Monday, November 20, 2023

One-Horned Rhino

One-Horned Rhino UPSC

The one-horned rhinoceros, also known as the Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis), is a species of rhinoceros native to the Indian subcontinent. They have a single horn on the snout, which distinguishes them from African rhinoceros species that typically have two horns.

They are primarily found in the tall grasslands and forests in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, specifically in Nepal, Bhutan, India, and Bangladesh. Kaziranga National Park in India has been a stronghold for the Indian rhinoceros.

The one-horned rhinoceros is listed as vulnerable on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List. The one-horned rhino has faced threats from habitat loss, human-wildlife conflict, and poaching for its horn.

Conservation efforts have been implemented to protect these rhinos and their habitats, and there have been some successful programs, particularly in India and Nepal.

Table of Contents

  • One-Horned Rhino Characteristics
    • Classification
    • Scientific Name
    • Species
    • Habitat
    • Physical Appearance
    • Diet
    • Behavior
    • Reproduction
    • Lifespan
    • Speed
  • Difference between Indian rhino and African rhino
  • One-Horned Rhino in India
  • One-Horned Rhino Population
  • One-Horned Rhino Protection Status
  • One-Horned Rhino Conservation in India
  • One-Horned Rhino Reintroduction
  • World Rhino Day
  • Threats
  • One-Horned Rhino Facts
  • One-Horned Rhino UPSC Question

One-Horned Rhino Characteristics

The one-horned rhinoceros possesses several distinctive characteristics that make it a unique and fascinating species. Here are some key features:

1. Classification:

The one-horned rhinoceros belongs to the following classification:

  • Kingdom: Animalia
  • Phylum: Chordata 
  • Subphylum: Vertebrata
  • Class: Mammalia
  • Order: Perissodactyla
  • Family: Rhinocerotidae
  • Genus: Rhinoceros
  • Species: R. unicornis

2. Scientific Name:

The scientific name of the one-horned rhinoceros is Rhinoceros unicornis.

3. Species:

There are five recognized species of rhinoceros and Greater One Horned Rhino (Indian Rhino) is one of them. Each species has its own unique characteristics and is found in specific regions of Africa and Asia. Here are the five rhino species:

(i). White Rhinoceros:

  • There are two subspecies: the Southern white rhinoceros (C. simum simum) and the critically endangered Northern white rhinoceros (C. simum cottoni).
  • The Southern white rhinoceros is the most numerous rhino species and is primarily found in southern Africa.

(ii). Black Rhino:

  • Black rhinos are known for their hooked upper lip and are distributed across various regions of Africa.
  • Smaller of the two African species.

(iii). Greater One Horned Rhino (Indian Rhino):

  • Found in the Indian subcontinent, primarily in India and Nepal.
  • It has one horn and distinctive skin folds.

(iv). Sumatran Rhino (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis):

  • Found on the islands of Sumatra and Borneo in Southeast Asia.
  • It is the smallest rhino species and is critically endangered.

(v). Javan Rhino: (Rhinoceros sondaicus):

  • Found in Java, Indonesia.
  • It is one of the rarest large mammals and is critically endangered.

4. Habitat:

The One-Horned Rhinoceros is primarily found in the grasslands, savannas, and wetlands of the Indian subcontinent. Its habitat includes:

(i) Tall Grasslands: These rhinos are often associated with tall grasslands, where they can graze on the abundant vegetation. The grassy plains provide essential food resources for the rhinos.

(ii) Savannas: They inhabit savanna areas, characterized by a mix of grasses and scattered trees. The open landscape allows for ease of movement and foraging.

(iii) Forests: The One-Horned Rhino can also be found in forested areas, including moist and dry deciduous forests. These habitats offer additional food sources and provide cover.

(iv) Riverine and Swampy Areas: The rhinos are commonly found near rivers and in swampy areas. These locations serve as essential water sources for drinking and bathing.

(v) Human-Modified Landscapes: In some regions, these rhinos have adapted to human-modified landscapes, including areas with agricultural activities. 

