Thursday, August 24, 2023

Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary

Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary UPSC

The Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary is situated in the state of Goa, India. The sanctuary is known for its diverse landscapes, including moist deciduous forests, evergreen and semi-evergreen habitats, and water bodies.

The sanctuary is home to a variety of wildlife species, including leopards, sloth bears, gaurs, four-horned antelopes, giant squirrels, and a wide range of bird and reptile species. It also features waterfalls, such as the Savari Waterfall and Mainapi Waterfall, which add to its scenic beauty.

Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary is part of the Western Ghats, a UNESCO World Heritage Site known for its exceptional biodiversity. The sanctuary plays a crucial role in conserving the natural heritage of the region and providing a habitat for numerous plant and animal species.

Table of Contents

  • Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary Location
  • Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary History
  • Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary Area
  • Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary River
  • Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary Waterfall
  • Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary Flora
  • Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Butterfly
    • Reptile
  • Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary UPSC Questions

Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary Location

The Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary is located in South Goa District of Goa, India. It is situated in the Verlem area of the Sanguem Taluka region. 

It shares its boundaries with other protected areas such as the Dandeli-Anshi Tiger Reserve in Karnataka to the east, Cotigao Wildlife Sanctuary in Goa to the south, and Bhagwan Mahaveer Sanctuary and Mollem National Park in Goa to the north. 

Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary Nearest Airport:

The Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary's nearest airport is Dabolim Airport, which is located about 72 kilometers away. Dabolim Airport serves as the main airport for Goa and is well-connected to various domestic and international destinations.

Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary Nearest Railway Station:

The nearest railway station to Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary is the Karwar Railway Station, located approximately 50 kilometers away. Karwar Railway Station is situated in the town of Karwar in Karnataka and is a convenient option for travelers coming by train.

Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary History

The Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary has a history rooted in its conservation efforts and the recognition of its ecological significance. Here is a brief overview of its history:

Establishment and Notification: The Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary was officially established and notified as a protected area on June 3, 1999. This step was taken to conserve the diverse flora and fauna within the sanctuary's boundaries, as well as to safeguard the ecological balance of the region.

Role in the Western Ghats Corridor: The Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary is situated in a region that is recognized as a vital corridor within the Western Ghats. This corridor connects different protected areas, including other wildlife sanctuaries and national parks. This network of connected habitats is essential for the movement of wildlife and maintaining genetic diversity.

Contributing to Conservation Efforts: The sanctuary plays a significant role in conservation efforts by providing a refuge for various species of animals and plants. Its protection also extends to rare and threatened species, contributing to their survival and population stability.

Sustainable Tourism and Awareness: Over the years, the sanctuary has attracted visitors who are interested in exploring its natural beauty and diverse wildlife. Responsible and sustainable tourism can help raise awareness about the importance of conservation and generate support for the protection of these natural areas.

Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary Area

The Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary covers an area of about 211.05 square kilometers. Its diverse landscapes include moist deciduous forests, evergreen and semi-evergreen habitats, and water bodies, contributing to the sanctuary's ecological richness and significance. 

The sanctuary's relatively large area helps provide a protected space for a variety of plant and animal species to thrive and maintain their populations.

Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary River

The Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary is associated with the Netravali River, also known as the Neturli River. The Netravali River originates within the boundaries of the Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary. 

The Netravali River is an important tributary of the Zuari River. The Zuari River is one of the major rivers in Goa, and it plays a significant role in the region's hydrology, ecology, and local communities' livelihoods.

The Netravali River's flow contributes to the water resources within the sanctuary. It provides water to various habitats, including forests, wetlands, and other ecosystems present in the sanctuary.

Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary Waterfall

The Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary is known for having several waterfalls that enhance its natural beauty and allure. 

(1) Savari Waterfall:

One of the prominent waterfalls in the Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary is the Savari Waterfall. This waterfall is one of the key attractions for visitors due to its scenic beauty and the tranquil atmosphere it provides. Savari Waterfall is situated within the sanctuary's diverse landscapes, making it a natural highlight for those exploring the area.

(2) Mainapi Waterfall:

Another significant waterfall within the Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary is the Mainapi Waterfall. Like Savari Waterfall, Mainapi Waterfall contributes to the sanctuary's charm and is likely to attract nature enthusiasts and tourists seeking to experience the beauty of the region.

Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary Flora

The Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary in Goa, India, boasts a diverse range of flora due to its varied habitats (Moist deciduous forest, evergreen and semi-evergreen) and ecological conditions. Among the many plant species found within this sanctuary, several notable examples include:

Malabar Tamarind (Garcinia Morella): This tropical fruit-bearing tree is recognized for its sour fruit, which is used in culinary preparations. Beyond its edible properties, Malabar Tamarind holds cultural and medicinal significance.

Knema Attenuata: Also known as White-wood, Knema Attenuata is a tree species commonly found in the Western Ghats. Its wood is used in construction due to its durability and resistance to decay.

Hopea Wightiana: A large evergreen tree, Hopea Wightiana is a member of the Dipterocarpaceae family. These trees are vital for forest ecosystems as they provide habitat and food sources for various wildlife.

Tetrameles Nudiflora: Known as the Spider Tree, Tetrameles Nudiflora is an unusual-looking tree with sprawling branches. It has a unique growth form and can be an important part of the forest ecosystem.

Blackboard Tree (Flacourtia Montana): The Blackboard Tree is known for its distinctive bark that can be used as a writing surface. Additionally, its fruits are consumed by various wildlife species.

Machilus Macrantha: This evergreen tree is characterized by its glossy leaves and small, fragrant flowers. Such trees contribute to the structural and ecological diversity of the sanctuary's forests.

Carallia Brachiata: A small to medium-sized tree, Carallia Brachiata is recognized for its attractive flowers and fruits. It is a part of the Rhizophoraceae family.

Artocarpus Lacucha: Also called Monkey Jack, this species belongs to the jackfruit family. Its edible fruits are enjoyed by locals, and the tree adds to the sanctuary's plant diversity.

Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary Fauna (Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary Animals)

Which animals are found in Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary?

The Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary is home to a diverse array of fauna that thrives within its varied habitats. Notable wildlife that can be found within the sanctuary:


  • Leopard
  • Black Panther
  • Sloth Bear
  • Gaur
  • Four-horned Antelope
  • Giant Squirrel


  • Malay Night Heron
  • Great Pied Hornbill
  • Whitebellied Blue Flycatcher
  • Wynaad Laughing Thrush
  • Whitebellied Treepie
  • Rufous Babbler


  • Malabar Banded Swallowtail
  • Malabar Banded Peacock
  • Blue Nawab
  • Black Rajah
  • Redspot Duke


  • King Cobra
  • Lizards

Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary UPSC Questions

Q. Where is Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary?/Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary is located in which state?

A. The Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the state of Goa, India. Specifically, it is situated in the South-Eastern region of Goa.It is a protected area established to conserve the rich biodiversity of the region, including various plant and animal species that thrive within its boundaries.

Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary

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