Saturday, April 22, 2023

Valmiki National Park

Valmiki National Park UPSC

Valmiki National Park is a renowned national park located in the state of Bihar, India. The park is named after the ancient sage Valmiki, who is believed to have composed the epic Ramayana in this region.


The park is predominantly covered with tropical deciduous forests, including sal trees, as well as bamboo and grasslands. The park is home to several endangered and rare species, including tigers, Indian rhinoceros, wild elephants, sloth bears, leopards, swamp deer, and many species of deer and primates.


Apart from its rich biodiversity, Valmiki National Park has historical and cultural significance. The park encompasses the Valmiki Ashram, a pilgrimage site associated with the sage Valmiki. It is believed to be the birthplace of Luv and Kush, the twin sons of Lord Rama and Sita, as mentioned in the epic Ramayana.


Table of Contents

  • Valmiki National Park Location
  • Valmiki National Park History
  • Valmiki National Park Area
  • Valmiki National Park Mountains
    • Shivalik Himalaya
  • Valmiki National Park River
    • Gandak River
    • Masan River
    • Harha River
    • Pandai River
    • Manor River
    • Sonha River
    • Pachnad River
    • Bhapsa River
  • Valmiki National Park Tribe
    • Tharu Tribe
    • Dhangar Tribe
  • Valmiki National Park Flora
  • Valmiki National Park Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Butterflies
    • Reptiles
  • Top Things to do in Valmiki National Park
  • Elephant Rescue Centre
  • Valmiki National Park UPSC Questions


Valmiki National Park Location

Valmiki National Park is located in the West Champaran district of Bihar, India. The park encompasses foothill ranges of Shivalik Himalayan. It is situated in the northwestern part of the Bihar state, near the border with Nepal. 


The Valmiki National Park is bordered by the Gandak River to the west and the Chitwan National Park in Nepal to the north. 


The park is approximately 275 kilometers northwest of Patna, the capital city of Bihar.


Valmiki National Park Nearest Airport:

The nearest airport to Valmiki National Park is the Gorakhpur Airport (GOP), located in Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, India. It is approximately 150 kilometers away from the national park. From the airport, you can hire a taxi or take a bus to reach Valmiki National Park.


Valmiki National Park Nearest Railway Station:

The nearest railway station to Valmiki National Park is the Bagaha Railway Station, which is located in Bagaha, Bihar. It is approximately 40 kilometers away from the park. From the railway station, you can hire a taxi or take a local bus to reach Valmiki National Park.




Valmiki National Park History

What is the history of Valmiki National Park?

Valmiki National Park boasts a rich and storied history that traces back to ancient times. Named after the renowned sage Valmiki, the park holds significant cultural and mythological significance. Let us embark on a historical journey through the ages, unraveling the remarkable legacy of Valmiki National Park.


Valmiki and the Epic Ramayana: The origins of Valmiki National Park are deeply intertwined with the legendary sage Valmiki, believed to be the author of the epic Ramayana. According to lore, Valmiki resided in a hermitage nestled within the park's verdant forests. This sacred abode is said to have been a place of enlightenment and spiritual contemplation.


Designation as a Wildlife Sanctuary: In recognition of the park's ecological importance and diverse flora and fauna, the forest area surrounding Valmiki's hermitage was designated as a wildlife sanctuary in 1978. This pivotal moment marked the beginning of focused conservation efforts to protect the park's natural treasures and ensure their preservation for future generations.


Establishment of Valmiki National Park: Building upon its status as a wildlife sanctuary, Valmiki National Park was formally established in 1990. This marked a significant milestone, expanding the park's scope and solidifying its role as a guardian of the region's biodiversity. The establishment of the park served as a testament to its value as a haven for diverse ecosystems and wildlife species.


Declaration as a Tiger Reserve: In a testament to its conservation efforts, Valmiki National Park was declared the 18th Tiger Reserve of India under the prestigious Project Tiger initiative in 1989-90. This recognition showcased the park's crucial role in preserving the endangered Bengal tiger and its habitat, contributing to the broader mission of tiger conservation in the country.



