Sunday, April 30, 2023

Madhav National Park

Madhav National Park UPSC

Madhav National Park is a national park located in the state of Madhya Pradesh in India. It is also called Shivpuri National Park. Madhav National Park gifted with a diverse ecosystem comprising lakes, forests and grasslands.


It was originally established as Shivpuri National Park in 1958 and later renamed Madhav National Park in honor of Madho Rao Scindia, the Maharaja of Gwalior.


Madhav National Park covers an area of approximately 354 square kilometers (137 square miles) and is known for its diverse flora and fauna. The park is characterized by its hilly terrain, interspersed with plateaus, valleys, and dense forests. It is home to a variety of wildlife species, including deer, antelope, leopard, wild boar, and numerous bird species.


Table of Contents

  • Madhav National Park Location
  • Madhav National Park History
  • Madhav National Park Area
  • Madhav National Park Hills
    • Vindhyan Hills
  • Madhav National Park River
    • Manier River
    • Sindh River
  • Madhav National Park Lake
    • Sakhya Sagar Lake
    • Madhav Sagar
  • Madhav National Park Dam
    • Madikheda Dam
    • Sakhya Dam
  • Madhav National Park Tribe
    • Saharia Tribe
  • Madhav National Park Flora
    • Dry Deciduous Forests
    • Mixed Forests
    • Grasslands
    • Medicinal Plants and Herbs
  • Madhav National Park Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptiles
  • Top Things to do in Madhav National Park
  • Madhav National Park UPSC Questions


Madhav National Park Location

Madhav National Park is located in Shivpuri district of Madhya Pradesh, India. Shivpuri is a city situated in the northern part of Madhya Pradesh, and the national park is situated approximately 13 kilometers (8 miles) away from the city center. It is easily accessible by road and is well-connected to major cities in Madhya Pradesh and neighboring states.


Madhav National Park Nearest Airport:

The nearest airport to Madhav National Park is Gwalior Airport (Rajmata Vijaya Raje Scindia Airport). It is located approximately 125 kilometers (78 miles) away from the national park. From Gwalior Airport, you can hire a taxi or take a bus to reach Madhav National Park.


Madhav National Park Nearest Railway Station:

The nearest railway station to Madhav National Park is Shivpuri Railway Station. It is located within the city of Shivpuri and is approximately 13 kilometers (8 miles) away from the national park. From Shivpuri Railway Station, you can hire a taxi or take a local bus to reach Madhav National Park.




Madhav National Park History

Madhav National Park, previously known as Shivpuri National Park, has an interesting history. Here's a brief overview:


Hunting Ground for Royalty and British Rule: Once, Madhav National Park served as the hunting ground for Mughal emperors, Maharajas of Gwalior, and later for the British. The region's rich wildlife and diverse habitats attracted the attention of these rulers, who engaged in hunting expeditions in the area.


Establishment as Shivpuri National Park: In 1956, recognizing the ecological importance of the region, Shivpuri National Park was established. Spanning across a significant area, it aimed to protect the natural flora and fauna found within its boundaries.


Renaming to Madhav National Park: In 1958, Shivpuri National Park was designated as a national park, further solidifying its status as a protected area. To honor the contributions and legacy of Madho Rao Scindia, the Maharaja of Gwalior from the Scindia dynasty of the Marathas, the park was renamed Madhav National Park.


Ramsar Site Designation: In 2022, one of the prominent features of Madhav National Park, Sakhya Sagar, was designated as a Ramsar site. Sakhya Sagar is a man-made reservoir located within the park's boundaries. This recognition by the Ramsar Convention highlights its ecological importance as a wetland area and emphasizes the need for its conservation.


Part of Tiger Corridor: Madhav National Park is a part of the Ranthambhore-Kuno-Madhav (Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan) Tiger Corridor of Central India & Eastern Ghats landscape.




