Tuesday, September 19, 2023

Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary

Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary UPSC

Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary is a protected area located in the Indian state of Odisha.The sanctuary is known for its rich biodiversity and diverse ecosystems, including mixed deciduous forests.

The sanctuary is traversed by several perennial and seasonal streams, including the Salandi River. The Hadgarh Dam, built across the Salandi River, forms a large stagnant water body known as the Hadagarh Reservoir, which attracts various water birds, both migratory and resident.

Table of Contents

  • Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary Location
  • Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary History
  • Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary Area
  • Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary Hills
  • Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary River
  • Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary Flora
  • Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptile
  • Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary UPSC Questions

Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary Location

Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the Keonjhar district of the Indian state of Odisha. It is situated in northeastern Odisha, within the Chota Nagpur Plateau region. 

Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary Nearest Airport:

The nearest airport to Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary is Bhubaneswar Airport (Biju Patnaik International Airport), which is located in the capital city of Odisha, Bhubaneswar. Bhubaneswar Airport is the most convenient airport for travelers coming from other parts of India and internationally. It is approximately 250-270 kilometers away from the sanctuary, and you can reach the sanctuary by road from the airport.

Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary Nearest Railway Station:

The nearest railway station to Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary is Jajpur-Keonjhar Road Railway Station. This railway station is situated in proximity to the sanctuary and serves as a transportation hub for travelers arriving by train. From Jajpur-Keonjhar Road Railway Station, you can proceed to the sanctuary by road, which is a convenient option for reaching your destination.

Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary History

What is the history of Hadagarh Wildlife Sanctuary?

The history of Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary can be traced back to its establishment and the events leading up to its declaration as a protected area. Here is a brief overview of the history of Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary:

Pre-Settlement Era: The region where Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary is located has a long history of forested lands and wildlife. In the early 20th century, during the 1910-15 settlement operation, significant forest blocks in the area, including Benamunda, Bandhanjhari, and Ranibeda, were declared as reserved forests.

1925-26: Additional forest blocks, such as Boula, Bandhanjhari, and Ranibeda, were reserved during 1925-26.

1976-77: The proposal to constitute Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary was initiated during 1976-77. This initiative was prompted by the task force committee on crocodile farming in Orissa, which decided to release mugger crocodiles (freshwater crocodiles) into the reservoir of Salandi Dam (Hadagarh) due to favorable climatic conditions for the species.

Establishment: The decision to declare the reservoir and peripheral forests under Anandapur and Karanjia Forest Divisions as a sanctuary was made. This involved suspending the rights of local people under the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary officially came into existence on December 6, 1978, by a notification from the Forest Department of Odisha (vide F.F.A.H. notification dated the 6th December 1978 S.R.O. No.213/80).

Later Development: Recognizing its potential as an elephant reserve, improvement work was initiated through Project Elephant to develop the sanctuary. It has also been included in the Mayurbhanj Elephant Reserve.

Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary Area

Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary covers an area of approximately 191 square kilometers. This sanctuary is known for its rich biodiversity and diverse ecosystems, including mixed deciduous forests. 

The sanctuary's relatively large size allows it to support a variety of wildlife species and provide essential habitat for conservation efforts.

Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary Hills

Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary is situated on the Chota Nagpur Plateau. The sanctuary's topography includes hilly terrain, as it is part of the Eastern Highlands moist deciduous forests ecoregion. This hilly terrain contributes to the sanctuary's diverse ecosystems and provides habitat for various wildlife species.

One of the prominent geographical features in the sanctuary is the Baula hill range, which is found to the east and west of the Salandi River. These hills add to the sanctuary's scenic beauty and natural diversity.

The hills, combined with the riverine landscape, make Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary an interesting and picturesque destination for nature enthusiasts and wildlife lovers. These hills are part of the larger landscape that supports the sanctuary's rich biodiversity.

Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary River

The Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary is traversed by several rivers and streams, with the most notable one being the Salandi River. The Salandi River is a major tributary of the Baitarani River and flows through the sanctuary's landscape. It plays a crucial role in the sanctuary's ecosystem by providing water to the wildlife and supporting various aquatic and riparian species.

One of the key features within the sanctuary is the Hadagarh Reservoir, which is formed by the Hadgarh Dam constructed across the Salandi River. This reservoir is a significant water body and wetland habitat that attracts a variety of water birds, both migratory and resident. It is an essential source of water not only for wildlife but also for the local ecosystem.

The presence of the Salandi River and the Hadagarh Reservoir enhances the sanctuary's ecological diversity and makes it an important conservation area for both terrestrial and aquatic species. Visitors to the sanctuary often enjoy the scenic beauty and wildlife sightings along the banks of the Salandi River and within the reservoir.

Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary Flora

Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary in Odisha, India, features a diverse range of flora, including various types of vegetation and plant species commonly found in the deciduous forests of the region. Some of the notable flora in Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary includes:

  • Sal (Shorea robusta)
  • Amla (Emblica officinalis)
  • Asan (Terminalia tomentosa)
  • Bela (Aegle marmelos)
  • Bija (Pterocarpus marsupium)
  • Dhaura (Anogeissus latifolia)
  • Jamun (Syzygium cumini)
  • Teak (Tectona grandis)
  • Kadamba (Neolamarckia cadamba)
  • Kanchan
  • Kangara
  • Karanja
  • Kasi
  • Kendu
  • Kurum
  • Kusum (Schleichera oleosa)
  • Mahul (Madhuca longifolia)
  • Mango (Mangifera indica)
  • Mundi
  • Phasi
  • Sidha
  • Simul (Bombax ceiba)

Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary Fauna (Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary Animals)

Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary is home to a diverse range of fauna, including various mammals, birds, reptiles, and other wildlife species. Here is a list of some of the notable fauna found in Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary:


  • Tiger
  • Leopard
  • Wild Dog
  • Spotted Deer
  • Wild Boar
  • Asian Elephant
  • Bluebull
  • Fishing Cats
  • Jungle Cats
  • Langurs
  • Pangolins
  • Hyenas


  • Peafowl
  • Hornbills
  • Kingfishers
  • Woodpeckers
  • Owls
  • Herons
  • Ducks and other waterfowl


  • Mugger
  • Monitor Lizard

Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary UPSC Questions

Q. Which district is Hadagarh Wildlife Sanctuary?

A. Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the Keonjhar district of the Indian state of Odisha.

Q. What is Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary famous for?

A. Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary in Odisha, India, is famous for several reasons:

(i) Biodiversity: Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary is renowned for its rich biodiversity, including a variety of flora and fauna. It is home to diverse wildlife species, making it a significant conservation area in the region.

(ii) Tiger and Leopard Habitat: The sanctuary is known for being a habitat for tigers (Panthera tigris) and leopards (Panthera pardus). These charismatic big cats are among the key attractions for wildlife enthusiasts and photographers.

(iii) Crocodile Conservation: Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary played a role in crocodile conservation efforts. It was initiated to release the mugger (freshwater crocodile) into the Salandi Dam's reservoir due to favorable climatic conditions for the species.

(iv) Birdwatching: The sanctuary is a paradise for birdwatchers, with a wide range of bird species, both resident and migratory, making it an excellent destination for birdwatching and photography.

(v) Natural Beauty: The sanctuary's landscape, characterized by mixed deciduous forests, hills, the Salandi River, and the Hadagarh Reservoir, offers breathtaking natural beauty and serene surroundings. It's a place where visitors can connect with nature.

(vi) Elephant Reserve: It is part of the Mayurbhanj Elephant Reserve, recognized for its importance in conserving Asian elephants and their habitat.

(vii) Historical Significance: The sanctuary's history includes the reservation of forest blocks during the early 20th century, contributing to its ecological significance.

Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary

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