Saturday, September 30, 2023

Eagle Nest Wildlife Sanctuary

Eagle Nest Wildlife Sanctuary UPSC

Eagle Nest Wildlife Sanctuary is a protected area located in the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh. This sanctuary is a remarkable place for biodiversity conservation and wildlife enthusiasts. It's particularly notable for its diverse bird species and the discovery of the Bugun liocichla, a unique bird species.

The sanctuary's varied topography, ranging from lowland forests to high-altitude areas, provides a range of habitats for a wide variety of flora and fauna. The presence of several rare and endangered species, such as the red panda and the Arunachal macaque, highlights the importance of this protected area for wildlife conservation. 

The sanctuary plays a crucial role in protecting the habitat and migration routes of Asian elephants, especially as they move to higher altitudes in the summer.

It also supports a wide range of bird species, making it a haven for birdwatchers. The region is known for its diverse avian population, including different species of eagles and vultures.

Efforts to conserve Eaglenest Wildlife Sanctuary are critical, and it's heartening to know that organizations like the Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund (CEPF) and BirdLife International recognize its importance and are actively involved in conservation initiatives.

Table of Contents

  • Eagle Nest Wildlife Sanctuary Location
  • Eagle Nest Wildlife Sanctuary History
  • Eagle Nest Wildlife Sanctuary Area
  • Eagle Nest Wildlife Sanctuary River
  • Eagle Nest Wildlife Sanctuary Flora
  • Eagle Nest Wildlife Sanctuary Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptile
  • Eagle Nest Wildlife Sanctuary UPSC Questions

Eagle Nest Wildlife Sanctuary Location

Eagle Nest Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the Himalayan foothills in the West Kameng district of the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh. This sanctuary is situated in the northeastern part of India, near the border with Bhutan. 

The sanctuary encompasses a wide range of altitudes, from approximately 500 meters (1,640 feet) to 3,250 meters (10,663 feet) above sea level, and it is renowned for its diverse flora and fauna, making it a popular destination for wildlife enthusiasts and bird lovers. 

Eagle Nest Wildlife Sanctuary Nearest Airport:

The nearest airport to Eagle Nest Wildlife Sanctuary in the West Kameng district of Arunachal Pradesh is Tezpur Airport. It is located approximately 150 kilometers away from the sanctuary and serves as the closest air travel option for those planning to visit.

Eagle Nest Wildlife Sanctuary Nearest Railway Station:

As for the nearest railway station, the Bhalukpong Railway Station is the one you would consider. It is situated approximately 94 kilometers away from Eagle Nest Wildlife Sanctuary. However, it's important to note that the railway connectivity in this region is limited, and most visitors rely on road transportation to reach the sanctuary.

Eagle Nest Wildlife Sanctuary History

Eagle Nest Wildlife Sanctuary is a relatively recent addition to the country's protected areas. While it has a short history as an officially designated sanctuary, the region itself has a longer history of military presence and ecological exploration.

Military History: The name "Eagle Nest" is derived from the Red Eagle Division of the Indian army, which was posted in the area in the 1950s. The military presence in the region played a role in naming the sanctuary.

Ecological Exploration: The area that now comprises Eagle Nest Wildlife Sanctuary has long been of interest to ecologists and researchers due to its unique biodiversity. Scientists and naturalists have been exploring the rich flora and fauna of the eastern Himalayas for decades.

Notification as a Sanctuary: Eagle Nest Wildlife Sanctuary was officially notified as a protected area on October 18, 1989, under the Wildlife Protection Act of India. This notification marked the beginning of its formal conservation status.

Recognition as an Important Bird Area (IBA): Eagle Nest Wildlife Sanctuary has gained recognition as an Important Bird Area (IBA) by BirdLife International due to its significance as a bird habitat. This recognition highlights its importance for avian biodiversity.

Eagle Nest Wildlife Sanctuary Area

The Eagle Nest Wildlife Sanctuary covers an area of approximately 217 square kilometers (83.7 square miles). Despite its relatively modest size, the sanctuary is renowned for its remarkable biodiversity, ranging from subtropical forests to alpine habitats, making it a vital conservation area in the eastern Himalayas.

Eagle Nest Wildlife Sanctuary River

Eagle Nest Wildlife Sanctuary is drained by several streams and rivers, with one of the prominent rivers being the Kameng River. The Kameng River is significant in the context of the sanctuary and the surrounding region. 

The Kameng River has numerous tributaries, some of which originate within or near the sanctuary itself. These tributaries and their associated streams contribute to the overall drainage system of the region.

Several streams also flow through the sanctuary, including the Tippi Naala (Tippi river), which joins the Kameng River at Tippi village. These water bodies are essential for the region's biodiversity and serve as important water sources for the wildlife.

Eagle Nest Wildlife Sanctuary Flora

What is the flora of the Eaglenest Wildlife Sanctuary?

Eagle Nest Wildlife Sanctuary is renowned for its rich and diverse flora, which includes a wide range of plant species adapted to the varying altitudes and ecological niches within the sanctuary. The sanctuary's flora consists of several types of forests, grasslands, and numerous plant species. 

Here are some of the notable plant species and vegetation types found in Eagle Nest Wildlife Sanctuary:

(1) Subtropical Evergreen Forest:

These forests are characterized by lush greenery and are home to a variety of tree species. Common trees in this type of forest include species like Tetrameles nudiflora, Terminalia myriocarpa, Amoora wallichii, Duabanga sonneratioides, and Eugenia jambolana.

