Monday, September 25, 2023

Amchang Wildlife Sanctuary

Amchang Wildlife Sanctuary UPSC

Amchang Wildlife Sanctuary is a protected area located in the state of Assam in northeastern India. It is known for its rich biodiversity and is home to a variety of flora and fauna. 

The sanctuary is an important ecological area in Assam and serves as a vital corridor for the movement of wildlife between the hills of Meghalaya and the forests of Assam. It helps in maintaining ecological balance and conserving the region's unique biodiversity.

Table of Contents

  • Amchang Wildlife Sanctuary Location
  • Amchang Wildlife Sanctuary History
  • Amchang Wildlife Sanctuary Area
  • Amchang Wildlife Sanctuary River
  • Amchang Wildlife Sanctuary Flora
  • Amchang Wildlife Sanctuary Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptile
  • Amchang Wildlife Sanctuary UPSC Questions

Amchang Wildlife Sanctuary Location

Amchang Wildlife Sanctuary is situated in the Kamrup district of Assam, India. It is located on the southern bank of the Brahmaputra River and is in close proximity to the city of Guwahati, which is the largest city in Assam.

Amchang Wildlife Sanctuary Nearest Airport:

The nearest airport to Amchang Wildlife Sanctuary is the Lokpriya Gopinath Bordoloi International Airport, which is located in Guwahati, Assam. This airport is approximately 15-20 kilometers away from the sanctuary and is the primary gateway for travelers coming to the region by air.

Amchang Wildlife Sanctuary Nearest Railway Station:

The nearest railway station to Amchang Wildlife Sanctuary is the Guwahati Railway Station, which is also situated in Guwahati. The railway station is approximately 15 kilometers away from the sanctuary and is well-connected to major cities and towns in India by train.

Amchang Wildlife Sanctuary History

The history of Amchang Wildlife Sanctuary is closely tied to the need for conservation and protection of its unique biodiversity. Here is a brief overview of its history:

Initial Recognition of Wildlife: Before it was officially designated as a wildlife sanctuary, the Amchang area was recognized for its rich biodiversity, including rare and endangered species of animals and birds. The presence of elephants and other wildlife in this region was known for some time.

Depredation Issues: In the past, the wildlife in the Amchang region faced threats, including depredations in the fringe areas. These issues were particularly acute because the wildlife, including elephants and gaurs, were confined to an isolated forest that was not very large.

Protected Area Proposal: Due to the need to protect the wildlife in the region and prevent human-wildlife conflicts, there was a proposal to establish a protected area. Recognizing the ecological significance of the area, the Assam government decided to establish the Amchang Wildlife Sanctuary.

Formation of the Sanctuary: The Amchang Wildlife Sanctuary was officially formed on June 22, 2004, by combining three individual reserved forests: the Amchang reserved forest, South Amchang reserved forest, and Khanapara reserved forest. This merger created the sanctuary as it exists today, covering an area of approximately 78.64 square kilometers.

Conservation and Management: With its establishment as a wildlife sanctuary, efforts were made to conserve and manage the biodiversity of the region. Conservation organizations, local authorities, and the government have been working to protect the sanctuary's unique flora and fauna, including elephants, gaurs, Chinese pangolins, and various bird species.

Amchang Wildlife Sanctuary Area

Amchang Wildlife Sanctuary covers an area of approximately 78.64 square kilometers (30.36 square miles). This sanctuary encompasses a significant portion of land dedicated to the conservation of biodiversity, including various species of animals and plants. The protected area is vital for the preservation of the unique ecosystems and wildlife found in the region.

Amchang Wildlife Sanctuary River

Amchang Wildlife Sanctuary is located on the southern bank of the Brahmaputra River in Assam, India. The Brahmaputra River is one of the major rivers in the Indian subcontinent and plays a significant role in the region's ecosystem. It is a transboundary river that originates in Tibet, flows through India, and eventually enters Bangladesh, where it merges with the Ganges River before emptying into the Bay of Bengal.

The presence of the Brahmaputra River in the vicinity of Amchang Wildlife Sanctuary is important for the local ecosystem, as it provides water and influences the landscape, which can impact the biodiversity of the region. 

