Friday, April 21, 2023

Betla National Park (Palamau National Park)

Betla National Park UPSC (Palamau National Park UPSC)

Betla National Park is a national park located in the state of Jharkhand, India. It is one of the largest national parks in India, covering an area of approximately 1,026 square kilometers. 


The Betla National Park was established in 1986 and is named after the Betla village, which is located within its boundaries. Betla National Park is also called Palamau National Park. It is the only national park in Jharkhand state.


Betla National Park (Palamau National Park) is known for its rich biodiversity and is home to a variety of flora and fauna. The park is crisscrossed by several rivers and streams, including the North Koel River, which adds to the natural beauty of the surroundings.


In addition to its natural beauty, Betla National Park (Palamau National Park) also has a rich cultural heritage, with several tribal villages located within its boundaries. 


Table of Contents

  • Betla National Park Location
  • Betla National Park History
  • Betla National Park Area
  • Betla National Park Hills
    • Murhu Hills
    • Netarhart Hills
    • Huluk Hills
    • Gulgul Hills
  • Betla National Park Plateau
    • Chota Nagpur Plateau
  • Betla National Park River
    • North Koel River
    • Auranga River
    • Palamu River
  • Betla National Park Lake
    • Betla Lake
    • Kamaldah lake
    • Netarhat Lake
  • Minerals in Betla National Park
  • Betla National Park Flora
  • Betla National Park Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptiles
  • Top Things to do in Betla National Park
  • Palamu Fort
  • Betla National Park UPSC Questions


Betla National Park Location

Betla National Park is located in the Latehar and Palamu district of Jharkhand, India. It is situated in the Chota Nagpur Plateau region.  The park is approximately 140 kilometers (87 miles) from the state capital, Ranchi, and can be accessed via road and rail routes


The nearest airport to Betla National Park is Birsa Munda Airport in Ranchi, which is approximately 170 kilometers away, while the nearest railway station is Daltonganj Railway Station, which is about 25 kilometers away.


Betla National Park Nearest Airport:

The nearest airport to Betla National Park is Birsa Munda Airport, also known as Ranchi Airport. It is located in Ranchi, the capital city of Jharkhand state. The airport is approximately 160 kilometers (99 miles) away from Betla National Park. From the airport, you can hire a taxi or take a bus to reach the national park.


Betla National Park Nearest Railway Station:

The nearest railway station to Betla National Park is is Daltonganj Railway Station, which is about 25 kilometers away.



Betla National Park History

Betla National Park Established

Betla National Park, previously known as Palamau Tiger Reserve, has a rich history that dates back several centuries. The region where the park is located has witnessed various historical and cultural developments over time.


Ancient Period: The area around Betla National Park was part of the Mauryan Empire in ancient times. Emperor Ashoka, one of the most famous Mauryan rulers, is believed to have visited this region and left his inscriptions in nearby areas.


Medieval Period: During the medieval period, the region came under the influence of various kingdoms, including the Chero dynasty. The Cheros ruled over the area and constructed forts and palaces, some of which still exist today as archaeological ruins. The fort located within the national park is believed to have been built by Raja Medini Ray in the 16th century.


British Era: With the advent of British colonial rule in India, the region of Palamau (which includes the present-day Betla National Park) came under British administration. The forests in the area were exploited for their timber, and the wildlife was hunted for sport. 


Protected Area: In 1947, Betla was declared a protected area under India Forest Act.


Establishment of Wildlife Sanctuary: In 1973, a wildlife sanctuary was established in the Palamau region to protect its flora and fauna. 


Tiger Reserve: In 1974, Betla National Park was declared a tiger reserve as part of the Project Tiger initiative, aimed at conserving the dwindling tiger population in India. The park became an important area for tiger conservation efforts.


National Park Status: In 1986, it was upgraded to a national park and named Betla National Park. The park was primarily established to protect the habitat of tigers and other endangered species.