5. Physical Appearance:

The Greater One-Horned Rhinoceros is characterized by distinctive physical features that contribute to its unique appearance. Here are key aspects of the One-Horned Rhino's physical appearance:

(i) Single Horn: 

The most obvious characteristic is the presence of one horn, although some individuals may have a second, smaller horn. This horn is made of keratin, the same protein that makes up human hair and nails.

(ii) Size and Weight:

One-horned rhinos are large, robust animals. Adult males typically weigh between 2,000 to 2,300 kg (4,400 to 5,000 lbs), while females are somewhat smaller, weighing between 1,600 to 1,800 kg (3,500 to 4,000 lbs).

  • Size- Head and body length: 368–380 cm (12.07–12.47 ft)
  • Shoulder height- 163–193 cm (5.35–6.33 ft)

(iii) Thick Skin Folds:

The rhino's skin is thick and gray-brown in color, with prominent folds and rivet-like bumps, giving it an armored appearance. This thick skin provides some protection against predators and environmental hazards.

(iv) Prehensile Upper Lip: 

One-horned rhinos have a prehensile upper lip that helps them grasp and pull grass into their mouths. This adaptation is especially useful for feeding on grasses in their natural habitats.

(v) Distinctive Hump:

A distinctive hump on the back of the neck, particularly noticeable in older males, adds to the rhino's unique profile.

(vi) Limbs:

Thick and stocky legs support the rhino's massive body. They have three toes on each foot.

(vii) Tail:

The tail is relatively short and ends with a tuft of hair at the tip.

6. Diet:

The Greater One-Horned Rhinoceros is primarily a herbivore, and its diet consists mainly of plant matter. Here are key aspects of the One-Horned Rhino's diet:

(i) Grasses:

Grass forms a significant portion of the rhino's diet. They graze on a variety of grass species in their natural habitats.

(ii) Browsing:

In addition to grasses, One-Horned Rhinos may engage in browsing, feeding on leaves, twigs, and other non-grassy vegetation. Fruits, such as those from the Ficus religiosa tree, are also part of their diet. This behavior is often observed in forested areas where grass may be less abundant.

(iii) Water Intake:

While the One-Horned Rhino can derive a significant portion of its water requirement from the moisture content of the vegetation it consumes, they also need to drink water regularly. They are often found near rivers and swampy areas, where they can access water.

(iv) Feeding Patterns:

One-Horned Rhinos are known to be crepuscular, meaning they are more active during dawn and dusk. They may rest and avoid feeding during the hotter parts of the day.

(v) Efficient Digestive System:

Rhinos have a relatively simple stomach, but their large size allows for a longer retention time of food in the digestive tract, aiding in the extraction of nutrients.

7. Behavior:

The behavior of the Indian rhinoceros (Greater One-Horned Rhinoceros) encompasses various aspects of their daily activities, social interactions, and adaptations to their environment. Here are key points about the behavior of Indian rhinos:

(i) Solitary Nature:

Indian rhinos are generally solitary animals, with the exception of females with calves and during the mating season. Adult males, in particular, tend to be solitary and territorial.

(ii) Territorial Behavior:

Adult males establish territories, marking them with urine and dung. They may engage in territorial displays and conflicts with other males to defend their territory.

(iii) Social Structure:

While primarily solitary, there may be loose aggregations of rhinos in areas with abundant resources, such as waterholes or grazing grounds.

(iv) Mating Behavior:

During the mating season, male rhinos actively seek out females. Mating pairs may form, but the association is typically temporary.

(v) Communication:

Indian rhinos produce a wide variety of vocalizations, including snorting, honking, bleating, roaring, squeak-panting, moo-grunting, shrieking, groaning, rumbling, and humphing. These vocalizations serve various communication purposes.

(vi) Crepuscular Activity:

Indian rhinos are crepuscular, meaning they are more active during dawn and dusk. They may rest in shaded areas during the heat of the day.

