Saturday, April 6, 2024

Gorumara National Park

Gorumara National Park UPSC

Gorumara National Park is a renowned national park located in the India state of West Bengal. It is situated at the foothills of the Eastern Himalayas.

The park is home to a significant population of Asian elephants and Indian rhinoceros, which are the major attractions for visitors.

Table of Contents

  • Gorumara National Park Location
  • Gorumara National Park History
  • Gorumara National Park Area
  • Gorumara National Park Hills
  • Gorumara National Park River
    • Murti River
    • Raidak River
    • Jaldhaka River
  • Gorumara National Park Lake
    • Ramsai Lake
  • Gorumara National Park Biomes
  • Gorumara National Park Flora
  • Gorumara National Park Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptiles
  • Indian Rhinoceros
  • Gorumara National Park UPSC Questions

Gorumara National Park Location

Gorumara National Park is located in the Malbazar subdivision of Jalpaiguri district, in the state of West Bengal, India. It is situated in the northeastern part of the state, near the border with the state of Assam.

It is located in the Dooars Region of the Himalayan foothills. The Gorumara National Park is very close to Jaldapara National Park and Chapramari Wildlife Reserve.

Gorumara National Park Nearest Airport:

The nearest airport to Gorumara National Park is Bagdogra Airport (Siliguri International Airport). Bagdogra Airport is located in Siliguri, West Bengal, India, and serves as the primary airport for the region. From Bagdogra Airport, Gorumara National Park is approximately 80 kilometers away.

Gorumara National Park Nearest Railways Station:

The nearest railway station to Gorumara National Park is New Jalpaiguri Railway Station. It is located in the Jalpaiguri district of West Bengal, India. It is well-connected to various cities and towns across the country. From Railway Station, Gorumara National Park is approximately 58 kilometers away. 

Gorumara National Park History 

What is the history of Gorumara National Park?

Gorumara National Park has a fascinating history that spans several decades. Here are some key points regarding the park's history:

1. Declaration as Reserve Forest: In 1895, Gorumara was officially declared a reserve forest, recognizing its ecological importance and the need for its preservation. This initial step marked the beginning of efforts to protect the area's natural resources and diverse wildlife.

2. Designation as Wildlife Sanctuary: In 1949, Gorumara was designated as a Wildlife Sanctuary due to its significant breeding population of Indian rhinoceros. This recognition emphasized the importance of safeguarding the sanctuary to ensure the conservation of this iconic species and its habitat.

3. Establishment as a National Park: In 1992, Gorumara attained the status of a National Park, further solidifying its significance as a protected area.

4. Recognition as the Best Protected Area: In 2009, Gorumara National Park received prestigious recognition as the best among the protected areas in India. The Ministry of Environment and Forests bestowed this honor upon the park, acknowledging its exceptional conservation efforts, management practices, and ecological significance.

Gorumara National Park Area

Gorumara National Park covers an area of approximately 79.99 km2 (30.88 sq mi). The park's boundaries extend across a diverse landscape that includes grasslands, woodlands, and riverine forests. 

Originally the Gorumara National Park was as small as 7 km2. Since then the park has grown by incorporating neighbouring lands to about 79.99 km2 (30.88 sq mi) in area.

Gorumara National Park is located in the Eastern Himalayas' submontane Terai belt

Gorumara National Park Hills

Gorumara National Park is situated at the foothills of the Eastern Himalayas, which gives it a picturesque backdrop of rolling hills. While the park itself is predominantly characterized by grasslands, woodlands, and riverine forests, the surrounding region features undulating hills that add to the scenic beauty of the area.

The hills in and around Gorumara National Park are part of the larger Eastern Himalayan landscape, which is known for its stunning topography and diverse ecosystems. These hills provide a natural boundary and contribute to the unique geographical features of the park.

Gorumara National Park River

Gorumara is a significant watershed area between the Ganges and Brahmaputra river systems. Gorumara National Park is traversed by several rivers and streams that contribute to the diverse ecosystem of the region. 

The most prominent river flowing through the Gorumara National Park is the Murti River, Raidak River and Jaldhaka River.

The Gorumara National Park is located on the flood plains of the Murti River and Raidak River. 

(1) Murti River:

The Murti River originates from the Neora Valley National Park and passes through Gorumara before eventually merging with the Jaldhaka River. 

From its origin, till it meets the Jaldhaka River, Murti stretches about 80 km in length. After meeting Jaldhaka River it enters Bangladesh close to a place named Mathabhanga from where it meets the Brahmaputra River.

Gorumara forest is located on the right bank of the Murti River. The Murti River serves as an important water source for the Gorumara National Park's flora and fauna, and its banks provide a favorable habitat for various species of plants and animals. Many of the watchtowers of Gorumara and Chapramari forests are built on the banks of river Murti.

(2) Raidak River:

  • The Raidak River also called Wang Chhu or Wong Chhu in Bhutan.
  • It is a tributary of the River Brahmaputra.
  • It is a trans-boundary river. 
  • It flows through Bhutan, India and Bangladesh. 
  • It is one of the main river in Alipurduar District of West Bengal, India.

(3) Jaldhaka River:

  • Jaldhaka River passes through Neora Valley National Park, Chapramari Wildlife Sanctuary & Gorumara National Park in West Bengal. 
  • It originates from the Bitang Lake at Kupup, Gangtok District, Sikkim, near the Jelep La pass, India. 
  • It is also known as Dichu.
  • It is a tributary of Brahmaputra river.
  • It is 233 kilometres long. 

