Friday, April 28, 2023

Kanha National Park

Kanha National Park UPSC

Kanha National Park, also known as Kanha-Kisli National Park, is a renowned wildlife sanctuary located in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India. It is one of the largest and most well-known tiger reserves in the country, covering an area of approximately 940 square kilometers (363 square miles).


Established in 1955, Kanha National Park was initially set up to protect the endangered species of Barasingha (Swamp Deer). Today, it is not only a crucial conservation area but also a popular tourist destination, attracting nature lovers, wildlife enthusiasts, and photographers from all over the world.


Apart from the rich biodiversity, Kanha National Park also boasts a picturesque landscape with its rolling hills, glistening streams, and enchanting meadows. The park has inspired many nature lovers and writers, most notably Rudyard Kipling, who wrote "The Jungle Book" inspired by the region's beauty and wildlife.


Table of Contents

  • Kanha National Park Location
  • Kanha National Park History
  • Kanha National Park Area
  • Kanha National Park Mountains
    • Maikal Range
    • Satpuras Range
  • Kanha National Park River
    • Banjar River
  • Kanha National Park Tribes
    • Gonda Tribe
    • Baiga Tribe
  • Kanha National Park Flora
    • Sal Forest
    • Mixed Forests
    • Grassland and Meadows
    • Bamboo Groves
    • Wetlands and Streams
  • Kanha National Park Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptiles
  • Barasingha (Swamp Deer)
  • Top Things to do in Kanha National Park
  • Kanha National Park UPSC Questions


Kanha National Park Location

Kanha National Park is located in the Maikal Hills of the Satpura Range in the Mandla and Balaghat districts of Madhya Pradesh, central India. The park is spread across an area that encompasses parts of both districts, with the main entrance being near the village of Khatia. 


It is situated approximately 160 kilometers (99 miles) southeast of Jabalpur, a major city in Madhya Pradesh. 


Kanha National Park Nearest Railway Station:

The nearest railway station to Kanha National Park is Gondia Junction Railway Station, located approximately 145 kilometers (90 miles) away. Gondia Junction is well-connected to major cities in India, including Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, and Chennai, through regular train services.


Kanha National Park Nearest Airport:

The nearest airport to Kanha National Park is Jabalpur Airport, also known as Dumna Airport, located approximately 175 kilometers (109 miles) away. Jabalpur Airport has regular domestic flights connecting to major cities in India, such as Delhi, Mumbai, and Kolkata. From the airport, you can hire a taxi or take a bus to reach Kanha National Park.




Kanha National Park History

The Kanha National Park has a rich history of conservation efforts. Here are the key milestones in the park's history:


Establishment as a Reserve Forest: In 1879, the foundations of what would eventually become Kanha National Park were laid when it was established as a reserve forest. This designation aimed to protect the area's rich flora and fauna, acknowledging the significance of preserving the natural heritage of the region.


Declaration as a Wildlife Sanctuary: Recognizing the need for additional protection, in 1933, the reserve forest was officially declared a wildlife sanctuary. This elevated level of conservation measures aimed to safeguard the park's diverse wildlife population, ensuring their survival and promoting the natural balance of the ecosystem.


Recognition as a National Park: In 1955, the Kanha Wildlife Sanctuary was granted the status of a National Park. This recognition acknowledged its importance as a protected area for India's wildlife and highlighted its ecological significance on a national scale. The reclassification emphasized the need to conserve and manage the park's natural resources effectively.


Declaration as a Tiger Reserve: In 1973, the park achieved yet another milestone when it was declared a tiger reserve under Project Tiger. Project Tiger was a national conservation program initiated in India to safeguard the critically endangered tiger population. Kanha National Park's declaration as a tiger reserve reinforced its role in protecting and conserving these majestic creatures, focusing on their conservation, habitat management, and addressing the threats they faced.




Kanha National Park Area

Kanha National Park is the largest national park of Madhya Pradesh. The park covers an area of approximately 940 square kilometers (363 square miles). The Park area is characterized by its dense forests, grassy meadows, and streams.


