Monday, May 29, 2023

Manas National Park

Manas National Park UPSC

Manas National Park is a protected area located in the northeastern state of Assam, India. It is a National Park, UNESCO World Heritage Site, a Biosphere Reserve, an Elephant Reserve and a Tiger reserve in Assam, India. It is known for its rich biodiversity, scenic beauty, and conservation efforts. 


The Manas National Park is situated in the foothills of the Eastern Himalayas. Manas National Park is named after the Manas River, which flows through it. 


Manas National Park is renowned for its diverse range of wildlife, including several endangered and vulnerable species. The park is known for its rare and endangered endemic wildlife such as the Assam Roofed Turtle, hispid hare, golden langur and pygmy hog. Manas is famous for its population of the Wild Water Buffalo.


Table of Contents

  • Manas National Park Location
  • Manas National Park History
  • Manas National Park Area
  • Manas National Park Hills
  • Manas National Park River
    • Manas River
  • Manas National Park Flora
    • Tropical Evergreen Forests
    • Semi-evergreen Forests
    • Alluvial Grasslands
    • Riverine Forests
    • Aquatic Plants
    • Orchids
  • Manas National Park Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptiles
  • Top Things to do in Manas National Park
  • Manas National Park UPSC Questions


Manas National Park Location

Manas National Park is located in the Bongaigaon and Barpeta district of Assam, India. It lies in the western part of Assam, near the border with Bhutan. It is contiguous with Royal Manas National Park in Bhutan. 


Manas National Park Nearest Airport:

Nearest Airport is Lokapriya Gopinath Bordoloi Guwahati Airport (145km).


Manas National Park Nearest Railway Station:

Nearest railway stattion is  Barpeta Road Railway Station(approx 20 kms)




Manas National Park History (Manas National Park Established)

The history of Manas National Park dates back to the early 20th century. Here is a timeline highlighting the key events in the park's history:


Hunting Ground: Previously, the Raja of Gauripur and the royal family of Cooch Behar used this region as a hunting ground.


Reserve Forest: In 1907, The region was declared as the Manas Reserve Forest with the primary objective of protecting the Indian rhinoceros.


Game Sanctuary: In 1928, Manas was declared a game sanctuary under the British government's Forest Act of 1927, primarily to safeguard the rhinoceros population. It was then known as the Manas Game Sanctuary.


Wildlife Sanctuary: In 1950, Manas Game Sanctuary was declared as a Wildlife Sanctuary.


Tiger Reserve: In 1973, Manas Wildlife Sanctuary was designated as a Tiger Reserve under the Project Tiger initiative launched by the Government of India to protect the Bengal tiger.


UNESCO World Heritage Site: In 1985, Manas Wildlife Sanctuary was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It was recognized for its exceptional biodiversity and as an important habitat for several endangered species.


Biosphere Reserve: In 1989, government of India declared Manas as a Biosphere Reserve.


National Park Status: In 1990, Manas Wildlife Sanctuary was declared a National Park, thereby attaining a higher level of protection. The park's name was changed to Manas National Park.


Elephant Reserve: In 2003, Manas was established as an Elephant Reserve under Project Elephant because of its reputation for elephants.


List of World Heritage in Danger: In 2011, Manas National Park was removed from the List of World Heritage in Danger by UNESCO, acknowledging the significant progress made in its conservation and management.


Since then, Manas National Park has been focusing on wildlife conservation, habitat restoration, community participation, and eco-tourism. It remains an important conservation area and a major tourist attraction, showcasing the natural beauty and biodiversity of the region.




Manas National Park Area

Manas National Park covers an expansive area in the state of Assam, India. The park extends across the districts of Bongaigaon and Barpeta. The total area of Manas National Park is approximately 390 square kilometers (150 square miles).


This vast expanse of land encompasses diverse ecosystems, including grasslands, woodlands, alluvial grasslands, and tropical evergreen forests. The varied topography contributes to the park's rich biodiversity and provides habitats for a wide range of plant and animal species.




