Tuesday, August 1, 2023

Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary

Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary UPSC

Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary is a protected area located in the state of Bihar, India. The sanctuary was established to conserve the rich biodiversity and natural habitat of the region.

One of the notable attractions of Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary is its hot springs. The region is known for its natural hot water springs that are believed to have medicinal properties. These hot springs are frequented by tourists and locals alike for their purported therapeutic benefits.

Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary is a paradise for birdwatchers. The area is home to various resident and migratory bird species. Birdwatching enthusiasts can spot numerous avian species, making it an attractive destination for eco-tourism and wildlife photography.

The sanctuary provides basic visitor facilities, such as trekking routes, watchtowers, and nature trails, allowing tourists to explore the area and observe wildlife in their natural habitat. 

Table of Contents

  • Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary Location
  • Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary History
  • Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary Area
  • Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary River
  • Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary Hot Springs
  • Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary Flora
  • Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptile
  • Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary UPSC Questions

Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary Location

Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the south west of Munger district near the town of Haveli Kharagpur in the state of Bihar, India. 

The Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the Kharagpur hills surrounded by Chota Nagpur Plateau in the south, Ganga River in the north and Santhal Paragana in the east. 

Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary Nearest Airport:

The nearest airport to Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary is the Lok Nayak Jayaprakash Airport (also known as Patna Airport) in Patna, Bihar. The distance between Patna Airport and Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary is approximately 160 kilometers (about 99 miles). From Patna Airport, visitors can use road transportation to reach the sanctuary.

Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary Nearest Railway Station:

Regarding the nearest railway station, the closest major railway station to Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary is Jamui railway station (20 km) and Bariarpur station.

Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary History

Bhimbandh during the Mahabharata Period: According to legends, during the Mahabharata period, the Pandavas embarked on their exile, and they visited the forest that is now known as Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary. During their exile, it is said that Bhima constructed a dam to merge two water sources in the forest, ensuring a better livelihood for himself and his brothers. This act of Bhima's resourcefulness and strength gave rise to the name "Bhimbandh" for this place.

Hunting Grounds: Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary's history dates back to the colonial era of India when it served as a hunting reserve during the British rule. Initially, the area was demarcated as an exclusive hunting ground for colonial officers and local Indian royalty. However, after India's independence in 1947, there was a growing realization of the need to protect and conserve the country's rich biodiversity.

Establishment as a Protected Area: In response to the increasing awareness of conservation, Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary was officially declared a protected area on February 13, 1976. The sanctuary was designated to safeguard the diverse flora and fauna of the region, including various plant and animal species found within its boundaries.

Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary Area

The Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary covers an area of approximately 682 square kilometers (263 square miles). This area includes a diverse range of habitats, such as mixed deciduous forests, grasslands, wetlands, and hot springs, providing a suitable environment for various flora and fauna species.

Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary River

Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary is located to the south of the Ganges River and is part of the Chhotanagpur Plateau region in southeastern Bihar. 

The Ganges River plays a crucial role in the ecological and cultural context of the region, and its proximity to Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary adds to the importance of the area as a habitat for diverse flora and fauna.

Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary Hot Springs

Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary is renowned for its natural hot springs, which are one of the unique features of the sanctuary. These hot springs are considered to have medicinal properties and are a significant attraction for tourists and visitors.

The hot springs in Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary are believed to be therapeutic and are known for their healing properties. The water from these springs is naturally heated by geothermal processes, which enriches it with various minerals and elements that are thought to have health benefits.

Bhimbandh, Sita Kund, and Rishi Kund are three notable hot springs located in the Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary. Each of these springs contributes to the sanctuary's unique charm and draws visitors with their reputed therapeutic properties and constant temperature throughout the year.

(1) Bhimbandh Hot Spring:

Bhimbandh hot spring stands out as the most remarkable among the trio. It boasts the highest temperature, ranging from 52°C to 65°C, and exhibits a significant discharge rate of 0.84-1.12 cubic meters per second. This hot spring has gained fame for its soothing warmth and is a must-visit destination for those seeking relaxation and rejuvenation.

(2) Sita Kund:

Sita Kund is another well-known hot spring in the sanctuary. It is named after the revered Hindu figure, Sita, from the epic Ramayana. This spring is believed to have connections to Sita's stay during her exile. Its inviting temperature and serene surroundings make it an ideal spot for travelers looking to unwind amidst natural beauty.

(3) Rishi Kund:

Rishi Kund is the third hot spring that graces the sanctuary with its presence. This spring draws its name from the Hindi word "Rishi," which means sage or saint. It is said to have been frequented by sages in ancient times due to its healing attributes. Today, it remains a tranquil spot for visitors seeking solace and tranquility.

Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary Flora

Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary boasts a rich and diverse flora, encompassing a variety of plant species adapted to the sanctuary's diverse habitats. The sanctuary's landscape includes mixed deciduous forests, grasslands, and wetlands, each supporting a unique assemblage of plant life. 

