Sunday, June 25, 2023

Ranthambore Tiger Reserve

Ranthambore Tiger Reserve UPSC

Ranthambore Tiger Reserve is one of the most renowned national parks located in the state of Rajasthan, India. It comprises of the Ranthambore National Park as well as Sawai Mansingh and Keladevi Sanctuaries.

Ranthambore is famous for its tiger population, and it has been a successful conservation site for this endangered species. 

Situated within the reserve, the Ranthambore Fort adds historical and architectural significance to the area. The fort is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Table of Contents

  • Ranthambore Tiger Reserve Location
  • Ranthambore Tiger Reserve History
  • Ranthambore Tiger Reserve Area
  • Ranthambore Tiger Reserve Hills
    • Aravalli Hill Range
    • Vindhya Hill Range
  • Ranthambore Tiger Reserve River
    • Chambal River
    • Banas River
  • Ranthambore Tiger Reserve Lake
    • Padam Talao Lake
    • Malik Talao
    • Rajbagh Talao Lake
  • Ranthambore Tiger Reserve Flora
  • Ranthambore Tiger Reserve Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptile
  • Top Things to do in Ranthambore Tiger Reserve
  • Ranthambore Tiger Reserve UPSC Questions

Ranthambore Tiger Reserve Location

Ranthambore Tiger Reserve is located in Karauli and Sawai Madhopur districts of Rajasthan, India. It is situated at the junction (great boundary fault) of the Aravali and Vindhya hill ranges.

Ranthambore Tiger Reserve Nearest Airport:

The nearest airport to Ranthambore Tiger Reserve is the Jaipur International Airport. It is located approximately 180 kilometers (112 miles) away from the reserve. Jaipur International Airport is well-connected to major cities in India and also offers international flights to a few destinations. From Jaipur, you can reach Ranthambore Tiger Reserve by road.

Ranthambore Tiger Reserve Nearest Railway Station:

The nearest railway station to Ranthambore Tiger Reserve is the Sawai Madhopur Railway Station. It is located just 11 kilometers (7 miles) away from the reserve. Sawai Madhopur is well-connected to major cities in India through regular train services. From the railway station, you can easily hire a taxi or take a local bus to reach Ranthambore Tiger Reserve, which is a short drive away.

Ranthambore Tiger Reserve History

Ranthambore Tiger Reserve has a fascinating history. Here's an overview of the historical significance of Ranthambore Tiger Reserve:

Game Sanctuary: In 1955, Ranthambore Tiger Reserve was established as Sawai Madhopur Game Sanctuary by the Government of India.

Establishment of Ranthambore Tiger Reserve: In 1973, Ranthambore was designated as a tiger reserve under Project Tiger, an initiative aimed at conserving the endangered Bengal tiger. 

National Park Status: In 1980, Ranthambore was declared a national park.

Expansion: In 1991, the Ranthambore Tiger Reserve was expanded to include the adjacent Keladevi Sanctuary in the north and Sawai Mansingh Sanctuary in the south, as well as other forests.

Ranthambore Tiger Reserve Area

Ranthambore Tiger Reserve is spread across a significant area of land. The reserve comprises both the core/critical tiger habitat and the buffer/peripheral area. Here is the approximate area breakdown of Ranthambore Tiger Reserve:

  • Core/critical tiger habitat : 1113.36
  • Buffer/peripheral area : 297.92
  • Total : 1411.28 sq. km

Core/Critical Tiger Habitat: The core area of Ranthambore Tiger Reserve, which is the main zone dedicated to the conservation of tigers and their prey, covers approximately 1,113.36 square kilometers.

Buffer/Peripheral Area: The buffer or peripheral area surrounds the core zone and acts as a transition zone between the reserve and the surrounding human settlements. The buffer area of Ranthambore Tiger Reserve spans approximately 297.92 square kilometers.

When we combine the core and buffer areas, the total area of Ranthambore Tiger Reserve is approximately 1,411.28 square kilometers.

This extensive reserve provides a diverse range of habitats, including dry deciduous forests, open grasslands, and water bodies, which support a rich variety of flora and fauna, with the Bengal tiger being a prominent species of focus.

Ranthambore Tiger Reserve Hills

Ranthambore Tiger Reserve is located at the junction of the Aravalli and Vindhya hill ranges. This geographical position adds to the unique landscape and ecological diversity of the reserve.

The Aravalli Range, one of the oldest mountain ranges in the world, runs through Rajasthan and forms the eastern boundary of Ranthambore Tiger Reserve. These hills are characterized by rugged terrain, rocky outcrops, and dry deciduous forests, providing an ideal habitat for a variety of wildlife.

The Vindhya Range, on the other hand, lies to the south of Ranthambore Tiger Reserve. It is a relatively lower and younger range compared to the Aravalli Range. The Vindhya hills bring a different topographical element to the reserve, with their gently rolling slopes and scattered vegetation.

The convergence of these two hill ranges at Ranthambore Tiger Reserve creates a unique and diverse ecosystem, offering a blend of hilly terrain, grasslands, forests, and water bodies. This varied landscape supports a wide range of flora and fauna, including the majestic Bengal tigers, as well as other wildlife species found in the region.

Ranthambore Tiger Reserve River

Ranthambore Tiger Reserve is bounded by rivers on its northern and southern sides.

To the north of the reserve, the Banas River flows, acting as a natural boundary. The Banas River is a tributary of the Chambal River and is an important water source for the wildlife in the reserve.