Manas National Park Hills

Manas National Park is situated in the foothills of the Eastern Himalayas, which lends a picturesque setting to the park. While it primarily comprises lowland areas and grasslands, there are several hills and slopes within the park's boundaries that add to its diverse topography.


The hills in Manas National Park are part of the larger Eastern Himalayan range, which extends across Bhutan, Nepal, and northeastern India. These hills contribute to the overall scenic beauty of the park and provide varied habitats for a range of flora and fauna.


The hills in Manas National Park are covered with dense forests and offer vantage points from where visitors can enjoy panoramic views of the surrounding landscapes. The slopes and valleys between the hills support a variety of plant life, including diverse species of trees, shrubs, and grasses.


The combination of hills, rivers, and forests in Manas National Park creates a unique environment that supports a high level of biodiversity. The hilly terrain provides niches for different species to thrive, making it an important conservation area within the park.




Manas National Park River

Manas National Park named after River Manas that flows through the National Park. It flows through the west of the park. The river divides this National Park into two halves and forms a border with Bhutan. The river is named after the Hindu deity ‘Manasa’, a snake goddess.


Manas River:

Manas National Park is crisscrossed by the Manas River, which is a significant feature of the park and gives it its name. The Manas River is a transboundary river that originates in the Bhutanese Himalayas and flows through the park in Assam, India. It is one of the major tributaries of the Brahmaputra River.


The Manas River plays a crucial role in shaping the landscape and providing water to the park's ecosystem. It meanders through the park, creating a diverse range of habitats along its course. The river's flow supports the growth of lush vegetation, including grasslands, riverine forests, and moist deciduous forests.


The Manas River also acts as a lifeline for the wildlife in the park. It serves as a source of drinking water for animals and supports a rich aquatic ecosystem. Several species of fish, amphibians, and reptiles inhabit the river, contributing to the overall biodiversity of the park.


Moreover, the river serves as a natural boundary between India and Bhutan in some parts of the park. It adds to the scenic beauty of Manas National Park, providing picturesque views and opportunities for river-based activities.




Manas National Park Flora

Manas National Park is known for its rich and diverse flora, with a wide variety of plant species spread across its different ecosystems. 


Here are some notable flora found in Manas National Park:


(1) Tropical Evergreen Forests:

The Manas National Park is home to lush tropical evergreen forests, which are characterized by dense vegetation and a high diversity of plant species. These forests are dominated by tall trees that form a closed canopy, providing shade and shelter to various understory plants and wildlife.


(2) Semi-evergreen Forests: 

The Manas National Park also includes semi-evergreen forests, which consist of a mix of evergreen and deciduous trees. These forests have a diverse range of plant species and provide habitats for a variety of wildlife.


(3) Alluvial Grasslands: 

Manas National Park features extensive grasslands, known as Terai grasslands, which are found along the riverbanks and floodplains. These grasslands support a unique ecosystem and provide grazing habitats for herbivores such as wild buffalo, deer, and elephants.


(4) Riverine Forests:

The areas along the banks of the Manas River and its tributaries are characterized by riverine forests. These forests consist of vegetation adapted to the moist conditions near water bodies and support a diverse array of plant and animal life.


(5) Aquatic Plants:

The water bodies within the Manas National Park, including the Manas River and its tributaries, support various aquatic plants. These include water lilies, lotus, and submerged vegetation, which contribute to the aquatic ecosystem and provide food and shelter for aquatic animals.


(6) Orchids: 

Manas National Park is known for its rich orchid diversity. The park is home to several species of orchids, including rare and endemic varieties. These beautiful flowering plants add to the park's floral diversity and are a treat for nature enthusiasts.



The diverse flora of Manas National Park supports a thriving ecosystem and provides habitat and sustenance for numerous animal species. It contributes to the overall biodiversity and ecological importance of the park.




Manas National Park Fauna (Manas National Park Animals)

Manas National Park is renowned for its diverse and abundant fauna, including several iconic and endangered species. 