Madhav National Park Area

Madhav National Park covers an approximate area of 354 square kilometers (137 square miles). This area has a mix of grasslands, forests, and wetlands. The park's terrain is hilly, with many slopes and valleys.


Madhav National Park was established with an area of 165.32 sq.km. in 1958 and extension Area was added in 1982 and 1999 (189.29 Sq Km).




Madhav National Park Hills

Madhav National Park is located in the Vindhya Range of hills in central India. It is a part of the upper Vindhyan hills. The hills provide a picturesque backdrop to the wildlife and the park's natural beauty.


Vindhyan Hills:

The Vindhyan Hills are a range of hills in central India that run parallel to the Narmada River. The range stretches for over 1000 kilometers from the state of Gujarat in the west to the state of Bihar in the east, and covers parts of the states of Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, and Chhattisgarh.


The Vindhyan Hills are geologically significant, as they are composed of rocks that date back to the Precambrian era, which is over 600 million years ago. 




Madhav National Park River

Madhav National Park has several rivers and streams flowing through it. Manier and Sindh River flows through Madhav National Park.


(1) Manier River:

  • Sakhya Sagar and Madhav Sagar lakes created on Manier River.
  • Manier river is a tributary of the Godavari River.


(2) Sindh River:

  • The Sindh River is a major river in central India that flows through the states of Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. 
  • Sindh River is a tributary of the Yamuna River.
  • The Sindh originates on the Malwa Plateau in Vidisha district of Madhya Pradesh.
  • It has a total length of 470 kilometres (290 mi), out of which 461 kilometres (286 mi) are in Madhya Pradesh and 9 kilometres (5.6 mi) are in Uttar Pradesh.
  • The major tributaries of the Sindh are the Parbati, Pahuj, Kwari (Kunwari), and Mahuar.
  • Manikheda Dam has been constructed across the Sindh River in Shivpuri district of Madhya Pradesh, India.




Madhav National Park Lake

Sakhya Sagar and Madhav Sagar are the two lakes located in the southern part of the Madhav National Park. Both these lakes are man-made and created on Manier River in 1918.


Sakhya Sagar and Madhav Sagar provide a fine wetland habitat to the aquatic fauna including thousands of migratory waterfowls in Madhav National Park.


(1) Sakhya Sagar Lake:

  • Sakhya Sagar has been designated as a Ramsar site in 2022.
  • It is located within the boundaries of Madhav National Park in the Shivpuri district of Madhya Pradesh, India. 
  • The lake covers an area of about 12 square kilometers. 
  • It was created by building a dam on the Manier River in 1918.
  • It is shallow, alkaline, and nutrient-rich.
  • Marsh Crocodiles are in abundance in Sakhya Sagar Lake.


(2) Madhav Sagar:

  • Madhav Sagar is a man-made lake.
  • It is located within the boundaries of Madhav National Park in the Shivpuri district of Madhya Pradesh, India. 
  • The lake covers an area of about 2 square kilometers. 
  • It was created by building a dam on the Manier River in 1918.




Madhav National Park Dam

There are two prominent dams in the Madhav National Park area - Madikheda Dam and Sakhya Dam.


(1) Madikheda Dam:

Madikheda dam is located in the North-Western part of the Madhav National Park in Shivpuri district in Madhya Pradesh, IndiaManikheda Dam has been constructed across the Sindh River, which flows through the Madhav National Park.


(2) Sakhya Dam:

Sakhya Dam is located within the boundaries of Madhav National Park in the Shivpuri district of Madhya Pradesh, India. The dam was built in the early 20th century on the Manier River in 1918




Madhav National Park Tribe

Madhav National Park is home to several indigenous tribes. The park is surrounded by several tribal villages, and the tribes living in and around the park have a rich cultural heritage and a close relationship with the natural environment.


The Madhav National Park is home to Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTG)s like Saharia. The park is currently facing displacement and rehabilitation issues of Saharia tribe.