To the south of the reserve, the Chambal River forms the southern boundary of Ranthambore Tiger Reserve. The Chambal River is a major river in central India, known for its rich biodiversity and as a sanctuary for various aquatic species, including the critically endangered Gharial (a type of crocodile), dolphins, and several species of turtles.

These rivers play a crucial role in providing water and supporting the ecosystem within Ranthambore Tiger Reserve. They contribute to the overall biodiversity and offer additional opportunities for wildlife sightings and nature exploration.

Ranthambore Tiger Reserve Lake

Ranthambore Tiger Reserve is known for its picturesque lakes that dot the landscape, providing water sources and adding to the scenic beauty of the reserve. Some notable lakes within or near Ranthambore Tiger Reserve include:

(1) Padam Talao:

Padam Talao is one of the largest and most beautiful lakes in Ranthambore Tiger Reserve. It is located in the heart of the reserve and is known for its stunning views, especially during sunrise and sunset. The lake is home to a variety of bird species and often attracts wildlife, including tigers.

(2) Malik Talao:

Malik Talao is another significant lake within the reserve. It is smaller than Padam Talao but equally enchanting. The lake is surrounded by dense foliage and provides a serene atmosphere. It is a popular spot for birdwatching and offers opportunities for wildlife sightings.

(3) Raj Bagh Talao:

Raj Bagh Talao is a picturesque lake located near the Ranthambore Fort. It is known for its tranquil ambiance and scenic surroundings. The lake attracts a variety of birdlife, making it a favorite spot for birdwatchers.

Ranthambore Tiger Reserve Flora

Ranthambore Tiger Reserve is known for its diverse flora, encompassing various types of vegetation that thrive in the region's dry deciduous forests, grasslands, and rocky terrain. 

Here are some of the notable flora found in Ranthambore Tiger Reserve:

(1) Northern Tropical Dry Deciduous Forests:

Ranthambore Tiger Reserve falls within the northern tropical dry deciduous forest biome. These forests are characterized by trees that shed their leaves during the dry season to conserve water. The dominant tree species, such as dhok (Anogeissus pendula), khair (Acacia catechu), and kulu (Sterculia urens), are well adapted to the dry and arid conditions of the region.

(2) Dry Deciduous Scrub:

In addition to the dry deciduous forests, Ranthambore Tiger Reserve also has areas with dry deciduous scrub vegetation. This type of vegetation consists of low-lying shrubs, thorny bushes, and scattered trees adapted to the arid climate. The scrub vegetation provides cover and forage for various species of wildlife.

(3) Dry Grasslands:

The reserve encompasses extensive dry grasslands, especially in the peripheral areas. These grasslands are characterized by the dominance of different grass species, which provide grazing grounds for herbivores such as deer, antelope, and other ungulates. The grasslands also serve as important foraging areas for herbivorous species and attract predators such as tigers and leopards.

The combination of these vegetation types—northern tropical dry deciduous forests, dry deciduous scrub, and dry grasslands—creates a diverse landscape within Ranthambore Tiger Reserve. This variety of vegetation provides habitat, food, and cover for a wide range of wildlife, contributing to the overall biodiversity and ecological balance of the reserve.

Ranthambore Tiger Reserve Fauna (Ranthambore Tiger Reserve Animals)

Ranthambore Tiger Reserve is renowned for its diverse fauna, including numerous mammal, bird, reptile, and amphibian species. The reserve provides a thriving habitat for various wildlife, and the star attraction is the critically endangered Bengal tiger. 

Here are some of the notable fauna species found in Ranthambore Tiger Reserve:


  • Bengal Tiger
  • Leopard
  • Caracal
  • Jungle Cat
  • Sambar
  • Chital
  • Chinkara
  • Wild Boar
  • Sloth Bear
  • Indian Fox
  • Jackal
  • Wolves
  • Small Indian Civet
  • Small Indian Mongoose
  • Striped Hyena
  • Blacknaped Hare
  • Common or Hanuman Langurs
  • Rhesus Macaques

Note- Ranthambore tigers are world famous with their local pet names, including Machali (T-16), Dollar (T-25), Sitara (T-28), Bina One, Bina Two, Sundari, Dollor.


  • Crested Serpent Eagle
  • Indian Grey Hornbill 
  • Indian Peafowl
  • Painted Stork
  • White-Breasted Kingfisher
  • Indian Pitta
  • Oriental Honey Buzzard 


  • Python
  • Banded Krait
  • Desert Monitor Lizard
  • Cobra
  • Gangetic Soft Shelled Turtle
  • Fresh Water Crocodile
  • North Indian flap-shelled Turtle

Top Things to do in Ranthambore Tiger Reserve

When visiting Ranthambore Tiger Reserve, there are several exciting activities and experiences to make your trip memorable. Here are some of the top things to do in Ranthambore Tiger Reserve:

  • Wildlife Safaris
  • Tiger Spotting
  • Birdwatching
  • Visit Ranthambore Fort
  • Nature Walks
  • Photography
  • Village Visits
  • Wildlife Conservation Activities

Ranthambore Tiger Reserve UPSC Questions

Q. Where is Ranthambore Tiger Reserve?/Ranthambore Tiger Reserve is in which state?

A. Ranthambore Tiger Reserve is located in Karauli and Sawai Madhopur districts of Rajasthan, India.

Q. Which river flows through Ranthambore Tiger Reserve?

A. Banas River and Chambal river flows through Ranthambore Tiger Reserve.

Q. Ranthambore Tiger Reserve tiger population?

A. 24 adult tigers.

Ranthambore Tiger Reserve

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