Betla National Park Area

Betla National Park, which is a part of the Palamau Tiger Reserve, initially covered an area of 1,026 square kilometers (km²). However, in 1989, an additional area of 226 km² was added to the park. This expansion allowed for the inclusion of more diverse habitats and wildlife within the protected area.


In addition to the expansion from the Palamau Tiger Reserve, another area of 63 km² from the Mahuadanr Wolf Sanctuary was also added to Betla National Park. This inclusion aimed to provide protection to the endangered Indian wolf species and their habitat.


By incorporating these additional areas, the total area of Betla National Park increased to accommodate a larger range of ecosystems and enhance wildlife conservation efforts. The expansion was a step towards preserving the natural heritage and promoting biodiversity in the region.




Betla National Park Hills

Betla National Park is situated in the Chota Nagpur Plateau region of Jharkhand state, which is known for its hilly terrain. The park itself is characterized by undulating hills and valleys.


Murhu, Netarhart, Huluk and Gulgul hills is situated in Betla National Park.


(1) Murhu Hills:

  • Murhu hills is situated in Betla National Park.
  • It is a mineral rich area.


(2) Netarhart Hills:

  • Netarhat hill is located in Betla National Park (Palamau National Park). 
  • It is a famous hill station in Latehar district in Jharkhand. 
  • Netarhat hill is also referred to as the "Queen of Chotanagpur".


(3) Huluk Hills:

  • Huluk Hill is a significant hill located in Betla National Park (Palamau National Park).
  • It is situated about 25 km from Daltonganj.
  • It stands high, near the Murhu, Netarhat and Gulgul hills. 


(4) Gulgul Hills:

  • Gulgul is a prominent hill located in Betla National Park, Jharkhand. 
  • It is situated about 25 km from Daltonganj. 
  • Gulgul is the highest among the other hills such as Murhu, Netarhat and Huluk, in this region. 




Betla National Park Plateau

Betla National Park is located in the Chota Nagpur Plateau region of Jharkhand state, which is known for its vast and undulating plateau landscape. The Betla National Park itself is situated on the southern edge of the plateau and is surrounded by forested hills and valleys.


Chota Nagpur Plateau:

  • The Chota Nagpur Plateau is a vast region that covers parts of Jharkhand, Bihar, West Bengal, and Odisha. 
  • The total area of the Chota Nagpur Plateau is approximately 65,000 square kilometres (25,000 sq mi). 
  • The Chota Nagpur Plateau is known for its extensive mineral resources, including coal, iron ore, and bauxite. 




Betla National Park River

Betla National Park (Palamau National Park) is home to several rivers, streams, and waterfalls, which add to the scenic beauty of the park and provide a habitat for a wide range of aquatic species. 


Some of the major rivers that flow through the Betla National Park (Palamau National Park) include the North Koel River, the Auranga River, and the Palamu River.


(1) North Koel River:

  • The North Koel River originates from the Chota Nagpur Plateau near Ranchi, Jharkhand.
  • It flows for about 270 km before merging with the Son River in Bihar.
  • It is a tributary of the Son River.
  • The tributaries of North Koel River are Auranga and Amanat, Burha river.


(2) Auranga River:

  • The Auranga River flows through the Latehar and Palamu districts in the Indian state of Jharkhand.
  • It originates near Soheda.
  • It flows for about 80 km (50 mi) before merging with the North Koel River near Kechki 16 kilometres (10 mi) south of Daltonganj.
  • Its principal tributaries are the Sukri and Ghaghri.
  • It flow through the Palamu Fort.


(3) Palamu River:

Palamu River flows through the Betla National Park (Palamau National Park).




