Friday, April 21, 2023

Dudhwa National Park

Dudhwa National Park UPSC

Dudhwa National Park is a renowned national park located in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India. It is situated in the Terai region of the Himalayan foothills and covers an area of approximately 490 square kilometers (190 square miles). 


Dudhwa National Park is known for its rich biodiversity and is one of the important protected areas for conservation in India. The park was established in 1965 as a wildlife sanctuary and later upgraded to a national park in 1977. It is also a part of the larger Dudhwa Tiger Reserve, which was established in 1987 to protect the endangered Bengal tigers.


Dudhwa National Park is an important conservation area in India and is managed by the Forest Department of the Uttar Pradesh government. It is a popular destination for nature lovers and wildlife enthusiasts.


Table of Contents

  • Dudhwa National Park Location
  • Dudhwa National Park History
  • Dudhwa National Park Area
  • Dudhwa National Park River
    • Suheli River
    • Mohana River
  • Dudhwa National Park Lake
    • Banke Tal
    • Kakraha Range
    • Sathiyana Range
  • Dudhwa National Park Flora
  • Dudhwa National Park Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptiles
  • Barasingha (Swamp Deer)
  • Indian One-horned Rhinoceros
  • Top Things to do in Dudhwa National Park
  • Dudhwa National Park UPSC Questions


Dudhwa National Park Location

Dudhwa National Park is located in the Lakhimpur Kheri district of Uttar Pradesh, India. It is situated in the foothills of the Himalayas.


The park is situated in the northeastern part of the state, near the border with Nepal. It is approximately 240 kilometers (150 miles) away from Lucknow, the capital city of Uttar Pradesh. The nearest town to the park is Palia Kalan, which is about 10 kilometers (6 miles) away. 


The Dudhwa National Park is easily accessible by road, and the nearest major city with good transport connections is Lucknow.


Dudhwa National Park Nearest Railway Stations:

Dudhwa Railway Station: The nearest railway stations are Dudhwa at a distance of 4 kilometers. It is the closest option for reaching Dudhwa National Park by train.


Palia Kalan Railway Station: Palia Kalan Railway Station is another nearby railway station, situated approximately 10 kilometers away from Dudhwa National Park. Trains from various cities in India connect to Palia Kalan Railway Station.


Dudhwa National Park Nearest Airport:

Lucknow Airport (Chaudhary Charan Singh International Airport): This is the nearest international airport to Dudhwa National Park, located approximately 240 kilometers away. It is well-connected to major cities in India as well as some international destinations.




Dudhwa National Park History

Dudhwa National Park has a rich history that dates back to the early 19th century when the area was used for hunting by the British. 


Early History: In 1861, the British government declared 775 Km2 forest area between Mohana and Suhaili river as reserved forest and started conservation efforts. 


Establishment as a Wildlife Sanctuary: In 1965, the area was declared a wildlife sanctuary to protect the swamp deer (barasingha) population, which was facing a severe decline due to habitat loss and hunting. 


Upgrade to a National Park: In 1977, Dudhwa Wildlife Sanctuary was upgraded to a national park. The park was established to protect the region's unique flora and fauna, particularly the endangered species such as the Barasingha (Swamp Deer) and the Indian rhinoceros.


Tiger Reserve: In 1987, Dudhwa National Park and the Kishanpur Wildlife Sanctuary (Lakhimpur and Shahjahanpur districts) was together declared a tiger reserve under Project Tiger. Later, the Katarniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary (Bahraich district) was added in Dudhwa Tiger Reserve in the year 2000.



1st National Park of Uttar Pradesh:

Dudwa National Park is known as the 1st National Park of the Uttar Pradesh after formation of Uttrakhand in 2000.




Dudhwa National Park Area

Dudhwa National Park covers an area of approximately 490 square kilometersIt is a part of the Dudhwa Tiger Reserve, which also includes the Kishanpur Wildlife Sanctuary and the Katarniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary.


The Dudhwa National Park area is characterized by dense forests, grasslands, and wetlands, making it an important habitat for a variety of species. The wetlands in the park, including the Suheli and Mohana rivers, provide important habitat for several species of migratory birds.


Terai Belt: The park lies in the Terai belt of marshy grasslands of Uttar Pradesh, near the border with Nepal. 


Upper Gangetic Plains & Alluvial Plain: The area of the Dudhwa National Park falls within the Upper Gangetic plains and is a vast alluvial plain.




Dudhwa National Park River

Dudhwa National Park is home to several rivers and streams, which are an important part of the park's ecosystem. The major rivers that flow through the Dudhwa National Park are the Suheli and Mohana rivers.


(1) Suheli River:

The Suheli River is a major river that flows through Dudhwa National Park. The river forms the southern boundary of the Dudhwa National Park.


The Suheli River is an important source of water for the park's wildlife and also supports a diverse array of aquatic life, including several species of fish and turtles. The river is also an important breeding ground for several species of birds.


The Suheli river originates in the Mahendra Hills of Nepal. The Suheli, along with the Sharda and Mohana drain into the Ghagra River system.


(2) Mohana River:

The Mohana River is another important river that flows through Dudhwa National Park. The Mohana River forms the boundary between the Kishanpur Wildlife Sanctuary and the Dudhwa National Park. 


The Mohana river originates in Nepal and flows through the park before joining the Sarda River near Pilibhit in Uttar Pradesh, India.