Amchang Wildlife Sanctuary Flora

Amchang Wildlife Sanctuary is characterized by a diverse range of flora, which is typical of the Eastern Himalayan region. The sanctuary's vegetation is influenced by its location and climate. Here are some of the notable flora found in Amchang Wildlife Sanctuary:

(1) Tropical Moist Deciduous Forest:

The dominant vegetation type in Amchang Wildlife Sanctuary is tropical moist deciduous forest. These forests shed their leaves during the dry season and are home to a variety of tree species.

(2) Semi-Evergreen Forest:

In depressions and river valleys within the sanctuary, you can find semi-evergreen forests. These areas retain a significant portion of their leaves throughout the year due to the relatively consistent moisture levels.

(3) Tree Species:

Some tree species that can be found in the sanctuary include Bombax ceiba, Dalbergia sissoo, Sterculia villosa, Trewia nudiflora, Zizyphus jujuba, Phragmites karka, Arundo donax, and Imperata cylindrica, among others.

(4) Grasses and Wetland Plants:

Amchang Wildlife Sanctuary also hosts various grass species and wetland plants, which are important for the overall ecosystem and provide habitat and food for several wildlife species.

(5) Bamboo:

Bamboo is a common plant in the region and can be found in and around the sanctuary. It serves as a critical resource for wildlife, including elephants, which often consume bamboo shoots.

Amchang Wildlife Sanctuary Fauna (Amchang Wildlife Sanctuary Animals)

What animals are in the Amchang Wildlife Sanctuary?

Amchang Wildlife Sanctuary is home to a rich and diverse array of fauna, including a variety of mammals, birds, and reptiles. Here is a glimpse of some of the notable wildlife species found in the sanctuary:


  • Chinese Pangolin
  • Flying Fox
  • Slow Loris
  • Assamese Macaque
  • Rhesus Macaque
  • Capped Langur
  • Hoolock Gibbon
  • Leopard Cat
  • Leopard
  • Asian Elephant
  • Jungle Cat
  • Sambar
  • Barking Deer
  • Gaur
  • Porcupine


  • Lesser Adjutant
  • Greater Adjutant
  • White-backed Vulture
  • Slender-billed Vulture
  • Kaleej Pheasant
  • Green Imperial Pigeon
  • Lesser Pied Hornbill


  • Python
  • Monitor Lizard
  • Indian Cobra

Amchang Wildlife Sanctuary UPSC Questions

Q. In which state is Amchang Wildlife Sanctuary?/In which district is Amchang Wildlife Sanctuary located in Assam?

A. Amchang Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the Kamrup district of Assam, India. It is situated near the city of Guwahati, which is the largest city in Assam. This sanctuary is an important ecological area within the state and is known for its rich biodiversity.

Q. What is the Amchang Wildlife Sanctuary famous for?

A. Amchang Wildlife Sanctuary in Assam, India, is famous for several reasons:

(i) Biodiversity: The sanctuary is renowned for its rich and diverse biodiversity, including a wide range of flora and fauna. It is home to various rare and endangered species of animals and birds.

(ii) Asian Elephants: Amchang Wildlife Sanctuary is particularly known for its population of Asian elephants. These elephants have become isolated from other elephant populations, making their conservation and protection a significant focus of the sanctuary's efforts.

(iii) Gaur (Indian Bison): The sanctuary is home to an isolated population of gaur, also known as Indian bison. These large bovines add to the sanctuary's ecological significance.

(iv) Birdlife: Amchang is recognized as an Important Bird & Biodiversity Area. It hosts a diverse range of bird species, including endangered vultures, peafowls, pheasants, hornbills, and various other avian species.

(v) Unique Isolation: The presence of isolated populations of both elephants and gaurs adds to the sanctuary's significance, as these species have limited interaction with individuals from other regions.

(vi) Proximity to Guwahati: Being located in close proximity to the city of Guwahati, Amchang serves as an accessible destination for nature enthusiasts and wildlife lovers from the city and beyond.

Amchang Wildlife Sanctuary

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