Kanha-Kisli National Park is divided into 6 parts of two regions:


(1) Western Ghats Region:

  • Kanha
  • Kisli
  • Sarhi
  • Mukki


(2) Eastern Ghats Region:

  • Bhainsaghat
  • Supkhar




Kanha National Park Mountains

Kanha National Park is located in the Maikal Hills range, which is a part of the Satpura-Maikal landscape in central India. The Maikal Hills are a series of low hills and plateaus that form a part of the Eastern Ghats mountain range.


(1) Maikal Range:

  • The Maikal Range also known as the Maikal Hills or Maikala Range.
  • It is an eastern part of the Satpuras in Kawardha District of Chhattisgarh and Anuppur district of Madhya Pradesh
  • The Maikal Range altitudes range from 340 m to 942 m above sea level
  • The hills are inhabited by two tribal peoples, the Baigas and the Gonds.
  • The hills are known to contain bauxite, an ore for aluminium.


(2) Satpuras Range:

  • The Satpura Range also known as the Satpura Mountains.
  • The Satpura Range is a range of hills in central India. 
  • It rises in eastern Gujarat running east through the border of Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh and ends in Chhattisgarh. 
  • The range extends for about 900 kilometers (560 miles) from west to east.
  • The Narmada River originates from north-eastern end of Satpura in Amarkantak.
  • The Tapti River originates in the eastern-central part of Satpura.




Kanha National Park River

Banjar river is a major river that flow through Kanha National Park. It is an important source of water for the park's wildlife.


Banjar River:

  • The Banjar River also known as the Banjar Nadi.
  • The river originates from the Maikal Hills.
  • It mainly flows through the Mandla and Balaghat districts of Madhya Pradesh.
  • It is a perennial river.
  • Sulkum river, which is locally known as a nullah, is a tributary of the Banjar river. 
  • Banjar river is the tributary of Narmada river.
  • It meets the Narmada river near Maharajpur in Mandla districts of Madhya Pradesh. 




Kanha National Park Tribes

The Kanha National Park is home to several tribal communities who have lived in the region for centuries. The main tribes living in and around the Kanha National Park include the Gond and Baiga. 


(1) Gonda Tribe:

  • The Gonda tribe is an ethnolinguistic group in India. 
  • Gonda Tribe native language is Gondi, which belongs to the Dravidian family. 
  • Gonda Tribe spread over the states of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Assam, Uttarakhand, Arunachal Pradesh, and Odisha.


(2) Baiga Tribe:

  • The Baiga are an ethnic group found in central India.
  • The Baiga Tribe primarily found in the state of Madhya Pradesh 
  • They also found in smaller numbers in the surrounding states of Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand. 
  • The largest number of Baiga is found in Baiga-chuk in Mandla district and Balaghat district of Madhya Pradesh, India. 
  • The Baiga Tribe have sub-castes: Bijhwar, Narotia, Bharotiya, Nahar, Rai maina and Kath maina.




Kanha National Park Flora

Kanha National Park is renowned for its rich and diverse flora, which includes various types of vegetation, trees, and plants. The park's varied ecosystems, consisting of grasslands, meadows, wetlands, and forests, contribute to the remarkable botanical diversity found within its boundaries. 


Here are some notable features of the flora in Kanha National Park:


(1) Sal Forest:

Sal forests are the dominant vegetation type in the Kanha National Park , covering over 70% of the park's total area. The sal trees (Shorea robusta) are the most prominent species in these forests, along with other species such as mahua, amla, and harra. 


(2) Mixed Forests:

Apart from sal forests and bamboo groves, Kanha National Park encompasses mixed forests consisting of other tree species such as tendu, mahua, palash, and semal. These forests add to the overall biodiversity and contribute to the habitat diversity within the park.


(3) Grasslands and Meadows:

Kanha features vast grasslands and meadows known as maidans. These open areas, interspersed with scattered trees, provide important grazing grounds for herbivores like deer, bison, and wild boars. They also serve as the hunting grounds for predators like tigers and leopards.