Betla National Park Lake

Betla National Park has several lakes and water bodies within its boundaries. The major lakes and water bodies in and around the park include:


  • Betla Lake 
  • Kamaldah lake
  • Netarhat Lake




Minerals in Betla National Park

Betla National Park (Palamau National Park) is situated in the Chota Nagpur Plateau region, which is known for its extensive mineral deposits. The region is rich in minerals such as:

  • Coal
  • Iron Ore
  • Bauxite
  • Manganese
  • Copper


The mining of minerals in the region has been a significant source of revenue for the state of Jharkhand, and many mining operations are located in and around the Betla National Park (Palamau National Park) area. The mining of minerals, however, has also had a significant impact on the environment, and efforts have been made to regulate and control mining activities in the region.




Betla National Park Flora

Betla National Park is situated in the Chota Nagpur Plateau region, which is characterized by its rich and diverse flora. The park is home to a variety of vegetation types, ranging from tropical forests to grasslands, and is one of the most biodiverse regions in India.


  • Tropical Wet Evergreen Forests
  • Temperate Alpine Forest
  • Mixed (Moist and Dry) Deciduous Forests
  • Grasslands


The tropical forests in Betla National Park (Palamau National Park) are dominated by sal trees, which are an important source of timber and are also used for fuelwood and other purposes. Other important tree species found in the park include bamboo, teak, mahua, neem, amla and semal.


The Betla National Park (Palamau National Park) also has a rich understorey of shrubs, herbs, and climbers, including wildflowers, ferns, and mosses. Some of the notable plant species found in the park include orchids, epiphytes etc.


The grasslands in the Betla National Park (Palamau National Park) are dominated by tall grasses and sedges, which provide a habitat for a variety of wildlife.




Betla National Park Fauna (Betla National Park Animals)

Which animals are protected in Palamau National Park?

Betla National Park (Palamau National Park) is home to a diverse range of fauna. Here are some of the notable species found in the park:


Mammals:

  • Tiger
  • Elephants
  • Sloth Bear
  • Panther
  • Wild Bear
  • Wolf
  • Hyenas
  • Gaur
  • Chital
  • Rhesus Monkey
  • Sambhar
  • Nilgai
  • Pangolin 
  • Mongoose


Birds:

  • Hornbill
  • Red Jungle Fowl
  • Black Storks
  • Black Ibis
  • Swamp Gray
  • Quail
  • Pred Hornbill
  • Pigeon
  • Drongo
  • Crested Snake-Eagle
  • Forest Owlet


Reptiles:

  • Indian Rock Python
  • King Cobra
  • Common Krait
  • Russell's Viper
  • Monitor Lizard




Top Things to do in Betla National Park

Betla National Park (Palamau National Park) is a beautiful park with a wide range of flora and fauna. Here are some of the top things to do in Betla National Park:


  • Jungle Safari
  • Trekking
  • Bird Watching
  • Visit the Palamu Fort
  • Nature Walks
  • Visit the Palamau Tiger Reserve
  • Camping




Palamu Fort

Palamu Fort is located in Betla National Park. The fort is on the bank of Auranga River. The Palamu fort's location on a hill offers stunning views of the surrounding landscape.


It is a historical monument located in the town of Daltonganj, Jharkhand, India. It was built during the 16th century by the Chero kings and was later used by the Mughals, British, and rebels during the Indian Freedom struggle.




Betla National Park UPSC Questions

Q. Why is Betla National Park famous?/Betla National Park famous for?

A. Betla National Park is famous for Tiger Reserve.


Q. When was Betla declared as National Park?

A. Betla was declared as a National Park in 1986.


Q. Which river is in Betla National Park?/Which river flows through Palamau National Park?

A. North Koel River, Auranga River, and Palamu River is in Betla National Park.


Q. Where is Betla National Park?/In which state Betla National Park is situated?/Betla National Park in which district?/Palamau National Park is located in?

A. Betla National Park is located in Latehar and Palamu district of Jharkhand, India.


Q. Betla National Park is famous for which animal?

A. Betla National Park is famous for Bengal Tiger.


Q. Palamau National Park is famous for which animal?

A. Palamau National Park is famous for Bengal Tiger.


Betla National Park (Palamau National Park)

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