is known for its rich and diverse flora. The park is spread over a hilly terrain and is characterized by a variety of vegetation types, ranging from moist deciduous forests to tropical dry deciduous forests. 


  • Moist Peninsular Low-level Sal Forest
  • West Gangetic Moist Mixed Deciduous Forest
  • Northern Dry Mixed Deciduous Forest
  • Dry Deciduous Scrub Forest


The Bandhavgarh National Park is home to several plant species, including rare and endangered species. Some of the important plant species found in Bandhavgarh National Park include: 


  • Sal (Shorea robusta)
  • Tendu (Diospyros melanoxylon)
  • Saja (Terminalia tomentosa)
  • Dhawada (Anogeissus latifolia)
  • Kadam (Neolamarckia cadamba)
  • Arjun (Terminalia arjuna)
  • Jamun (Syzygium cumini)
  • Mahua (Madhuca longifolia)
  •  Amla (Emblica officinalis)


Bandhavgarh National Park is also home to several medicinal plants and herbs, which are used by the local indigenous communities for their traditional medicinal properties. These plants include: 


  • Aloe Vera
  • Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri)
  • Arjuna (Terminalia arjuna)
  • Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera)




Bandhavgarh National Park Fauna (Bandhavgarh National Park Animals)

Bandhavgarh National Park is known for its rich and diverse fauna, and is home to a large number of animal species. The Bandhavgarh National Park is particularly famous for its tiger population, and is considered one of the best places in India to see tigers in the wild. 


Mammals:

  • Tiger
  • Leopard
  • Dhole (Indian Wild Dog)
  • Bengal or Indian Fox
  • Sloth Bear
  • Smooth-coated Otter
  • Rusty Spotted Cat
  • Fishing Cat
  • Gaur
  • Wild Elephant
  • Asiatic Jackal
  • Striped Hyena
  • Wild Pigs
  • Nilgai
  • Chinkara


Birds:

  • Plum-headed Parakeet
  • Green-headed Barbet
  • Orange-headed Thrush
  • Brown-headed Barbet
  • Coppersmith Barbet
  • Common Myna
  • Alexandrine Parakeet
  • Indian Grey Hornbill
  • Rock Pigeon


Reptiles:

  • Indian Rock Pyhton
  • Krait
  • Russels' Viper
  • Spectacled Cobra
  • Common Vine Snake
  • Olivacious Keelback
  • Common Vine Snake
  • Striped Keelback
  • Monitor Lizard
  • Forest Lizard
  • Garden Lizard
  • Skink Throated Lizard
  • Fan Throated Lizard



Highest Tiger Density:

  • Bandhavgarh National Park has the “highest tiger density“.
  • One tiger is found in every 8 km area.



White Tiger:

  • Bandhavgarh National Park is famous for White Tigers.
  • Maharaja Martand Singh of Rewa captured the first white tiger (Mohan) in Bandhavgarh region in 1951.



Reintroduction of Gaur:

  • In Bandhavgarh National Park all gaurs had died due to disease from cattle.
  • Therefore the reintroduction project of Gaurs involved relocating some Gaurs from Kanha National Park to Bandhavgarh.




Top Things to do in Bandhavgarh National Park

Bandhavgarh National Park offers a variety of activities for visitors to enjoy. Here are some of the top things to do in Bandhavgarh National Park:


  • Tiger Safari
  • Nature Walks
  • Birdwatching
  • Trekking
  • Visit Bandhavgarh Fort
  • Visit the Shesh Shaiya
  • Village Tour




Bandhavgarh National Park UPSC Questions

Q. Bandhavgarh National Park is located in which state?/Where is Bandhavgarh National Park?/Bandhavgarh National Park in which district?

A. Bandhavgarh National Park is located in the Umaria district of Madhya Pradesh, India.


Q. Bandhavgarh National Park is famous for which animal?

A. Bandhavgarh National Park is famous for Bengal Tigers.


Q. What is Bandhavgarh National Park famous for?

A. Bandhavgarh National Park is famous for Bengal Tigers.


Q. Which river passes through Bandhavgarh National Park?

A. Johilla, Janadh, Charanganga, Damnar, Banbei, Ambanala and Andhiyari Jhiria streams passes through Bandhavgarh National Park. These streams then merge into the Son river (tributary to the river Ganga).


Q. Which animal is protected in Bandhavgarh National Park?

A. Bengal tiger is protected in Bandhavgarh National Park.


Q. Which lake is in Bandhavgarh National Park?

A. Mahaman Pond lake is in Bandhavgarh National Park.


Q. Which tribe is in Bandhavgarh?

A. Gond, Baiga and Kol tribes is in Bandhavgarh.

Bandhavgarh National Park

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