(vii) Bathing and Mud-Wallowing:

Indian rhinos are known to enjoy bathing and mud-wallowing. This behavior helps them cool down, reduce the risk of parasites, and protect their skin from the sun.

(viii) Swimming and Running Abilities:

Indian rhinos are excellent swimmers and can run at speeds of up to 55 km/h (34 mph) for short bursts. This ability likely aids them in escaping threats or navigating through their habitat.

(ix) Sensory Abilities:

They have excellent senses of hearing and smell, which play a crucial role in their communication and detecting potential dangers. However, their eyesight is relatively poor.

(x) Interactions in Aggregations:

In aggregations, Indian rhinos often exhibit friendly behaviors, including greeting each other by waving or bobbing their heads, mounting flanks, nuzzling noses, or licking. Playful activities, such as sparring, running, and playing with twigs, are observed.

(xi) Aggressive Defense:

When threatened, Indian rhinos can be aggressive and may charge. They have a well-developed sense of hearing and smell, allowing them to detect potential threats. Adult bulls are primary instigators in fights, which can be aggressive and sometimes result in mortality. Bull aggression is also directed toward females during courtship, involving long chases and face-to-face attacks.

(xii) Use of Horns in Fighting:

Indian rhinos use their horns for fighting, although less frequently than African rhinos. African rhinos often use the incisors of the lower jaw for inflicting wounds during fights.

Note- Mynahs and egrets both eat invertebrates from the rhino's skin and around its feet. Tabanus flies, a type of horse-fly, are known to bite rhinos. 

8. Reproduction:

The reproduction of Indian rhinoceroses (Greater One-Horned Rhinoceros) involves specific behaviors, mating patterns, and maternal care. Here are key aspects of their reproductive biology:

(i) Mating Behavior:

Mating in Indian rhinos is not strictly seasonal, but there is a peak in mating activity during the monsoon season. During this time, male rhinos actively seek out females for mating.

(ii) Courtship and Copulation:

Courtship involves various behaviors such as head waving, vocalizations, and sometimes aggressive pursuits. Bulls may chase females over long distances. Copulation occurs after a successful courtship, and the male typically mounts the female.

(iii) Gestation Period:

The gestation period for Indian rhinoceroses is approximately 16 months.

(iv) Calving:

Female rhinos give birth to a single calf, although twins are known to occur on rare occasions. Calves are typically born in dense grass or reed beds.

(v) Maternal Care:

Mother rhinos provide care for their calves, forming a strong maternal bond. Calves stay close to their mothers, and the mother is protective of the calf.

(vi) Weaning:

The calf is dependent on its mother's milk for an extended period. Weaning occurs gradually, and the calf starts to consume solid food, mimicking the mother's feeding behavior.

(vii) Reproductive Maturity:

Sexual maturity is reached at different ages for males and females. Female Indian rhinos may become sexually mature around 4 to 6 years of age, while males may reach sexual maturity later, around 7 to 10 years of age.

9. Lifespan:

The lifespan of Greater One-Horned Rhinoceroses, can vary in the wild and in captivity. Here are general considerations regarding their lifespan:

(i) Wild Population:

In the wild, the lifespan of Indian rhinoceroses is typically around 40 to 50 years. However, various factors, including habitat conditions, availability of resources, and threats such as poaching, can influence their longevity.

(ii) Captivity:

In captivity, where they are protected from many of the threats they face in the wild, Indian rhinoceroses may have the potential to live longer. Some individuals in well-managed captive environments have been known to live into their 50s and even 60s.

10. Speed:

The Greater One-Horned Rhinoceros (Indian rhinoceros) is not known for its exceptional speed. While they are robust and powerful animals, they are adapted more for a sedentary lifestyle and are generally not built for sustained high-speed running.

In terms of their speed capabilities:

(i) Running Speed:

Indian rhinos can run at speeds of up to 55 km/h (34 mph) for short bursts. This speed is impressive given their large size, but it's not sustained over long distances.