Saharia Tribe:

  • The Sahar, Sehariya, or Sahariya are an ethnic group in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India.
  • The Saharias are mainly found in the districts of Morena, Sheopur, Bhind, Gwalior, Datia, Shivpuri, Vidisha and Guna districts of Madhya Pradesh and Baran district of Rajasthan.
  • Saharia are classified as Particularly vulnerable tribal group.




Madhav National Park Flora

Which famous flora found in Madhav National Park?

Madhav National Park is a diverse range of flora and fauna. The park's vegetation is characterized by dry deciduous forests, mixed forests, and grasslands.


(1) Dry Deciduous Forests:

The dry deciduous forests dominate the park's vegetation cover and are home to several species of trees such as:

  • Teak
  • Sal
  • Dhok
  • Khair
  • Salai
  • Kerdhai
  • Dhawda
  • Tendu
  • Palash


(2) Mixed Forests:

The mixed forests are located in the hilly regions of the park and consist of a mix of deciduous and evergreen trees such as: 

  • Ber
  • Jamun
  • Kadam
  • Amla


(3) Grasslands:

The grasslands in the park are found in the central and southern parts of the park and are home to several species of grasses and herbs such as: 

  • Elephant Grass
  • Wild Sugarcane (Saccharum spontaneum)
  • Wild Sesame (Sesamum triphyllum)


(4) Medicinal Plants and Herbs:

The park's flora is also characterized by several species of medicinal plants and herbs, which have been traditionally used by the local communities for medicinal purposes. 


Some of the notable medicinal plants found in the Madhav National Park include- 

  • Aloe Vera 
  • Ashwagandha
  • Safed Musli




Madhav National Park Fauna (Madhav National Park Animals)

For which animal Madhav National Park is famous? /Madhav National Park is famous for which animal/Which wildlife is flourishing in Madhav National Park?

Madhav National Park is home to a diverse range of fauna, including several endangered and rare species. The park's fauna includes mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians.


Mammals:

  • Tigers
  • Leopards
  • Nilgai
  • Chinkara
  • Chousingha
  • Chital
  • Sambar
  • Barking Deer
  • Wolf
  • Jackal
  • Fox
  • Wild Dog
  • Wild Pig
  • Porcupine


Birds:

  • Indian Skimmer
  • Indian Pitta
  • Grey-headed Fishing Eagle
  • White-bellied Drongo
  • Black Ibis


Reptiles:

  • Indian Python
  • Monitor Lizard
  • Common Krait
  • Indian Cobra




Top Things to do in Madhav National Park

There are several exciting things to do in Madhav National Park, which make it an ideal destination for nature enthusiasts and wildlife lovers. 


Here are some of the top things to do in the park:


  • Wildlife Safari
  • Bird Watching
  • Trekking
  • Boating
  • Tunda Bharka spring
  • Bhura-kho spring
  • Visit George Castle
  • Visit Shooting Box
  • Visit Baradari
  • Visit Sailing Club
  • Visit Ghadi Ghar
  • Visit Watch towers
  • Visit Golf Tower
  • Visit Churanchhaj Ancient Wall Paintings




Madhav National Park UPSC Questions

Q. What is Madhav National Park famous for?

A. Madhav National Park is famous for Tigers, leopards, Nilgai, and Chinkara and Chousingha, Sakhya Sagar, Tiger Corridor, etc.


Q. Which river flows through Madhav National Park?

A. Manier and Sindh river flows through Madhav National Park.


Q. Is Madhav National Park is a tiger reserve?

A. No.


Q. Who built George Castle in Madhav National Park?

A. George Castle was built in 1911 by then Scindia ruler of Gwalior Jiwaji Rao Scindhia for an overnight halt of King George V of England, who was to visit the forest for a tiger shoot.


Q. Where is Madhav National Park located?/Madhav National Park in which state?

A. Madhav National Park is located in Shivpuri District of Madhya Pradesh, India.

Madhav National Park

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