Sunday, May 28, 2023

Namdapha National Park

Namdapha National Park UPSC

Namdapha National Park is a large protected area located in the  Arunachal Pradesh, India. It is one of the largest national parks in the country and is known for its rich biodiversity and unique ecosystems. The park is named after the Namdapha River, which flows through its territory.


Namdapha National Park is renowned for its incredible biodiversity. It is home to several rare and endangered species. The park also boasts a wide range of bird species, making it a paradise for birdwatchers.


The Namdapha National Park's vegetation is incredibly diverse, featuring tropical evergreen forests, bamboo groves, and alpine meadows. The forest canopy is thick and provides habitat for numerous species of plants, mammals, birds, and insects.


Table of Contents

  • Namdapha National Park Location
  • Namdapha National Park History
  • Namdapha National Park Area
  • Namdapha National Park Hills
    • Dapha Bum
    • Deban Hill
    • Patang Peak
    • Jairampur Hills
  • Namdapha National Park River
    • Noa-Dihing River
    • Namdapha River
    • Diyun River
    • Dapha River
    • Deban River
  • Namdapha National Park Lake
    • Moti Jheel
  • Namdapha National Park Tribe
    • Tangsa
    • Singpho
    • Lisu
    • Chakma
  • Namdapha National Park Flora
    • Broadleaf Evergreen Forests
    • Bamboo Groves
    • Medicinal Plants
    • Orchids
    • Alpine Meadows
  • Namdapha National Park Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptiles
    • Amphibians
    • Insects
      • Butterflies
  • Top Things to do in Namdapha National Park
  • Namdapha National Park UPSC Questions


Namdapha National Park Location

Namdapha National Park is located in the Changlang district of Arunachal Pradesh, in northeastern India. It is situated in the eastern Himalayan ranges and shares its borders with Myanmar (Burma) in the east. The park is nestled in the easternmost part of the state, close to the border with Myanmar. 


The park is bordered by the Dapha and Noa Dihing rivers on the north and south respectively. 


Namdapha National Park Nearest Airport:

  • Dibrugarh Airport (182 km)


Namdapha National Park Nearest Railway Station:

  • Margherita Railway Station,  Assam  (91 km)
  • Tinsukia Railway Station, Assam (141 km)




Namdapha National Park History (Namdapha National Park Established)

Namdapha National Park has a rich history that dates back to the early 20th century. Here's a brief overview of its historical background:


Exploration and Initial Recognition: In the early 20th century, British naturalists and explorers, including Reginald H. Craddock and C. T. White, ventured into the region and recognized its ecological significance. Craddock, in particular, explored the area extensively and documented the diverse flora and fauna.


Establishment as a Wildlife Sanctuary: In 1972, the Indian government declared the Namdapha region as a wildlife sanctuary to protect its unique biodiversity and ecological importance. The sanctuary initially covered an area of about 1,985 square kilometers (766 square miles).


Conversion into a National Park: In 1983, the Namdapha Wildlife Sanctuary was upgraded to a national park, primarily to enhance the conservation and protection measures in the area. The park was named "Namdapha National Park" after the Namdapha River that flows through its territory.


Tiger Reserve: In 1983, it was declared a Tiger Reserve by the Government. It is country's 15th tiger reserve under the Project Tiger Scheme of the Government of India.


UNESCO World Heritage Site: In 1986, Namdapha National Park was included in the tentative list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The park's unique biodiversity, including its representation of both the Indian and Indo-Chinese biogeographic realms, contributes to its significance as a potential World Heritage Site.




Namdapha National Park Area

Namdapha National Park covers an area of approximately 1,985 square kilometers (766 square miles). It is one of the largest national parks in India and is known for its vast expanse of diverse ecosystems and rich biodiversity.


The Namdapha National Park is situated in the eastern Himalayan ranges and is characterized by its varied terrain, ranging from lowland rainforests to high mountains. The altitudes within Namdapha National Park vary from 200 meters (660 feet) to 4,500 meters (14,800 feet) above sea level.


The park's vast area encompasses a range of vegetation types, including tropical evergreen forests, bamboo groves, and alpine meadows. The thick forest canopy provides habitat for a wide variety of plant and animal species.


Due to its large size and diverse habitats, Namdapha National Park supports an impressive array of wildlife, including several endangered and rare species. It is home to animals like the snow leopard, clouded leopard, Bengal tiger, Asian elephant, Hoolock gibbon, and many more.




Namdapha National Park Hills

Namdapha National Park is located in the eastern Himalayan ranges, which are known for their scenic hills and mountains. The park itself is characterized by its diverse terrain, including both lowland areas and higher elevation hills. 


The park is located between the Dapha bum range of the Mishmi Hills and the Patkai range with a wide elevation range between 200 and 4,571 m (656 and 14,997 ft) in the North Eastern Himalayas.


Here are some prominent hills within or near Namdapha National Park:


(1) Dapha Bum:

Dapha Bum is one of the prominent hills located within Namdapha National Park. It is situated in the northeastern part of the park and offers stunning panoramic views of the surrounding landscape.


(2) Deban Hill: 

Deban Hill is another notable hill within the national park. It is located near the park's entrance at Deban and provides a vantage point to observe the lush forests and the convergence of two rivers, Noa-Dihing and Namdapha.


(3) Patang Peak:

Patang Peak is a picturesque hill located near the northern boundary of Namdapha National Park. It is known for its scenic beauty and is a popular spot for trekking and nature enthusiasts.


