Tuesday, August 15, 2023

Jaisamand Wildlife Sanctuary

Jaisamand Wildlife Sanctuary UPSC

Jaisamand Wildlife Sanctuary is a wildlife sanctuary located in the state of Rajasthan, India. It is situated around the picturesque Jaisamand Lake (Debar Lake), which is one of the largest artificial lakes in Asia. The sanctuary is known for its diverse flora and fauna and offers a habitat for various wildlife species.

The sanctuary is home to a variety of wildlife species, including various species of birds, reptiles, and mammals. Some of the notable species found in the sanctuary are leopards, wild boars, deer, hyenas, and various species of migratory and resident birds.

Jaisamand Lake and its surrounding areas are known to be a haven for birdwatchers. The lake attracts a wide range of bird species, including migratory birds during the winter months. Birds such as cormorants, darters, pelicans, and various types of ducks can be spotted in the area.

The sanctuary attracts nature enthusiasts, birdwatchers, and tourists interested in exploring the beauty of the Jaisamand Lake and its surroundings.

Table of Contents

  • Jaisamand Wildlife Sanctuary Location
  • Jaisamand Wildlife Sanctuary History
  • Jaisamand Wildlife Sanctuary Area
  • Jaisamand Wildlife Sanctuary River
  • Jaisamand Wildlife Sanctuary Lake
  • Jaisamand Wildlife Sanctuary Flora
  • Jaisamand Wildlife Sanctuary Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptile
  • Jaisamand Wildlife Sanctuary UPSC Questions

Jaisamand Wildlife Sanctuary Location

Jaisamand Wildlife Sanctuary is located near Jaisamand Lake (Debar Lake) in the Udaipur district of Rajasthan, India. The sanctuary is situated approximately 48 kilometers (30 miles) southeast of Udaipur city, amidst lush green valleys of the Aravallis Range.

Jaisamand Wildlife Sanctuary Nearest Airport:

The Maharana Pratap Airport is the nearest airport to Jaisamand Wildlife Sanctuary. It is located in Dabok, Udaipur, Rajasthan, and is approximately 63 kilometers (about 39 miles) from the sanctuary. The airport serves domestic flights and connects Udaipur with major cities in India.

Jaisamand Wildlife Sanctuary Nearest Railway Station:

The Udaipur City Railway Station is the closest railway station to Jaisamand Wildlife Sanctuary. It is situated in Udaipur, Rajasthan, and is approximately 48 kilometers (about 30 miles) from the sanctuary. Udaipur City Railway Station is well-connected to various cities across India through the Indian Railways network.

Jaisamand Wildlife Sanctuary History

The history of Jaisamand Wildlife Sanctuary can be understood in the context of the conservation movement and the recognition of the importance of preserving natural habitats and wildlife.

(1) Shikargah of the Erstwhile Maharanas:

The forest of the sanctuary has a historical significance as it was once utilized as a Shikargah, a game reserve, by the former Maharanas of Mewar. This tradition of maintaining a reserved hunting ground reflects the historical association of the area with wildlife and its importance to the local rulers.

(2) The Majestic Jaisamand Lake:

The renowned Jaisamand Lake is an integral and captivating feature of the sanctuary. Constructed in the late 17th century (1691 AD) by Maharana Jai Singh of Mewar, the lake was initially designed to provide water for the population of Udaipur. Over time, the lake has evolved into more than just a water source; it has become a vital ecosystem that hosts a diverse range of wildlife. Its expansive waters and lush surroundings offer an ideal habitat for both local and migratory birds, making it a significant hub for avian diversity.

(3) Formation and Establishment:

Jaisamand Wildlife Sanctuary was officially established in the year 1957. This protected area was designated to conserve and safeguard the unique ecosystems and wildlife present in the region, showcasing a commitment to environmental preservation and sustainable practices.

Jaisamand Wildlife Sanctuary Area

Jaisamand Wildlife Sanctuary covers a total area of approximately 52 square kilometers. The sanctuary's diverse habitats, including the lake, forests, and surrounding areas, provide a haven for various wildlife species and contribute to its ecological significance. 

The protected area status of Jaisamand Wildlife Sanctuary reflects a commitment to conserving the region's biodiversity and natural resources.

Jaisamand Wildlife Sanctuary River

The Jaisamand Wildlife Sanctuary is enriched by the presence of water bodies, including rivers and rivulets, which contribute to its vibrant ecosystem. According to local folklore, the sanctuary is fed by a network of water sources, enhancing its ecological significance. Specifically, it is said that nine rivers and ninety-nine rivulets collectively contribute to the water supply of Jaisamand Lake.

Among the primary contributors to Jaisamand Lake's water are four main rivers: Gomti, Jhamari, Rooparel, and Bagaar. These rivers play a vital role in sustaining the lake's water levels and supporting the diverse plant and animal life within the sanctuary. The availability of water from these sources contributes to the sanctuary's overall biodiversity and creates a favorable habitat for various species of wildlife, including birds and aquatic organisms.