(ii) Agility:

Despite their bulky appearance, Indian rhinos can display agility, especially when navigating their habitat, which may include wetlands, grasslands, and forests.

(iii) Swimming Ability:

Indian rhinos are excellent swimmers, and they can move through water with ease. Swimming is one of their preferred methods for crossing rivers and navigating their habitat.

Difference between Indian rhino and African rhino

What is the difference between Indian rhino and African rhino?

The Indian rhinoceros (Greater One-Horned Rhinoceros) and the African rhinoceros consist of two different species, each with distinct characteristics. Here are some key differences between the Indian rhino and the African rhino:

1. Species and Subspecies:

(i) Indian Rhinoceros (Greater One-Horned Rhinoceros):

  • Scientific Name: Rhinoceros unicornis
  • Subspecies: There are no distinct subspecies; however, there is a northern population that is nearly extinct.

(ii) African Rhinoceros:

There are two species: the Black Rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) and the White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum).

Subspecies of White Rhinoceros include the Southern white rhinoceros (C. simum simum) and the critically endangered Northern white rhinoceros (C. simum cottoni).

2. Physical Characteristics:

(i) Indian Rhinoceros:

Singular horn, thick skin with folds, and a hump on the back of the neck.

Prominent prehensile upper lip adapted for grasping and pulling vegetation.

(ii) African Rhinoceros:

White Rhinoceros: Broad square-shaped mouth adapted for grazing on grasses. They have a pronounced hump on the back of the neck.

Black Rhinoceros: More hooked upper lip adapted for browsing on shrubs and trees.

3. Habitat:

(i) Indian Rhinoceros:

Found in the Indian subcontinent, primarily in grasslands, savannas, and wetlands.

(ii) African Rhinoceros:

White Rhinoceros: Prefer grassy savannas and grasslands.

Black Rhinoceros: Adapted to a variety of habitats, including savannas, grasslands, forests, and deserts.

4. Social Behavior:

(i) Indian Rhinoceros:

Generally solitary, with loose aggregations in areas with abundant resources.

(ii) African Rhinoceros:

White Rhinoceros: Often seen in larger groups, especially around waterholes.

Black Rhinoceros: More solitary and territorial.

5. Conservation Status:

(i) Indian Rhinoceros:

Listed as "Vulnerable" on the IUCN Red List.

(ii) African Rhinoceros:

White Rhinoceros: Listed as "Near Threatened" for the Southern white rhinoceros; "Critically Endangered" for the Northern white rhinoceros.

Black Rhinoceros: Listed as "Critically Endangered."

6. Geographic Range:

(i) Indian Rhinoceros:

Found in parts of India and Nepal.

(ii) African Rhinoceros:

Widely distributed across various African countries, depending on the species and subspecies.

One-Horned Rhino in India

Indian rhinos historically occupied a vast area across the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, from Pakistan to the Indian-Myanmar border, including Bangladesh, Nepal, and Bhutan. 

Their range extended along the Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra River basins. There were indications that they may have also occurred in Myanmar, southern China, and Indochina.

Due to factors such as habitat destruction and climatic changes, the range of Indian rhinos gradually decreased. By the 19th century, they were primarily confined to the Terai grasslands of southern Nepal, northern Uttar Pradesh, northern Bihar, northern West Bengal, and the Brahmaputra Valley of Assam.

The current range of Indian rhinos is restricted to small habitats in the in the states of Assam, West Bengal, and Uttar Pradesh.

One-Horned Rhino Population

In the early 1990s, the population of Indian rhinos was estimated to be between 1,870 and 1,895 individuals.

As of 2022, the total population of the Indian rhinoceros has shown significant growth, reaching an estimated 4,014 individuals, a substantial increase from 2,577 recorded in 2006. Among this population, 3,262 are located in India, while the remaining 752 are distributed between Nepal and Bhutan. 

Although Bhutan does not have a permanent rhino population, occasional sightings occur when small rhino groups cross over from the neighboring Manas National Park or Buxa Tiger Reserve in India.

