Monday, August 28, 2023

Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary

Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary UPSC

Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary is a protected area located in the state of Kerala, India. It is part of the Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve. The sanctuary is known for its rich biodiversity, lush greenery, and diverse range of flora and fauna.

The sanctuary is named after the Peppara Dam, which forms a reservoir within the sanctuary. This water body attracts various animals and birds and also serves as a habitat for aquatic species.

The primary goal of Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary is to protect the local biodiversity and ensure the survival of endangered and vulnerable species. The sanctuary contributes to conserving the Western Ghats' unique ecosystem.

Table of Contents

  • Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary Location
  • Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary History
  • Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary Area
  • Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary River
  • Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary Dam
  • Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary Flora
  • Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptile
  • Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary UPSC Questions

Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary Location

Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the Thiruvananthapuram district of the Indian state of Kerala. It is situated in the southern part of the Western Ghats.

It is bordered on the northeast by Kalakkad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve of Tamil Nadu, on the north by Palode Reserve Forest, south by Neyyar Wildlife Sanctuary, and to the southwest by Agasthyavanam Biological Park.

The sanctuary is easily accessible from Thiruvananthapuram, the capital city of Kerala. It's about 50 kilometers (31 miles) away from Thiruvananthapuram and can be reached by road. The nearest town to the sanctuary is Vithura, which is approximately 25 kilometers (15.5 miles) away.

Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary Nearest Airport:

The nearest airport to Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary is the Trivandrum International Airport (Thiruvananthapuram International Airport). It is located in Thiruvananthapuram (Trivandrum), the capital city of Kerala. The airport is approximately 40-50 kilometers (25-31 miles) away from the sanctuary.

Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary Nearest Railway Station:

As for the nearest railway station, Neyyattinkara Railway Station is one of the closest options. Neyyattinkara Railway Station is situated at a distance of around 35-40 kilometers (22-25 miles) from Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary.

Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary History

Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary has a history that dates back several decades. Here's an overview of its history:

Establishment: Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary was established in 1983. The sanctuary was created with the aim of conserving the biodiversity of the region, protecting wildlife habitats, and promoting eco-tourism and environmental education.

Protected Area Status: Prior to its establishment as a wildlife sanctuary, the area was recognized for its ecological significance. It was declared a protected area to safeguard the region's diverse flora and fauna.

Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary Area

Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary covers an area of approximately 53 square kilometers (20.5 square miles). The sanctuary's relatively compact size allows for a diverse range of habitats, including dense forests, water bodies, and various types of vegetation, supporting a rich variety of flora and fauna.

The sanctuary's size is large enough to accommodate various wildlife species, and it offers opportunities for activities such as trekking, birdwatching, and experiencing the natural beauty of the Western Ghats ecosystem. 

Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary River

The Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary is home to several streams and rivers that contribute to the biodiversity and ecological balance of the area. One of the prominent rivers within or near the sanctuary is the Karamana River.

Karamana River:

The Karamana River is a significant water body that flows through the Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary. It originates in the Agasthyamalai range of the Western Ghats and flows through the Thiruvananthapuram district of Kerala. The river's course takes it through various landscapes, including forested areas, hills, and plains.

Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary Dam

Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary is home to the Peppara Dam, which is a significant feature within the sanctuary. 

Peppara Dam:

The Peppara Dam is a reservoir built across the Karamana River, situated within the Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary. The dam serves multiple purposes, including water storage, irrigation, and hydroelectric power generation. It contributes to the conservation and management of water resources in the region.

Key points about the Peppara Dam:

Water Storage: The dam's main purpose is to store water from the Karamana River, forming a reservoir. This stored water is utilized for various needs, including agricultural irrigation, drinking water supply, and industrial use.

Hydroelectric Power: The dam also has a hydroelectric power station that generates electricity using the flow of water. This helps meet the energy needs of the area.

Landscape: The reservoir created by the dam adds to the scenic beauty of the sanctuary. The water body surrounded by the hills and forests enhances the overall aesthetics of the area.

Wildlife: The reservoir can attract wildlife species, including birds and animals, that come to the water's edge for drinking and foraging.

Tourism and Recreation: The dam and the reservoir contribute to the sanctuary's potential for eco-tourism. Visitors can enjoy boating and other recreational activities on the reservoir while appreciating the natural surroundings.

Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary Flora

What is the flora of Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary?

The Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary is known for its diverse flora, which includes a variety of forest types and plant species characteristic of the Western Ghats region. Here are some of the key types of flora found within the sanctuary:

(1) West Coast Tropical Evergreen Forests:

These are lush, dense forests characterized by tall trees that often reach up to 30 meters in height. The forest floor is covered with a mixture of canes, palms, and ferns. This type of forest is found in smaller portions in the Palode area of the sanctuary.