The convergence of these rivers and rivulets in the Jaisamand Wildlife Sanctuary not only influences the sanctuary's ecosystem but also adds to the picturesque and serene natural beauty of the area, making it an attractive destination for both wildlife enthusiasts and nature lovers.

Jaisamand Wildlife Sanctuary Lake

Jaisamand Lake (Dhebar Jheel) forms an integral part of Jaisamand Wildlife Sanctuary Lake. It holds a central role within the sanctuary's ecosystem. It is celebrated as the second largest artificial lake in Asia, a testament to its impressive scale and significance. 

Constructed in 1685 under the guidance of Maharana Jai Singh, the lake originated from a dam built on the Gomti River. Its vast expanse covers approximately 36 square kilometers, stretching across 14 kilometers in length and 9 kilometers in width. Notably, the lake reaches depths of up to 102 feet and boasts a remarkable circumference of 30 miles.

Jaisamand Lake draws its life from four main rivers: Gomti, Jhamari, Rooparel, and Bagaar, contributing to its sustainability. The architectural landscape surrounding the lake is adorned with notable structures, including a central Shiva temple on the dam, symbolizing the cultural and historical roots of the region. Palatial complexes enrich its northern and southern ends, with a palace featuring a courtyard and a pavilion supported by twelve pillars, respectively.

The lake's allure extends to its islands—seven in total—providing a unique charm. Inhabited by the Bhil Minas tribe, these islands add a human connection to the natural beauty. Among these islands, "Babaka Bhagra" stands as the largest, while the smallest, endearingly named "Piari," contributes to the lake's enchantment.

Jaisamand Wildlife Sanctuary Flora

The flora of Jaisamand Wildlife Sanctuary is characterized by its diverse range of plant species that contribute to the sanctuary's rich and varied ecosystems. Here's an overview of the types of flora that can be found within the sanctuary:

  • White Bark Acacia
  • Indian Babul
  • Catechu
  • Tamarind
  • Date Palm
  • Indian Gum Arabic Tree
  • Mokha
  • Dyer's Oleander
  • Neem
  • Indian Frankincense
  • Gum Tree
  • Flame of the Forest

However, it's important to note that the sanctuary faces challenges such as infestations by invasive plant species. The weeds Lantana camara and Parthenium sp. have significantly invaded the sanctuary area. Additionally, the invasive Prosopis chilensis is also present within the sanctuary.

Jaisamand Wildlife Sanctuary Fauna (Jaisamand Wildlife Sanctuary Animals)

Jaisamand Wildlife Sanctuary is home to a diverse range of fauna, comprising various animal species that inhabit its diverse habitats. Here's an overview of the types of fauna that you can encounter within the sanctuary:


  • Leopard 
  • Jungle Cat 
  • Striped Hyena 
  • Common Langur 
  • Wild Boar 
  • Chinkara 
  • Spotted Deer 
  • Sambar Deer
  • Bluebull 


  • Coot 
  • Bar-headed Goose 
  • Greylag Goose 
  • Oriental White-backed Gyps 
  • Longbilled G.


  • Starred Tortoise 
  • Monitor Lizard 
  • Indian Rock Python 
  • John’s Earth Boa 
  • Rat Snake 
  • Common Krait 
  • Indian Cobra

Jaisamand Wildlife Sanctuary UPSC Questions

Q. Where is Jaisamand Wildlife Sanctuary?

A. Jaisamand Wildlife Sanctuary is located near Jaisamand Lake in the Udaipur district of Rajasthan, India. It is situated approximately 50 kilometers (31 miles) south of Udaipur city. The sanctuary is nestled amidst the lush green valleys of the Aravalli Range, adding to its picturesque and serene environment. 

Q. What is the Jaisamand Wildlife Sanctuary famous for?

A. Jaisamand Wildlife Sanctuary is famous for several notable features and attractions:

(i) Jaisamand Lake: The sanctuary is renowned for its breathtaking Jaisamand Lake, which is one of the largest artificial lakes in Asia. The lake's expansive waters, surrounded by lush green valleys and hills, make it a picturesque destination and a hub for both wildlife and tourists.

(ii) Avian Diversity: Jaisamand Lake and its surroundings attract a wide variety of bird species, making it a popular destination for birdwatching. The lake serves as a habitat for both resident and migratory birds, including cormorants, darters, pelicans, herons, and various types of ducks.

(iii) Natural Beauty: The sanctuary's location amidst the Aravalli Range contributes to its natural beauty and tranquility. The diverse landscapes, including hills, forests, wetlands, and grasslands, create a captivating environment that appeals to nature enthusiasts and photographers.

(iv) Historical Significance: Jaisamand Lake and its surroundings have historical significance, including being a former hunting ground (Shikargah) of the erstwhile Maharanas of Mewar. The lake itself was constructed in the late 17th century by Maharana Jai Singh to provide water for the region.

(v) Recreational Activities: The serene environment of Jaisamand Lake and its surroundings offers opportunities for boating, picnicking, and nature walks, making it a favored destination for both locals and tourists.

Jaisamand Wildlife Sanctuary

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