The distribution of the Indian rhino population in India is as follows:

1. One Horned Rhino in Assam:

Assam, a state in northeastern India, is a significant stronghold for the conservation of the Greater One-Horned Rhinoceros (Indian rhinoceros). Assam is home to several protected areas and national parks that serve as crucial habitats for Indian rhinos.

Assam hosts the majority of the Indian rhino population, with a total of 2,885 individuals. Kaziranga National Park is a key stronghold with 2,613 rhinos.

Other notable populations in Assam include 125 in Orang National Park, 107 in Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary, and 40 in Manas National Park.

2. One Horned Rhino in West Bengal:

In West Bengal, there are 339 Indian rhinos, with 287 residing in Jaldapara National Park and an additional 52 in Gorumara National Park.

3. One Horned Rhino in Uttar Pradesh:

Uttar Pradesh is home to a smaller yet significant population, with 38 Indian rhinos, all located in Dudhwa National Park.

This increase in the Indian rhinoceros population reflects successful conservation efforts, but ongoing vigilance is required to address potential threats and ensure the continued growth and well-being of this iconic species.

One-Horned Rhino Protection Status

The One-Horned Rhino holds the following protection status:

1. IUCN Status:

Vulnerable. The One-Horned Rhino is classified as "Vulnerable" on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List. This designation indicates that the species faces a high risk of extinction in the wild if the factors contributing to its decline are not mitigated.

2. CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora):

The One-Horned Rhino is listed in CITES Appendix I. This classification signifies that the species is threatened with extinction, and international trade in specimens of these species is prohibited, except under certain circumstances such as non-commercial purposes like scientific research.

3. Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 (India):

The One-Horned Rhino is listed under Schedule I of the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 in India. Schedule I includes species that receive the highest level of protection under the wildlife laws of India. Offenses related to these species are considered particularly serious, and stringent measures are in place for their conservation and protection.

The down-listing of the One-Horned Rhino from "Endangered" to "Vulnerable" on the IUCN Red List in 2008 reflects positive conservation efforts, but the species continues to face threats, including habitat loss, poaching, and human-wildlife conflict. The legal protections provided by CITES and national wildlife laws contribute to the conservation of this iconic species by regulating international trade and ensuring strict measures for its safeguarding.

One-Horned Rhino Conservation in India

India has implemented various conservation efforts to protect the One-Horned Rhino. These initiatives aim to safeguard the species and its habitats, and they include:

1. New Delhi Declaration on Asian Rhinos 2019:

The declaration was signed by the five rhino range nations, including India, Bhutan, Nepal, Indonesia, and Malaysia. It emphasizes collaborative efforts for the conservation and protection of the rhino species in Asia.

2. DNA Profiles Project:

The Ministry of Environment Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) has initiated a project to create DNA profiles for all rhinos in the country. This endeavor is crucial for monitoring and managing the rhino population, as well as combating poaching by providing evidence in wildlife crime investigations.

3. National Rhino Conservation Strategy (2019):

Launched in 2019, this strategy outlines a comprehensive plan for the conservation of the Greater One-Horned Rhinoceros. It includes measures to address various threats and challenges faced by the species.

4. Indian Rhino Vision 2020:

Launched in 2005, Indian Rhino Vision 2020 is an ambitious conservation initiative. Its goal was to establish a wild population of at least 3,000 Greater One-Horned Rhinos across seven protected areas in the Indian state of Assam by the year 2020. The project aimed at habitat restoration, protection, and translocation efforts.

5. Translocation:

Rhino translocations to Manas National Park, initially scheduled for 2023, were rescheduled for 2024. This conservation strategy involves moving rhinos to suitable habitats to enhance their populations and distribution.

6. Rhino Corridor Expansion (2022):

The Assam government expanded the Orang National Park by adding approximately 200 sq km. This expansion more than doubled the size of the protected area, creating a connected corridor between various protected areas in Assam that house rhinos. This corridor links Manas National Park, Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary, Orang National Park, Laokhowa and Burhachapori Wildlife Sanctuaries, and Kaziranga National Park.