Note- Valmiki National Park is the only National Park and Tiger Reserve in Bihar.




Valmiki National Park Area

Valmiki National Park covers an expansive area, encompassing diverse ecosystems and wildlife habitats. The park spans approximately 898.45 km2 (346.89 sq mi), making it one of the largest national parks of India.


Within this vast expanse, Valmiki National Park boasts a variety of landscapes, including dense forests, rolling hills, riverine grasslands, and marshy areas. These diverse habitats provide a sanctuary for a wide range of flora and fauna, contributing to the park's rich biodiversity.



Plains Bio-Geographic Region: Valmiki National Park is Situated in the Gangetic Plains bio-geographic region.


Valmiki National Park area is managed by the Bihar Forest Department. 




Valmiki National Park Mountains

Valmiki National Park is situated in the foothills of the Shivalik Himalayas and is surrounded by hills, valleys, and plains. The park's landscape is characterized by several prominent hills, which offer stunning views of the surrounding forests and grasslands.


Shivalik Himalaya:

  • It is a mountain range of the outer Himalayas.
  • It stretches over about 2,400 km (1,500 mi) from the Indus River eastwards close to the Brahmaputra River. 
  • It is 10–50 km (6.2–31.1 mi) wide.
  • Its average elevation is1,500–2,000 m (4,900–6,600 ft). 
  • Between the Teesta and Raidāk Rivers in Assam is a gap of about 90 km (56 mi).




Valmiki National Park River

Valmiki National Park is home to several rivers and streams, which flow through the park and provide water to the park's forests and grasslands. 


Gandak, Masan, Pandai, Manor, Harha, Sonha, Pachnad, and Bhapsa river passes through Valmiki National Park. Gandak river forms the western boundary of Valmiki National Park. Harha -Masan River system originates from the Valmiki Forests and forms Gandak River.


(1) Gandak River:

  • The Gandak River originates in the high Himalayas of Nepal and flows southward through the Terai region of Nepal before entering India. 
  • In India, it flows through the states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, before joining the Ganges River near Patna, Bihar.
  • It is a left bank tributary of the Ganges River. 
  • It is also known as the Narayani and the Gandaki.
  • It is approximately 814 km long.


left Bank Tributaries of Gandak River:

  • Trishuli
  • Budhi Gandaki
  • Marshyangdi
  • Madi
  • Seti Gandaki
  • Daraudi
  • Kali Gandaki


Right Bank Tributaries of Gandak River:

  • Badigad River


(2) Masan River:

  • Masan river flow through Valmiki National Park. 
  • It is a tributary of the Gandak River. 


(3) Harha River:

  • Harha river flow through Valmiki National Park. 
  • It is a tributary of the Gandak River. 


(4) Pandai River:

  • Pandai River flow through Valmiki National Park.


(5) Manor River:

  • Manor River flow through Valmiki National Park.


(6) Sonha River:

  • Sonha River flow through Valmiki National Park.


(7) Pachnad River:

  • Pachnad River flow through Valmiki National Park.


(8) Bhapsa River:

  • Bhapsa River flow through Valmiki National Park.




Valmiki National Park Tribe

Valmiki National Park is home to several indigenous tribes, including the Tharu and Dhangar. These tribes have lived in the region for generations and have a deep understanding of the park's ecology and biodiversity.


(1) Tharu Tribe:

  • Tharu Tribe is found in Valmiki National Park landscape.
  • The Tharu tribe is the largest indigenous community in the region of Valmiki National Park.
  • The Tharu people have a rich culture and tradition, and are known for their traditional art, music, and dance forms.
  • The Tharu people are an ethnic group indigenous to the Terai in southern Nepal and northern India.
  • In the Indian Terai, they live foremost in Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. 
  • The Government of India recognizes the Tharu people as a scheduled tribe.



(2) Dhangar Tribe:

  • Dhangar Tribe also found in Valmiki National Park. 
  • Dhangar Tribe comprises four tribes: Oraon, Munda, Lohra and Bhuiya.




