Friday, June 30, 2023

Manas Tiger Reserve

Manas Tiger Reserve UPSC

Manas Tiger Reserve, also known as Manas National Park, is a wildlife sanctuary located in the Indian state of Assam. Manas is a National Park, UNESCO Natural World Heritage site, a Tiger Reserve, an Elephant Reserve and a Biosphere Reserve.

It is situated at the foothills of the eastern Himalayas and spans an area of approximately 526.22 square kilometers. The reserve is named after the Manas River, which flows through it.

Manas Tiger Reserve is known for its rich biodiversity and is home to a wide variety of plant and animal species. It serves as an important habitat for several endangered and threatened species, including the Royal Bengal tiger, Indian elephant, Indian rhinoceros, pygmy hog, and the critically endangered Bengal florican.

The park offers a diverse range of ecosystems, including grasslands, forests, and wetlands. It is characterized by dense forests of tropical evergreen and deciduous trees, interspersed with grasslands and water bodies. The Manas River, which runs through the reserve, adds to its scenic beauty.

Table of Contents

  • Manas Tiger Reserve Location
  • Manas Tiger Reserve History
  • Manas Tiger Reserve Area
  • Manas Tiger Reserve River
  • Manas Tiger Reserve Flora
  • Manas Tiger Reserve Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptile
  • Top Things to do in Manas Tiger Reserve
  • Manas Tiger Reserve UPSC Questions

Manas Tiger Reserve Location

Manas Tiger Reserve is located in the Kokrajhar, Chirang, Buxa and Udalguri District of Assam, India. It is situated in Himalayan foothills of Assam state.

To the north, it is separated from the Royal Manas National Park of Bhutan by the River Manas and its tributaries- Beki and Hakua; while to the west, it is separated from the Buxa Tiger Reserve of West Bengal by the River Sankosh.

Manas Tiger Reserve Nearest Airport:

The nearest airport to Manas Tiger Reserve is Lokpriya Gopinath Bordoloi International Airport, also known as Guwahati Airport. It is located in Guwahati, the capital city of Assam. The distance between Guwahati Airport and Manas Tiger Reserve is approximately 176 kilometers (109 miles) by road.

Manas Tiger Reserve Nearest Railway Station:

As for the nearest railway station, Barpeta Road Railway Station is the most convenient option for reaching Manas Tiger Reserve. It is located in the town of Barpeta Road, which is about 25 kilometers (16 miles) east of the reserve. From Barpeta Road Railway Station, one can hire a taxi or take a bus to reach the entrance of Manas Tiger Reserve.

Manas Tiger Reserve History

The history of Manas Tiger Reserve dates back to the early 20th century. Here are some key events and milestones in its history:

Reserve Forest (1907): In 1907, Manas was initially declared a Reserve Forest, signifying its recognition as a valuable natural area for wildlife conservation.

Manas Game Sanctuary (1928): The status of Manas elevated in 1928 when it was designated as a Game Sanctuary under the British government's Forest Act of 1927. This move aimed to safeguard the diverse wildlife species found within its boundaries.

Manas Wildlife Sanctuary: In 1950, Manas Game Sanctuary was declared as a Wildlife Sanctuary.

Manas Tiger Reserve (1973): As part of the Project Tiger initiative, Manas Wildlife Sanctuary was declared as Manas Tiger Reserve in 1973. This designation focused on the protection and conservation of the endangered Bengal tiger, along with other wildlife species.

UNESCO World Heritage Site (1985): Manas gained international recognition in 1985 when it was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site (Natural). This acknowledgment was granted due to the reserve's exceptional universal conservation value, highlighting its unique biodiversity and natural heritage.

Biosphere Reserve (1989): The year 1989 witnessed Manas being declared as a Biosphere Reserve by government of India.

National Park (1990): Manas was further elevated in status in 1990 when it was designated as a National Park. This enhanced protection provided stricter regulations and focused efforts on preserving the reserve's pristine ecosystems and wildlife.

Elephant Reserve (2003): Acknowledging the importance of Manas as a habitat for elephants, it was declared as an Elephant Reserve in 2003. This recognition aimed to safeguard the welfare and conservation of these majestic creatures.

Rhino Translocation: One of the notable conservation initiatives in Manas was the successful translocation of Indian rhinoceros from the Kaziranga National Park. Between 2006 and 2012, several rhinos were reintroduced to Manas, contributing to the restoration of the rhino population in the region.

Critical Tiger Habitat (2008): Due to its strategic location in the Eastern Himalayas, Manas Tiger Reserve was identified as a Critical Tiger Habitat in 2008. This designation highlighted its role as a vital corridor for tiger populations in the region.

Tiger Source Site for Conservation (2014): In 2014, Manas was recognized as a Tiger Source Site for Conservation, emphasizing its significance as a site contributing to the conservation and replenishment of tiger populations.

Manas Tiger Reserve Area

Manas Tiger Reserve covers a total area of 2,837.31 square kilometers (1,095.65 square miles), comprising the following components:

Core/Critical Tiger Habitat: The core area of the reserve, designated as the critical tiger habitat, spans 526.22 square kilometers (203.02 square miles). This section focuses on providing a protected and undisturbed environment for the conservation of the endangered Bengal tigers.

Buffer/Peripheral Area: Surrounding the core habitat, the buffer or peripheral area of Manas Tiger Reserve extends across 2,310.88 square kilometers (892.63 square miles). This zone serves as a transition area, allowing for sustainable land use practices and human-wildlife coexistence while supporting the conservation objectives of the reserve.