Some of the prominent flora found within Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary include:

Sal (Shorea robusta): Sal is a dominant tree species in the sanctuary's deciduous forests. It is highly valued for its timber and forms a vital part of the forest ecosystem, providing shelter and food for various wildlife species.

Khair (Acacia catechu): Khair, also known as catechu, is another important tree species found in the sanctuary. It is used for medicinal purposes and is a source of valuable wood and tannins.

Semal (Bombax ceiba): The striking semal tree adds vibrant colors to the sanctuary during its flowering season. It is known for its large, red flowers, which attract birds and insects.

Tendu (Diospyros melanoxylon): Tendu is a deciduous tree known for its leaves, which are used for making traditional Indian tobacco wrappers, called "beedis."

Mahua (Madhuca longifolia): The mahua tree is valued for its edible flowers, seeds, and oil. It holds cultural significance and provides a food source for both humans and wildlife.

Harra (Terminalia chebula): Harra, also known as black myrobalan, is an important medicinal tree, and its fruits are used in traditional medicine.

Amaltas (Cassia fistula): Amaltas, also called the Indian Laburnum, is known for its bright yellow flowers and is a source of traditional herbal remedies.

Bamboo (Bambusoideae): Bamboo species are also found in Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary. They provide essential resources for wildlife and are used by local communities for various purposes.

Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary Fauna (Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary Animals)

Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary is famous for which animal?

Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary is home to a diverse range of fauna, including various mammal, bird, reptile, and insect species. The sanctuary's rich biodiversity is supported by its diverse habitats, such as grasslands, forests, wetlands, and hot springs. 

Some of the prominent fauna found within Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary include:


  • Tiger
  • Leopard
  • Peafowl (Indian Peafowl)
  • Sloth Bear
  • Indian Hare 
  • Indian Langur
  • Cheetal (Spotted Deer)
  • Barking Deer (Indian Muntjac)
  • Van Murgi (Red Junglefowl)
  • Nilgai
  • Gaur (Indian Bison)
  • Hyena
  • Jungle Cat
  • Fishing Cat
  • Leopard Cat
  • Hispid Hare
  • Indian Gray Mongoose
  • Small Indian Mongooses
  • Large Indian Civet
  • Small Indian Civets
  • Bengal Fox
  • Golden Jackal
  • Chinese Pangolin
  • Indian Pangolins
  • Hog Badger
  • Chinese Ferret Badgers
  • Particolored Flying Squirrel


  • Grey Partridge
  • Quail
  • Malabar Hornbill
  • Pied Hornbill
  • Swallow
  • Nightjars
  • Drongo
  • Paradise Flycatcher
  • Kingfisher
  • Bulbul
  • Mynas
  • Pigeon
  • Wood Pigeon
  • Blue Jay
  • Owl
  • Falcon
  • Kite
  • Eastern Imperial Eagle
  • Greater Spotted Eagle
  • White-tailed Eagle
  • Pallas's Fish Eagle
  • Grey-headed Fish Eagle
  • Lesser Kestrel
  • Vulture

Migratory birds that visit during winter include:

  • Lesser White-fronted Goose
  • Ferruginous Duck
  • Baer's Pochard Duck
  • Lesser Adjutant
  • Greater Adjutant
  • Black-necked Stork
  • Asian Openbill Stork


  • Cobra
  • Kraits
  • Pythons
  • Crocodiles

Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary UPSC Questions

Q. Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary is located in which state?/Which district is Bhimbandh in?

A. Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the state of Bihar, India. Specifically, it is situated in the Munger district of Bihar. The sanctuary covers a diverse landscape in the southeastern part of the state, providing a habitat for a wide range of flora and fauna species.

Q. What is Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary famous for?

A. Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary is famous for several reasons:

(i) Natural Hot Springs: One of the primary attractions of the sanctuary is its natural hot springs, which are believed to have medicinal properties. The hot springs provide a unique experience for visitors seeking relaxation and rejuvenation.

(ii) Rich Biodiversity: The sanctuary is home to a diverse range of flora and fauna, including tigers, leopards, elephants, peafowls, sloth bears, langurs, and many more. Its rich biodiversity makes it an important conservation area in Bihar.

(iii) Bird Watching: Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary is a paradise for birdwatchers, offering a habitat for more than 100 species of resident birds, including migratory birds that visit during the winter season.

(iv) Cultural and Mythological Significance: Bhimbandh has historical connections to the Mahabharata period, with legends suggesting that the Pandava prince Bhima built a dam here during his exile. This adds to the sanctuary's cultural and mythological importance.

(v) Geothermal Energy Potential: The hot springs in Bhimbandh present opportunities for exploring geothermal energy, a sustainable and renewable energy source harnessed from the Earth's natural heat.

Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary

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