(2) West Coast Semi-evergreen Forests:

These forests are located at elevations between 150 to 1,000 meters on the hilly slopes. They are characterized by a mix of evergreen and deciduous trees. The trees in this type of forest are often covered with epiphytic plants (plants that grow on other plants) and climbers.

(3) Southern Moist Mixed Deciduous Forests:

Covering about 60% of the sanctuary, these forests are marked by a mix of deciduous trees that shed their leaves during the dry season. They are commonly found in the Western Ghats region and contribute significantly to the biodiversity of the area.

(4) Southern Hilltop Tropical Evergreen Forests: 

These forests are located at elevations above 1,000 meters on the hilltops and sholas. They are exposed to heavy winds due to their elevation. This type of forest is found in areas like Manochola, Kovilthery, Athirumala, and Chemmuji within the sanctuary.

(5) Reed Brakes and Myristica Swamps:

These specialized habitats are also present within the sanctuary. Reed brakes are areas dominated by tall grasses and reeds, while Myristica swamps are swampy areas with trees of the Myristica genus, known for producing valuable spices like nutmeg and mace.

(6) Medicinal Plants:

Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary is recognized as one of the Medicinal Plant Conservation Areas in Kerala. The sanctuary is home to various medicinal plant species. "Arogyapacha" (Trichopus zeylanicus), a medicinal herb, is found abundantly in the sanctuary. This highlights the sanctuary's significance in conserving plant species with potential medical uses.

Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary Fauna (Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary Animals)

What is the of Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary?

Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary is home to a diverse range of fauna, including a variety of mammals, birds, reptiles, and other animals. The sanctuary's location in the Western Ghats region of India contributes to its rich biodiversity. 

Here are some of the notable fauna species found within the sanctuary:


  • Asian Elephant
  • Lion-tailed Macaque 
  • Nilgiri Langur 
  • Nilgiri Tahr 
  • Nilgiri Marten 
  • Gaur
  • Sambar
  • Barking Deer
  • Mouse Deer 
  • Wild Boar
  • Sloth Bear 
  • Dhole or Wild Dog 
  • Indian Giant Squirrel


  • Malabar Grey Hornbill
  • White-bellied Treepie
  • Small Sunbird
  • Malabar Trogon 
  • White-bellied Shortwing 


Snakes: The sanctuary is home to various snake species, including both venomous and non-venomous ones, such as cobras, vipers, and rat snakes.

Lizards: Different types of lizards, including monitor lizards and geckos, are found in the sanctuary.

Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary UPSC Questions

Q. In which state is Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary?

A. Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the state of Kerala, which is a southwestern state in India. Specifically, the sanctuary is situated in the Thiruvananthapuram district of Kerala. The capital city of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram (also known as Trivandrum), is not far from the sanctuary. 

Q. In which Taluk is Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary?

A. Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary is situated in the Nedumangad taluk of the Thiruvananthapuram district in the state of Kerala, India. Nedumangad is one of the taluks (administrative divisions) within the Thiruvananthapuram district. The sanctuary's location within the Nedumangad taluk places it in the hilly and forested region of the district, making it a significant natural and ecological asset in the area.

Q. Which river is Peppara in?

A. The Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary is located along the Karamana River in the Thiruvananthapuram district of Kerala, India. The Karamana River flows through or near the sanctuary, and its presence contributes to the biodiversity, water resources, and overall ecosystem of the sanctuary. 

Q. What is Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary famous for?

A. Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary is famous for its rich biodiversity, diverse ecosystems, and the conservation of various plant and animal species. Here are some of the aspects that make Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary noteworthy:

(i) Biodiversity: The sanctuary is situated in the Western Ghats, a global biodiversity hotspot. It is home to a wide range of flora and fauna, including elephants, tigers, leopards, various species of deer, primates, and numerous bird species.

(ii) Variety of Forest Types: Peppara Sanctuary encompasses different types of forests, including tropical evergreen, semi-evergreen, moist deciduous, and hilltop evergreen forests. This variety of forest ecosystems contributes to its ecological significance.

(iii) Scenic Beauty: The sanctuary's landscape is marked by hills, valleys, and water bodies, making it a visually appealing destination. The presence of the Peppara Dam and reservoir enhances the overall scenic beauty.

(iv) Medicinal Plants: The sanctuary is recognized as one of the Medicinal Plant Conservation Areas in Kerala. It is home to various plant species with potential medicinal uses, contributing to the conservation of traditional knowledge and herbal remedies.

(v) Karamana River: The sanctuary is situated along the Karamana River, which adds to its ecological value. The river and its associated habitats support various aquatic and terrestrial species.

Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary

No comments:

Post a Comment