Thus, when combined, the core and buffer areas form the total area of Manas Tiger Reserve, which amounts to 2,837.31 square kilometers (1,095.65 square miles). This expansive landscape contributes to the conservation of a wide range of flora and fauna, including the flagship species like the Bengal tiger, in addition to providing vital ecological services.

  • Core/critical tiger habitat : 526.22
  • Buffer/peripheral area : 2310.88
  • Total : 2837.31

Manas Tiger Reserve River

Manas Tiger Reserve is traversed by the mighty Manas River, which lends its name to the reserve. The Manas River is a transboundary river that originates in the Black Mountains of Bhutan and flows through the Bhutan-India border before entering the Indian state of Assam. From there, it flows through the heart of Manas Tiger Reserve before joining the Brahmaputra River.

The river meanders through the heart of Manas Tiger Reserve, creating a lifeline for the diverse ecosystems and wildlife within the reserve. It serves as a vital water source, providing hydration to the flora and fauna and shaping the landscape through erosion and deposition processes.

The Manas River enhances the scenic beauty of the reserve, with its clear waters reflecting the surrounding forests and hills. It also acts as a natural barrier, defining the boundaries of the reserve and contributing to the protection of the wildlife within.

The riverine habitat along the Manas River supports a variety of aquatic life, including fish species, amphibians, and reptiles. It also attracts a wide range of bird species, making it a haven for birdwatching enthusiasts.

Additionally, the Manas River plays a significant cultural and historical role in the region. It has been integral to the lives and livelihoods of local communities, supporting fishing, agriculture, and transportation.

Manas Tiger Reserve Flora

The flora of Manas Tiger Reserve exhibits a diverse range of vegetation types, reflecting its location in the eastern Himalayan region and the presence of various habitats within the reserve. The major plant species and vegetation types found in Manas Tiger Reserve include:

(1) Sal Forests (Shorea robusta):

Sal forests dominate the vegetation in the reserve. These forests consist of tall, evergreen trees, with Sal (Shorea robusta) being the dominant species. Sal forests are valuable for timber production and provide important habitat for wildlife.

(2) Scrub Forests:

Scrub forests occur in certain areas of the reserve, characterized by relatively shorter and bushier vegetation. These areas often result from disturbance or regrowth after natural or human-induced events.

(3) Old Plantations:

In the buffer areas of the reserve, there are remnants of old plantations. These areas may consist of introduced tree species or a mix of native and non-native trees.

(4) Semi-Evergreen Forests:

The reserve also encompasses semi-evergreen forests, which feature a mix of deciduous and evergreen tree species. These forests have a diverse composition and are often found in areas with higher moisture levels.

(5) Mixed Deciduous Forests:

Manas Tiger Reserve includes mixed deciduous forests, which consist of a variety of deciduous tree species. These forests shed their leaves seasonally and exhibit a range of colors throughout the year.

(6) Grasslands:

The reserve contains grasslands, including Eastern wet alluvial grasslands and low alluvial savannah woodlands. These areas are characterized by a mixture of grass species and provide important feeding and breeding grounds for herbivores and nesting sites for birds.

(7) Riparian Vegetation:

Along the banks of rivers and streams, riparian fringing forests can be found. These vegetation types are adapted to the specific conditions of the riparian zone and play a vital role in stabilizing riverbanks and providing habitat for a variety of species.

(8) Khair-Sisoo Forests:

Khair (Acacia catechu) and Sisoo (Dalbergia sissoo) forests occur in some parts of the reserve. These tree species are important for timber and are often found in drier areas.

Manas Tiger Reserve Fauna (Manas Tiger Reserve Animals)

Manas Tiger Reserve is renowned for its rich biodiversity and diverse range of fauna. The reserve provides habitat for numerous species, including several endangered and critically endangered ones. Here are some of the notable fauna found in Manas Tiger Reserve:


  • Bengal Tiger
  • Indian Elephants
  • Indian Rhinoceros
  • Wild Water Buffaloes
  • Gaurs
  • Barasingha
  • Indian Leopards
  • Clouded Leopards
  • Asian Golden Cats
  • Jungle Cat
  • Leopard Cat
  • Fishing Cat
  • Marbled Cat
  • Indian Wolf
  • Dholes
  • Golden Jackal
  • Bengal Fox
  • Capped Langurs
  • Golden Langurs
  • Indian Pangolin
  • Chinese Pangolin
  • Wild Boar


  • Bengal Florican
  • Great Hornbill
  • Wreathed Hornbill
  • Slender-billed Vulture 
  • Rufous-necked Hornbill 


  • King Cobra
  • Indian Rock Python
  • Assam Roofed Turtle
  • Monitor Lizards

Top Things to do in Manas Tiger Reserve

  • Wildlife Safari
  • Birdwatching
  • River Safari
  • Nature Walks and Trekking
  • Visit the Ethnic Villages
  • Explore Biodiversity Hotspots
  • Visit Manas National Park
  • Nature Photography
  • Attend Cultural Programs
  • Conservation Education

Manas Tiger Reserve UPSC Questions

Q. Manas Tiger Reserve in which state?/Where is the Manas Tiger Reserve located/situated?

A. Manas Tiger Reserve is located in the Kokrajhar, Chirang, Buxa and Udalguri District of Assam, India.

Q. In which year Manas became Tiger Reserve?/When was Manas declared as tiger Reserve?

A. Manas became Tiger Reserve was declared as a tiger reserve in 1973.

Q. Is Manas a tiger reserve or not?/Is Manas National Park is a tiger reserve?

A. Yes, Manas Tiger Reserve is a designated tiger reserve. It was declared as a tiger reserve in 1973 under the Indian government's Project Tiger initiative. 

Manas Tiger Reserve

No comments:

Post a Comment