Dudhwa National Park Lake

Dudhwa National Park is home to several lakes and water bodies, which provide important habitat for a variety of aquatic life and birds. The major lakes in the park are:


(1) Banke Tal:

Banke Tal is a large lake located near the entrance of the Dudhwa National Park. It is a natural waterbody and one of the most popular birding spots in the Dudhwa National Park.


(2) Kakraha Range:

The Kakraha Range is a wetland area located in the Dudhwa National Park's eastern region.


(3) Sathiyana Range:

The Sathania Range is a wetland area located in the Dudhwa National Park's western region.

 



Dudhwa National Park Flora

Which flora is found in Dudhwa National Park?

Dudhwa National Park is known for its diverse range of flora, which includes both tropical and subtropical vegetation. The park is home to several species of trees, shrubs, grasses, and herbs, which provide important habitat for a variety of wildlife. The grasslands comprise about 19% of the Dudhwa National Park.


Some of the major flora species found in the park are:

  • Sal
  • Asna
  • Sisam
  • Jamun
  • Gular
  • Sehore
  • Bahera
  • Semal
  • Khair
  • Bamboo
  • Wildflowers (marigolds, lilies, and sunflowers)




Dudhwa National Park Fauna (Dudhwa National Park Animals)

Dudhwa National Park is home to a rich and diverse range of fauna, including several endangered and rare species. The park's wildlife includes:


Mammals:

  • Bengal Tiger
  • Swamp Deer (Barasingha)
  • Indian One-horned Rhinoceros
  • Asiatic Elephant
  • Leopard
  • Sambar
  • Hog Deer
  • Cheetal
  • Kakar
  • Wild Pig
  • Rhesus Monkey
  • Langur
  • Sloth Bear
  • Blue Bull
  • Porcupine
  • Otter


Dudhwa National Park Birds:

  • Bengal Florican
  • Red Jungle Fowl
  • Pea fowl
  • Hornbill
  • Fishing Eagle
  • Bengal Florican
  • Serpent Eagle
  • Osprey
  • Paradise Flycatcher
  • Woodpeckers
  • Shama
  • Indian Pitta
  • Orioles
  • Emerald Dove


Reptiles:

  • Python
  • Monitor lizard
  • Mugger
  • Gharial 




Barasingha (Swamp Deer) in Dudhwa National Park

Dudhwa National Park is home to a significant population of Barasingha or swamp deer, which is the most important and unique attraction of the park. 


Dudhwa National Park is world famous for its Barasingha (Swamp Deer) population. The Park is home to the largest population of swamp deer (Barasingha) in the world. Around half of the world’s Barasingha (Swamp Deer) population are present in Dudhwa National Park.


The Barasingha (Swamp Deer) in Dudhwa National Park is mainly found in the grasslands and swamps of the park. The swamp deer is an important part of the Dudhwa National Park's ecosystem and provides an important prey base for predators like tigers, leopards, and wild dogs.




Indian One-horned Rhinoceros in Dudhwa National Park

Dudhwa National Park is home to a significant population of Indian one-horned rhinoceros. A large number of rhinos are found in Dudhwa National Park. 


In Uttar Pradesh there is only one rhino population in Dudhwa national park, which was set up through a translocation exercise undertaken from Assam and Nepal. The present population there is around 30.


In 1984, Indian rhinoceros was reintroduced into Dudhwa from Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary in Assam and Nepal.


Dudhwa National Park is the only place in Uttar Pradesh where both Tigers and Rhinos can be spotted together. The rhinoceros in Dudhwa National Park mainly inhabit the grasslands and forests of the park, and they are often seen grazing in the open grasslands or near the water bodies.


The Indian one-horned rhinoceros is a critically endangered species, and Dudhwa National Park is one of the few places in India where the species can be found. 




Top Things to do in Dudhwa National Park

Here are some top things to do in Dudhwa National Park:

  • Wildlife Safari
  • Birdwatching
  • Visit the Dudhwa Tiger Reserve
  • Explore the Dudhwa forests
  • Visit the Katarniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Experience the local culture
  • Visit the Dudhwa Nature Interpretation Centre




Dudhwa National Park UPSC Questions

Q. Why is Dudhwa National Park famous for?

A. Dudhwa National Park is famous for Bengal Tiger, Barasingha (Swamp Deer), Indian one-horned Rhinoceros etc.


Q. Which river passes through Dudhwa National Park?

A. Suheli and Mohana river passes through Dudhwa National Park.


Q. Why is it called Dudhwa National Park?

A. Dudhwa National Park has big grasslands across Tarai (Terai) belt where the cattles used to graze and the villagers had good Dudh (milk) produce. This is how the place called Dudhwa.


Q. Which is the biggest National Park in UP?

A. Dudhwa National Park is the biggest National Park in Uttar Pradesh.


Q. Dudhwa National Park is famous for which animal?

A. Dudhwa National Park is famous for Bengal Tiger, Barasingha (Swamp Deer), Indian one-horned Rhinoceros etc.


Q. Where is Dudhwa National Park?/Dudhwa National Park is located in the state of?/Dudhwa National Park in which district?

A. Dudhwa National Park is located in Lakhimpur Kheri district of Uttar Pradesh, India.


Q. Dudhwa National Park is located in which belt?

A. The Dudhwa National Park is located in the Terai belt of Uttar Pradesh.


Dudhwa National Park

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