Friday, September 29, 2023

Nongkhyllem Wildlife Sanctuary

Nongkhyllem Wildlife Sanctuary UPSC

Nongkhyllem Wildlife Sanctuary is a protected area located in the Indian state of Meghalaya, in the northeastern part of the country. The sanctuary is situated within the Eastern Himalayan Global Biodiversity Hotspot, known for its rich flora and fauna.

The sanctuary is characterized by its diverse ecosystems, including dense forests, grasslands, and water bodies. It is home to several species of mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. 

Bird surveys conducted in the sanctuary recorded over 400 species of birds, including endangered species like the Rufous Necked Hornbill.

The sanctuary encompasses various habitat types, including tropical moist evergreen forests, tropical semi-evergreen forests, and tropical moist deciduous forests.

Research conducted by J. Joseph in 1982 noted an extensive diversity of plant species, with over 1,000 taxa belonging to 639 genera and 159 families in an area of about 200 sq. km. The region's biodiversity surpasses some other biodiversity hotspots in India.

The best time to visit the Nongkhyllem Wildlife Sanctuary is during the monsoon season when the region comes alive with lush greenery and wildlife activity.

Table of Contents

  • Nongkhyllem Wildlife Sanctuary Location
  • Nongkhyllem Wildlife Sanctuary History
  • Nongkhyllem Wildlife Sanctuary Area
  • Nongkhyllem Wildlife Sanctuary River
  • Nongkhyllem Wildlife Sanctuary Flora
  • Nongkhyllem Wildlife Sanctuary Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptile
  • Nongkhyllem Wildlife Sanctuary UPSC Questions

Nongkhyllem Wildlife Sanctuary Location

The Nongkhyllem Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the Ri-Bhoi district of the Indian state of Meghalaya. It is situated approximately 53 kilometers from Shillong, the capital of Meghalaya, and about 51 kilometers from Dispur, the capital of the neighboring state of Assam. 

The sanctuary is nestled in the Eastern Himalayan region, known for its rich biodiversity and lush forests.

Nongkhyllem Wildlife Sanctuary Nearest Airport:

Guwahati Airport (Lokpriya Gopinath Bordoloi International Airport) is located in Guwahati, the capital city of Assam, and is the nearest major airport to the sanctuary. It's approximately 100 kilometers (about 62 miles) away from the sanctuary. From Guwahati Airport, you can reach the sanctuary by road.

Nongkhyllem Wildlife Sanctuary Nearest Railway Station:

Guwahati Railway Station is a major railway hub in the region, and the railway station is well-connected to various parts of India. From Guwahati Railway Station, you can take a road journey to reach Nongkhyllem Wildlife Sanctuary, which is approximately 100 kilometers away.

Nongkhyllem Wildlife Sanctuary History

Notification and Establishment: Nongkhyllem Wildlife Sanctuary was officially notified and established on March 25, 1981, as per Gazette Notification No. FOR.25/81/5. This notification marked the formal recognition of the area as a wildlife sanctuary, offering legal protection to its biodiversity.

Nongkhyllem Wildlife Sanctuary Area

The Nongkhyllem Wildlife Sanctuary covers an area of approximately 29.00 square kilometers

Nongkhyllem Wildlife Sanctuary River

The area surrounding the Nongkhyllem Wildlife Sanctuary, particularly to the west and north, has a rugged and broken terrain due to continuous erosion by several rivers, including the Umtrew, Umran, Umling, Umtasor, and smaller streams. 

Nongkhyllem Wildlife Sanctuary Flora

What is the flora of Nongkhyllem Wildlife Sanctuary?

The Nongkhyllem Wildlife Sanctuary is known for its rich and diverse flora. The sanctuary encompasses various types of forests and vegetation, contributing to its biodiversity. Here are some of the notable flora species found within the sanctuary:

  • Shorea robusta
  • Tectona grandis
  • Terminalia myriocarpa
  • Gmelina arborea
  • Artocarpus chapsala
  • Lagerstroemia parviflora
  • Maorus laevigata
  • Schima wallichii
  • Toona ciliata
  • Albizzia lebbeck
  • Dillenia pentagyna
  • Careya arborea
  • Callicarpa arborea
  • Tetrameles spp.

Nongkhyllem Wildlife Sanctuary Fauna (Nongkhyllem Wildlife Sanctuary Animals)

Nongkhyllem Wildlife Sanctuary is home to a diverse range of fauna, including various mammals, birds, reptiles, and other wildlife species. Here is a list of some of the notable fauna found in the sanctuary:


  • Asian Elephant
  • Barking Deer
  • Sambar Deer
  • Wild Boar
  • Tiger
  • Clouded Leopard
  • Hoolock Gibbon
  • Stump-tailed Macaque
  • Slow Loris
  • Rhesus Macaque


What birds are in Nongkhyllem Wildlife Sanctuary?

  • Rufous Necked Hornbill
  • Rufous Turtle Dove
  • Spotted Dove
  • House Swift
  • Asian Palm Swift
  • Amur Falcon
  • Maroon Oriole
  • Siberian Ducks
  • Spoonbill 


  • Rock Python
  • King Cobra
  • Common Cobra
  • Banded Krait
  • Common Krait
  • Vine Snake
  • Green Pit Viper

Nongkhyllem Wildlife Sanctuary UPSC Questions

Q. Which district is Nongkhyllem Wildlife Sanctuary in?

A. The Nongkhyllem Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the Ri-Bhoi district of Meghalaya, India.

Q. Which river passes through Nongkhyllem Wildlife Sanctuary?

A. The Umtrew River is the primary river associated with the Nongkhyllem Wildlife Sanctuary. It marks the western boundary of the Reserve Forest and the Sanctuary. Additionally, there are several other smaller streams and tributaries within the sanctuary's vicinity.

Q. What is Nongkhyllem Wildlife Sanctuary famous for?

A. The Nongkhyllem Wildlife Sanctuary is famous for several reasons, including:

(i) Biodiversity: It is renowned for its rich and diverse flora and fauna. The sanctuary is located in the Eastern Himalayan region, which is a global biodiversity hotspot, and it is home to a wide variety of plant and animal species.

(ii) Conservation: The sanctuary is dedicated to the conservation and protection of its unique biodiversity. It provides a safe haven for endangered and threatened species, contributing to their survival.

(iii) Rufous-necked Hornbill: It is known for being one of the habitats of the Rufous-necked Hornbill, an endangered bird species. This highlights the sanctuary's importance for avian conservation.

Nongkhyllem Wildlife Sanctuary

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