Valmiki National Park Flora

What is the flora of Valmiki National Park?

Valmiki National Park is home to a diverse range of flora, owing to its location at the foothills of the Himalayas, and its varied terrain of hills, plains, and riverine ecosystems. 


The vegetation of the Valmiki National Park is a combination of Bhabar and Terai regions. The Park forms the easternmost extent of the Himalayan Terai forests.


Here are some of the notable flora species found in the Valmiki National Park:

  • Moist Mixed Deciduous
  • Sub-mountainous Semi-evergreen
  • Alluvial Grasslands and High Hill Savannah


Trees:

  • Sal
  • Bamboo
  • Semal
  • Teak
  • Sissoo
  • Khair
  • Asan




Valmiki National Park Fauna (Valmiki National Park Animals)

Valmiki National Park is home to a rich and diverse range of fauna, owing to its varied terrain and habitat types. Some of the notable fauna species found in the park are:


Mammals:

  • Bengal Tiger
  • Indian Rhinoceros
  • Asiatic Black Bear
  • Indian Sloth Bear
  • Otter
  • Indian Leopard
  • Wild Dog
  • Wild Water Buffalo
  • Wild Boar
  • Barking Deer
  • Spotted Deer
  • Hog Deer
  • Sambar
  • Blue Bull
  • Striped Hyena
  • Leopard Cat
  • Fishing Cat
  • Langur
  • Monkey
  • Flying Squirrel
  • Clouded Leopard
  • Indian Gaur
  • Mongoose


Birds:

  • Nepal Kalij Pheasant
  • Three-toed Quail
  • Paradise Flycatcher
  • Grey Shrike
  • Green Willow Warbler
  • Tree Pipit
  • White Eye Warbler
  • Green Barbet
  • Waders
  • Ibises
  • Storks
  • Pitta
  • Plovers
  • Snipes
  • Pied Hornbill
  • White-eared Night Heron
  • Emerald Dove


Butterflies:

  • Common Mormon
  • Great Mormon
  • Glassy Tiger
  • Great Eggfly
  • Club Beak
  • Grey Pansy
  • Lime Butterfly
  • Common Crow


Reptiles:

  • Pythons
  • King Cobras
  • Krait
  • Banded Kraits
  • Domuha Snakes (sand boas)
  • Gharial
  • Monitor Lizard




Top Things to do in Valmiki National Park

Valmiki National Park offers visitors a range of activities and experiences to enjoy. Here are some of the top things to do in Valmiki National Park:


  • Wildlife Safari
  • Birdwatching
  • Trekking
  • Village Tour
  • Camping
  • Fishing
  • Nature Walks 
  • Visit Elephant Rescue Centre




Elephant Rescue Centre in Valmiki National Park

State government of Bihar has established an elephant rescue centre at Valmiki National Park. The centre was established to provide medical care and rehabilitation to injured and orphaned elephants in the region.


The centre is operated by the Bihar Forest Department and is located near the park's entrance. 




Valmiki National Park UPSC Questions

Q. What is Valmiki National Park famous for?

A. Valmiki National Park is famous for Tiger Reserve.


Q. For which animal Valmiki National Park is famous?

A. Valmiki National Park is famous for Bengal Tiger.


Q. What is Valmiki National Park also known as?

A. Valmiki National Park is also known as Valmiki Tiger Reserve.


Q. Where is Valmiki National Park?/Valmiki National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary is located at?/Valmiki National Park is located in which state?

A. Valmiki National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary is located at West Champaran district of Bihar, India.


Q. In which year Valmiki National Park established?

Q. Valmiki National Park was established in 1990.


Q. Which national park in Nepal is a continuation of India’s Valmiki National Park?

A. Chitwan National Park of Nepal is the continuation of India’s Valmiki National Park.


Q. Which tribe is found in Valmiki National Park?

A. Tharu tribe and Dhangar tribe are found in Valmiki National Park.


Valmiki National Park

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