Gorumara National Park Lake

Gorumara National Park does not have a natural lake within its boundaries. However, there is a man-made reservoir called the Ramsai Lake, also known as Gorumara Lake or Gorumara Reservoir, located in close proximity to the park.

Ramsai Lake:

The Ramsai Lake is an artificial water body created by the construction of a dam on the Murti River. It was built primarily for irrigation purposes, but it has also become a popular tourist spot due to its scenic beauty. The lake is surrounded by lush greenery and offers panoramic views of the surrounding hills.

The Ramsai Lake attracts a variety of bird species, making it a favorite spot for birdwatchers. Visitors can often spot migratory birds and local avian species near the lake, including ducks, herons, and kingfishers.

While the Ramsai Lake is not directly within Gorumara National Park, it is often included as part of the tourist itinerary when visiting the park. Its proximity to the park allows visitors to experience both the wildlife and the serene beauty of the lake, adding to the overall charm of the region.

Gorumara National Park Biomes

Gorumara National Park exhibits a variety of biomes due to its diverse geographical features and location in the Eastern Himalayas. The park falls in the Indomalayan realm. 

The Gorumara National Park encompasses the following biomes:

  1. Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands of the tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome
  2. Lower Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests of the tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests biome

Both of these biomes are typical of the Bhutan–Nepal–India Terai submontane region.

Gorumara National Park Flora

Gorumara National Park is renowned for its diverse and lush vegetation, which contributes to its rich biodiversity. The park features a variety of plant species, ranging from tall grasslands to dense forests. 

Here are some key aspects of the flora found in Gorumara National Park:

(1) Grasslands:

The park encompasses extensive grasslands, which form an important component of its ecosystem. These grasslands consist of various species, including elephant grass (Saccharum spp.), spear grass (Heteropogon contortus), and Themeda grass (Themeda spp.). These grasses provide important grazing areas for herbivores and contribute to the overall ecological balance of the park.

(2) Deciduous Forests:

Gorumara National Park is dominated by moist deciduous forests, characterized by a mix of broadleaf tree species. Sal (Shorea robusta), one of the iconic tree species in the region, is abundant in these forests. Other common trees found in the park include simul (Bombax ceiba), khair (Acacia catechu), teak (Tectona grandis), and shisham (Dalbergia sissoo). These forests support a diverse range of flora and provide habitats for numerous animal species.

(3) Riverine Forests:

The park is also dotted with riverine forests along the banks of the Murti and Jaldhaka rivers. These forests consist of trees and shrubs that are well-adapted to the riverside environment. Species such as silk cotton tree (Bombax ceiba), Indian trumpet flower (Oroxylum indicum), and Indian coral tree (Erythrina variegata) are commonly found in these areas. The riverine forests contribute to the overall biodiversity and provide important habitats for several wildlife species.

(4) Orchids and Epiphytes:

Gorumara National Park is known for its rich collection of orchids and epiphytic plants. The park is home to a variety of orchid species, including the popular slipper orchids (Paphiopedilum spp.) and the vibrant dendrobium orchids (Dendrobium spp.). Epiphytes, such as ferns, mosses, and lichens, can be found adorning the trunks and branches of trees, adding to the park's enchanting flora.

(5) Medicinal Plants:

The park is also a repository of several medicinal plant species. Various herbs and plants with medicinal properties, such as Acorus calamus, Swertia chirata, and Picrorhiza kurroa, can be found in Gorumara National Park. These plants hold importance for traditional medicine practices and contribute to the park's ecological value.

Gorumara National Park Fauna (Gorumara National Park Animals)

Gorumara National Park is renowned for its diverse fauna, with a wide range of animal species inhabiting the park. The park's diverse ecosystems, including grasslands, woodlands, and riverine forests, provide a suitable habitat for a variety of wildlife. 

Here are some of the notable fauna species found in Gorumara National Park:


  • Indian Rhinoceros
  • Leopard
  • Gaur
  • Asian Elephant
  • Sloth Bear
  • Chital
  • Sambar Deer
  • Barking Deer
  • Hog Deer
  • Wild Boar
  • Giant Squirrels
  • Hispid Hare


  • Scarlet Minivet
  • Sunbird
  • Asian Paradise Flycatchers
  • Spangled Drongo
  • Indian Hornbill
  • Woodpeckers
  • Pheasants
  • Brahminy Duck


  • Indian Python
  • King Cobra
  • Common Krait
  • Monitor Lizards
  • Tortoises and Turtles

Indian Rhinoceros in Gorumara National Park

At present, there are 250 rhinos in West Bengal. They are found only in Jaldapara National Park and Gorumara National Park of the northern part of the state. 

Gorumara National Park is primarily known for its population of Indian rhinoceros. In West Bengal, Gorumara is the second largest habitat of the one-horned rhinoceros with some 50 rhinos after Jaldapara National Park.

Gorumara National Park UPSC Questions

Q. Where is Gorumara National Park located/situated?/Gorumara National Park is located in which state?/Which district is Gorumara National Park in?

A. Gorumara National Park is located in Jalpaiguri district of West Bengal.

Q. What is Gorumara National Park famous for?

A. Gorumara National Park is famous for population of Indian Rhinoceros.

Q. Gorumara National Park is famous for which animal?

A. Gorumara National Park is famous for Indian Rhinoceros population.

Gorumara National Park

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