Here are some notable fauna found in Manas National Park:


Mammals:

  • Bengal Tiger
  • One-horned Rhinoceros
  • Wild Water Buffalo
  • Pygmy Hog
  • Golden Langur
  • Red panda
  • Asian Elephant
  • Swamp Deer (Barasingha)
  • Barking deer
  • Clouded Leopard
  • Leopard
  • Hoolock Gibbon
  • Hispid Hares
  • Black Panther
  • Capped Langur
  • Chinese Pangolin
  • Assamese Macaques
  • Dholes
  • Gaur
  • Golden Cats
  • Hog Deer
  • Sloth Bear
  • Smooth-coated Otters
  • Indian Pangolin
  • Bengal Fox
  • Indian Porcupine
  • Black Giant Squirrel
  • Golden Jackal


Birds:

  • Bengal Florican 
  • Great Hornbills 
  • Indian Hornbill 
  • Fishing Eagles
  • Brahminy Ducks 
  • Bulbuls 
  • Jungle Fowls
  • Fishing Eagles 
  • Pelicans 
  • Falcons 
  • Pied Hornbills 
  • Bee Eaters 
  • Grey Hornbills 
  • Harriers 
  • Indian Peafowl
  • Herons 
  • Ospreys 
  • Mergansers 
  • Scarlet Minivets
  • Egrets 
  • Magpie Robins 


Reptiles:

  • Assam Roofed Turtle
  • King Cobra 
  • Indian Python 
  • Indian Cobra 
  • Monitor Lizards
  • Fan-throated Lizard




Top Things to do in Manas National Park

When visiting Manas National Park, there are several activities and experiences that you can enjoy to make the most of your trip. 


Here are some top things to do in Manas National Park:


  • Wildlife Safari
  • Birdwatching
  • Nature Walks and Hiking
  • River Rafting
  • Village Visits
  • Butterfly Watching
  • Wildlife Photography
  • Sunset and Sunrise Views
  • Visit Manas Maozigendri Ecotourism Society
  • Relax and Unwind




Manas National Park UPSC Questions

Q. Manas National Park is located in which state?

A. Manas National Park is located in the Bongaigaon and Barpeta district of Assam, India.


Q. Where is Manas National Park?

A. Manas National Park is located in the Bongaigaon and Barpeta district of Assam, India.


Q. Manas National Park is famous for which animal?

A. Manas National Park is famous for Tigers, One-horned Rhinoceros, Wild Water Buffalo, Pygmy Hog, Golden Langur, Red panda, Asian Elephant, Swamp Deer (Barasingha), Bengal Florican, Assam roofed turtle etc. animals.


Q. Manas National Park in which district? (Manas National Park is situated/located in which district?)

A. Manas National Park is located in the Bongaigaon and Barpeta district of Assam, India.


Q. In which year Manas was declared as national park (When Manas was declared as national park?)

A. Manas was declared as a national park in the year of 1990.


Q. Manas National Park named after which river?

A. Manas National Park named after Manas river.


Q. What is the area of Manas National Park?

A. The area of Manas National Park is is approximately 390 square kilometers (150 square miles).


Q. Manas river flows through which national park?

A. Manas river flows through Manas National Park.


Q. Which river flows through Manas National Park?

A. Manas river flows through Manas National Park.


Q. When was Manas National Park established?

A. Manas National Park was established in 1990.


Q. Which animals is mainly found in Manas National Park? (Which animal is protected in Manas National Park?)

A. Bengal Tiger, One-horned Rhinoceros, Wild Water Buffalo, Pygmy Hog, Golden Langur, Red panda, Asian Elephant, Swamp Deer (Barasingha), Bengal Florican, Assam roofed turtle etc, animals is mainly found in Manas National Park.


Q. Is Manas a biosphere reserve or National Park?

A. Manas National Park is both a national park and a biosphere reserve. In recognition of its exceptional biodiversity and ecological significance, Manas National Park was declared a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve in 1989. It was later designated as a national park in 1990. 


Q. In which year Manas park was Recognised as National Park?

A. Manas park was Recognised as National Park in 1990.


Q. What is the old name of Manas National Park?

A. North Kamrup wildlife sanctuary is the old name of Manas National Park.

Manas National Park

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