(2) Tropical Wet Evergreen Forest:

These forests are typically found in regions with high rainfall and consist of evergreen trees. While details on specific tree species are limited, these forests contribute to the sanctuary's overall biodiversity.

(3) Montane Wet Temperate Forest:

As the altitude increases, the sanctuary features montane wet temperate forests. These forests are characterized by a mix of broadleaf and coniferous trees adapted to colder and wetter conditions.

(4) Sub-Alpine Forest:

At higher altitudes, sub-alpine forests dominate the landscape. These forests feature hardy trees and shrubs that can thrive in colder conditions. Specific tree species may include various types of rhododendrons, oaks, and conifers.

(5) Bamboo Groves:

Bamboo is a common vegetation type in the sanctuary and plays a vital role in the ecosystem. It provides food and habitat for several wildlife species, including the red panda.

(6) Grasslands:

Grasslands and meadows can be found in certain areas of the sanctuary, especially in the higher altitudes. These open areas are important for some herbivorous animals and bird species.

(7) Medicinal Plants:

The region is also known for its rich diversity of medicinal plants, which are often used by local communities for traditional healthcare practices.

(8) Orchids:

Eagle Nest Wildlife Sanctuary is part of the Eastern Himalayas, known for its diverse orchid species. The sanctuary likely harbors several orchid species.

Eagle Nest Wildlife Sanctuary Fauna (Eagle Nest Wildlife Sanctuary Animals)

Eagle Nest Wildlife Sanctuary is renowned for its diverse and abundant wildlife, including a wide variety of mammals, birds, reptiles, and other fauna. The sanctuary's rich biodiversity is a result of its varied habitats, ranging from subtropical forests to sub-alpine meadows. 

Here are some of the notable wildlife species found in Eagle Nest Wildlife Sanctuary:


  • Tiger
  • Clouded Leopard
  • Leopard
  • Asiatic Black Bear
  • Red Panda
  • Sambar
  • Barking Deer
  • Himalayan Serow
  • Himalayan Goral
  • Assamese Macaque
  • Capped Langur
  • Red Panda
  • Marbled Cat
  • Golden Cat
  • Leopard Cat
  • Fishing Cat
  • Jungle Cat
  • Bhutan Giant Flying Squirrel


  • Bugun Liocichla
  • Chestnutbreasted Partridge
  • Greater Spotted Eagle
  • Blyth’s Tragopan
  • Marsh Babbler
  • Rufous-necked Hornbill
  • Beautiful Nuthatch
  • Ward’s Trogon
  • Great Pied Hornbill
  • Rufous-throated Wrenbabbler
  • Blackish-breasted Babbler
  • Blyth’s Kingfisher
  • Yellowrumped Honeyguide


  • Indian Python
  • Reticulated Python
  • King Cobra

Eagle Nest Wildlife Sanctuary UPSC Questions

Q. In which district of Arunachal Pradesh the Eagle Nest Wildlife Sanctuary is located?

A. The Eagle Nest Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the West Kameng district of Arunachal Pradesh, India. This district is situated in the northeastern part of the state and is known for its stunning natural beauty and rich biodiversity, with the sanctuary being a significant part of this ecological landscape.

Q. What is the Eaglenest Wildlife Sanctuary famous for?

A. Eaglenest Wildlife Sanctuary  is famous for several reasons, primarily related to its remarkable biodiversity and conservation significance:

(i) Birding Paradise: Eaglenest is renowned as one of the best birding destinations in the world. It is home to a staggering diversity of bird species, including some that cannot be found anywhere else in India. Birdwatchers and ornithologists flock to the sanctuary to observe and study its avian inhabitants.

(ii) Unique Bird Species: The sanctuary is famous for its role in the discovery of the Bugun liocichla, an incredibly rare bird species. This discovery brought global attention to the region's biodiversity.

(iii) Mammal Diversity: Eaglenest is not only about birds; it also boasts a diverse range of mammals, including elusive big cats like clouded leopards and snow leopards, along with red pandas, tigers, and various deer species.

(iv) Rich Flora: The sanctuary is home to a wide variety of plant species, including different types of forests, bamboo groves, and medicinal plants. Its flora is crucial for the sustenance of the sanctuary's wildlife.

(v) High Biodiversity: The sanctuary's altitudinal range, which spans from subtropical forests to sub-alpine meadows, contributes to its high biodiversity. It's considered one of the richest biodiversity hotspots in India.

(vi) Conservation Importance: Eaglenest Wildlife Sanctuary plays a vital role in the conservation of endangered and vulnerable species, including the red panda and various pheasant species. It's part of the larger Kameng Elephant Reserve and contributes to the protection of the eastern Himalayan ecosystem.

(vii) Scenic Beauty: The sanctuary's stunning landscapes, with its hills, rivers, and lush greenery, make it a popular destination for ecotourism and nature enthusiasts. Visitors are drawn to its natural beauty and opportunities for trekking and wildlife viewing.

(vii) Important Bird Area (IBA): BirdLife International has designated Eaglenest and Sessa sanctuaries as an Important Bird Area (IBA), recognizing its significance for avian conservation.

Eagle Nest Wildlife Sanctuary

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