One-Horned Rhino Reintroduction

The reintroduction of Indian rhinos to areas where they had previously become extinct has been a conservation effort with mixed results. While some initiatives have seen success, challenges such as insufficient planning, management, sustained effort, and security have impacted the outcomes. Here are notable instances of reintroduction:

1. Dudhwa National Park (1984):

In 1984, five Indian rhinos were relocated to Dudhwa National Park, with four from fields outside the Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary and one from Goalpara. The reintroduction at Dudhwa National Park has yielded positive results, with the rhino population increasing to 21 individuals by 2006.

2. Laokhowa Wildlife Sanctuary (2016):

In the early 1980s, Laokhowa Wildlife Sanctuary in Assam had over 70 Indian rhinos, all of which were killed by poachers. In 2016, as part of the Indian Rhino Vision 2020 (IRV 2020) program, two Indian rhinos—a mother and her daughter—were reintroduced to the sanctuary from Kaziranga National Park. Unfortunately, both animals died within months due to natural causes.

These reintroduction efforts highlight both successes and challenges in the conservation of Indian rhinos. While some populations have thrived after reintroduction, the complexities of managing and securing these populations, especially in areas with historical extinction, require ongoing attention and refinement of conservation strategies. 

World Rhino Day

World Rhino Day is an annual event dedicated to raising awareness about the conservation of rhinoceros species and the ongoing threats they face in the wild. Celebrated on September 22nd each year, World Rhino Day provides an opportunity for individuals, organizations, and communities worldwide to come together to support rhino conservation efforts and promote the importance of preserving these iconic and endangered creatures.

It was first announced by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) - South Africa in 2010.


Rhinoceros species face various threats that jeopardize their survival in the wild. The primary threats to rhinos include:

1. Poaching:

Poaching for their horns is one of the most significant threats to rhinos. The demand for rhino horns, often driven by traditional medicine practices and illegal markets, has led to a surge in illegal hunting.

2. Habitat Loss and Fragmentation:

Human activities, including agriculture, logging, and infrastructure development, result in the loss and fragmentation of rhino habitats. This limits their ability to roam freely, find mates, and access resources.

3. Human-Wildlife Conflict:

As human populations expand, conflicts between humans and rhinos can arise. Rhinos may damage crops, leading to retaliatory killings by farmers, and human settlements can encroach on rhino habitats.

4. Inadequate Conservation Measures:

In some areas, insufficient funding, manpower, and resources for conservation efforts leave rhinos vulnerable to threats. Weak law enforcement and anti-poaching measures can contribute to the persistence of illegal activities.

5. Disease:

Diseases, both natural and those transmitted by domestic animals, pose a threat to rhino populations. Rhinos are susceptible to diseases spread by parasites, including leeches, ticks, and nematodes. Anthrax and sepsis are known to affect rhinos. Outbreaks of these diseases can have devastating effects on rhino populations, leading to illness and mortality.

6. Lack of Genetic Diversity:

Small and isolated populations are more susceptible to inbreeding, which can lead to a reduction in genetic diversity. This makes rhinos less resilient to environmental changes and more vulnerable to diseases.

7. Political Instability and Armed Conflict:

Rhinos may be targeted in regions experiencing political instability or armed conflict, as the breakdown of law enforcement allows for increased poaching.

8. Illegal Wildlife Trade:

Beyond rhino horns, other body parts, such as skin and bones, may be illegally traded. This contributes to further threats and poses challenges for conservation efforts.

One-Horned Rhino Facts

Here are facts about the One-Horned Rhino:

1. Scientific Name: The One-Horned Rhino is scientifically known as Rhinoceros unicornis.

2. Single Horn: As the name suggests, these rhinos typically have one horn, distinguishing them from their African counterparts, which can have two.

3. Size and Weight: They are the largest of the rhino species, with adult males weighing up to 2,300 kilograms (5,000 pounds).

4. Distinctive Skin Folds: Their grey-brown hide features distinctive skin folds, giving them a unique and rugged appearance.