(4) Bamboo Groves:

Kanha National Park is also known for its extensive bamboo groves. Bamboo plays a vital role in the park's ecosystem, providing food and shelter to a variety of animals, including the endangered Barasingha. The towering bamboo shoots create a distinct and picturesque landscape within the park.


(5) Wetlands and Streams:

The park is dotted with several water bodies, including streams, lakes, and ponds. These wetlands support a variety of aquatic vegetation and provide essential water sources for wildlife. They are also important breeding grounds for amphibians, reptiles, and water birds.




Kanha National Park Fauna (Kanha National Park Animals)

Which animals are found in Kanha National Park?

Kanha National Park is one of the best-known national parks in India and is renowned for its rich and diverse wildlife. The park is home to species of mammals, birds and reptiles.


Mammals:

  • Bengal Tiger
  • Barasingha (Swamp Deer)
  • Indian leopard
  • Dhole
  • Gaur
  • Sloth Bear
  • Bengal Fox
  • Indian Jackal


Birds:

  • Black Ibis
  • Asian Green Bee-eater
  • Cattle Egret
  • Blossom-headed Parakeet
  • Indian Pond Heron
  • Drongo
  • Common Teal
  • Crested Serpent Eagle
  • Indian Grey Hornbill


Reptiles:

  • Indian Rock Python
  • Russel's Viper
  • Monitor Lizard




Barasingha (Swamp Deer) (Mascot of Kanha National Park)

  • Kanha National Park is globally famous for Barasingha.
  • The Barasingha also known as the Swamp deer, 
  • It is a species of deer that is found in the Indian subcontinent. 
  • Barasingha (Swamp deer) is the State animal of Madhya Pradesh.
  • Kanha-Kisli National Park is the first National Park and Tiger Reserve, which released its mascot “Bhoorsingh the Barasingha” in the year 2017.




Top Things to do in Kanha National Park

Kanha National Park is a popular destination for wildlife enthusiasts and nature lovers. Here are some of the top things to do in the park:

  • Wildlife Safari
  • Bird Watching
  • Nature Walks
  • Tribal Village Visits
  • Jungle Camps
  • Nature Photography




Kanha National Park UPSC Questions

Q. Kanha National Park is located in which state?/Where is Kanha National Park located?)

A. Kanha National Park is located in Mandla and Balaghat districts of Madhya Pradesh in India.


Q. What is Kanha National Park known for?

A. Kanha National Park is known for Royal Bengal Tiger and Barasingha (Swamp deer) population.


Q. What is the another name of Kanha National Park?

A. Kanha Kisli National Park is the another name of Kanha National Park.


Q. Which river flows from Kanha National Park?

A. Banjar river flows from Kanha National Park.


Q. What are the 4 zones of Kanha National Park?

A. Kanha-Kisli National Park is divided into 6 parts of two regions:

(1) Western Ghats:

  • Kanha
  • Kisli
  • Sarhi
  • Mukki


(2) Eastern Ghats:

  • Bhainsaghat
  • Supkhar


Q. Which animal is famous in Kanha?

A. Barasingha (Swamp deer) animal is famous in Kanha.


Q. Who is the famous tiger of Kanha National Park?

A. Munna is the famous tiger of Kanha National Park.


Q. Which animal is protected in Kanha National Park?

A. Royal Bengal Tiger and Barasingha (Swamp deer) animal is protected in Kanha National Park.


Q. What type of forest is Kanha National Park?

A. Type of forest in Kanha National Park:

  • The lowland forest- Sal (Shorea robusta) and other mixed forest trees.
  • The highland forests- Tropical moist dry deciduous.


Q. Which animal is called the Jewel of Kanha?

A. Barasingha (Swamp deer) animal is called the Jewel of Kanha.


Q. What are the famous plants in Kanha National Park?

A. Sal, Saja, Lendia, Dhawa, Tendu, Palas, Bija, Mahua, Aonla, Achar and Bamboo etc. are the famous plants in Kanha National Park.


Q. Kanha National Park is famous for which animal?

A. Kanha National Park is famous for Royal Bengal Tiger and Barasingha (Swamp deer).


Kanha National Park

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