5. Habitat: One-Horned Rhinos are primarily found in the grasslands and swamps of the Indian subcontinent, particularly in the Terai region of Nepal and the Brahmaputra Basin in India.

6. Vulnerable Status: The species is classified as "Vulnerable" on the IUCN Red List due to ongoing threats like poaching and habitat loss.

7. Excellent Swimmers: One-Horned Rhinos are excellent swimmers and can run at speeds of up to 55 km/h (34 mph) for short periods.

8. Diet: They are primarily grazers, feeding on grasses, leaves, branches, fruits, and aquatic plants. Their semi-prehensile lips help them grasp and eat vegetation.

9. Distinct Vocalizations: They make a wide variety of vocalizations, including snorting, honking, roaring, and more. At least 10 distinct vocalizations have been identified.

10. Conservation Efforts: Various conservation initiatives, such as the Indian Rhino Vision 2020, aim to protect and increase the population of One-Horned Rhinos in their natural habitat.

11. Indus Valley Civilization: The Indian rhinoceros holds cultural significance dating back to the ancient Indus Valley Civilization. It is depicted on the Pashupati seal and numerous terracotta figurines found at archaeological sites.

12. Rhinoceros Sutra in Buddhism: The Rhinoceros Sutra is an early text in the Buddhist tradition. It is found in the Gandhāran Buddhist texts, the Pali Canon, and a version incorporated into the Sanskrit Mahavastu. This sutra praises the solitary lifestyle and stoicism of the Indian rhinoceros and is associated with the eremitic (hermit-like) lifestyle symbolized by the Pratyekabuddha.

One-Horned Rhino UPSC Question

Q. In which country greater one-horned rhino is found?

A. The Greater One-Horned Rhino (Indian Rhino) is primarily found in India and Nepal. The majority of the population is concentrated in India, particularly in the grasslands and swampy areas of the Terai region and the Brahmaputra Basin. In Nepal, these rhinos are also found in the Terai lowlands. 

Q. Is one horned rhino found only in India?/Is one horned rhino only found in Nepal?

A. While the Greater One-Horned Rhino (Indian Rhino) is predominantly found in India, it is not exclusive to India. The range of the Greater One-Horned Rhino also extends into Nepal. In both countries, these rhinos inhabit the grasslands and swampy areas of the Terai region and the Brahmaputra Basin.

Q. Where are 90% of Indian rhinoceros found?

A. Approximately 90% of the Indian rhinoceros population is found in the northeastern state of Assam in India. The majority of these rhinos inhabit protected areas within Assam, with Kaziranga National Park being a particularly important stronghold. Other protected areas in Assam, such as Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary, Orang National Park, and Manas National Park, also contribute to the conservation of Indian rhinoceros populations in the region.

Q. One-horned rhino is found in which national park?/ Is Kaziranga National Park famous for one-horned rhino?

A. The One-Horned Rhino is found in several national parks, particularly in India and Nepal. One of the most well-known parks for the conservation of this species is:

Kaziranga National Park (India):

Located in the state of Assam in northeastern India, Kaziranga National Park is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and a major stronghold for the Greater One-Horned Rhino. It is home to a significant population of these rhinos.

Other national parks in India where the Greater One-Horned Rhino can be found include Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary, Orang National Park, and Manas National Park, among others.

In Nepal, these rhinos inhabit national parks in the Terai lowlands, such as Chitwan National Park and Bardia National Park.

Q. Which sanctuary is famous for one-horned rhinoceros?/ Which sanctuary in Assam is famous for rhinoceros?

A. Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary in Assam, India, is particularly famous for the conservation of the Greater One-Horned Rhinoceros. 

Q. What is the IUCN status of one horn rhino?

A. The Greater One-Horned Rhinoceros is classified as "Vulnerable" on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List. The "Vulnerable" status indicates that the species faces a high risk of extinction in the wild if the current threats and conservation challenges persist.

One-Horned Rhino

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