(4) Jairampur Hills: 

Although not within the national park boundaries, Jairampur Hills are located in close proximity to Namdapha National Park. These hills offer breathtaking views and serve as a gateway to the park.




Namdapha National Park River

Namdapha National Park is home to several rivers and streams that flow through its territory, contributing to the park's rich biodiversity and scenic beauty. 


Here are some notable rivers in and around Namdapha National Park:


(1) Noa-Dihing River:

The Noa-Dihing River is one of the major rivers that flows through Namdapha National Park. It originates in the Patkai Hills of Arunachal Pradesh and passes through the park, offering picturesque views and serving as a vital water source for the diverse flora and fauna within the park. The Noa-Dehing river, is a tributary of the Brahmaputra and flows in a North-South direction in the middle of the national park.


(2) Namdapha River:

The Namdapha River, after which the national park is named, also flows through the park's territory. It is a tributary of the Noa-Dihing River and adds to the scenic beauty of the area.


(3) Diyun River:

 It is a very small seasonal river that flow through Namdapha National Park.


(4) Dapha River:

Dapha is a small river that flow through Namdapha National Park.


(5) Deban River:

The Deban River is a smaller river that flows near the entrance of Namdapha National Park at Deban. It is known for its crystal-clear water and is often frequented by wildlife and birds.




Namdapha National Park Lake

Moti Jheel:

There is a small lake called Moti Jheel located within Namdapha National Park in Arunachal Pradesh, India. Moti Jheel is also known as the "Emerald Lake" due to its shimmering blue-green waters.


Moti Jheel is a natural lake nestled amidst the dense forests and hilly terrain of Namdapha National Park. It is a picturesque spot offering a tranquil environment and scenic beauty. The lake is surrounded by lush vegetation and provides a peaceful retreat for visitors.




Namdapha National Park Tribe

Namdapha National Park is located in the northeastern state of Arunachal Pradesh, India, which is known for its rich cultural diversity and the presence of various indigenous tribes. The region surrounding Namdapha National Park is home to several tribes, each with their distinct customs, traditions, and languages. 


Here are some of the major tribes found in the vicinity of Namdapha National Park:


(1) Tangsa:

The Tangsa tribe is one of the prominent ethnic groups residing in the region. They are primarily found in the Changlang district, where Namdapha National Park is located. The Tangsa people are known for their unique culture, traditional attire, and agricultural practices.


(2) Singpho: 

The Singpho tribe is another significant tribal community in the area. They have a rich history and cultural heritage. Traditionally, the Singpho people were known for their expertise in tea cultivation, and their cuisine reflects their close connection to tea.


(3) Lisu: 

The Lisu tribe is found in the border regions of Arunachal Pradesh and Myanmar. They have their own distinct language, customs, and traditional beliefs. The Lisu people are skilled in handicrafts, such as weaving and bamboo craft.


(4) Chakma: 

The Chakma tribe is an indigenous community mainly residing in the Changlang district. They have a unique language and rich cultural heritage, with a strong influence from Buddhism. Chakma community residing in the northwestern periphery of Namdapha national Park.



These are just a few examples of the tribes present in the vicinity of Namdapha National Park. There are several other tribes, including the Khampti, Nocte, and Wancho, among others, each contributing to the cultural diversity of the region. 


The local tribes have a close connection with the natural environment and play a significant role in the conservation efforts and sustainable practices in and around Namdapha National Park.




Namdapha National Park Flora

Namdapha National Park is renowned for its rich and diverse flora, thanks to its varied ecosystems and altitudinal range. The park's vegetation consists of a wide array of plant species, including tropical evergreen forests, bamboo groves, and alpine meadows. 


The Namdapha National Park is divided into three distinct vegetation zones: the sub-tropical zone, the temperate zone and the alpine zone.


Here are some notable flora found in Namdapha National Park:


(1) Broadleaf Evergreen Forests: 

The lower elevations of Namdapha National Park are characterized by lush broadleaf evergreen forests. These forests are home to a variety of tree species, including Dipterocarps, Castanopsis, Magnolia, Canarium, and Symplocos. The dense canopy provides shelter to a plethora of plants, birds, and animals.


(2) Bamboo Groves: 

Bamboo forms a significant component of the vegetation in Namdapha National Park. Various species of bamboo, such as Melocanna bambusoides, Bambusa tulda, and Dendrocalamus strictus, are found in the park. These bamboo groves provide food, shelter, and nesting sites for numerous wildlife species.


(3) Medicinal Plants: 

The Namdapha National Park is home to a wide range of medicinal plants used by local communities for traditional healing practices. Plants such as Aconitum ferox, Dioscorea deltoidea, Rauvolfia serpentina, and many others have medicinal properties and are of cultural importance to the local tribes.


The most famous local medicinal plant Mishimi Teeta (Copti teeta), which is used by the local tribal for all kinds of diseases is found in the park.


(4) Orchids:

Namdapha National Park is particularly famous for its rich orchid diversity. It is estimated that the park is home to over 600 species of orchids, including rare and endemic varieties. Orchids like Dendrobium, Vanda coerulea (Blue Vanda), Coelogyne, and Cymbidium can be found in the park's forests, adding to its floral beauty.


Vanda coerulea (Blue Vanda) one of the rarest and endangered orchids.


(5) Alpine Meadows:

At higher elevations, Namdapha National Park features alpine meadows characterized by a variety of grasses, sedges, and herbaceous plants. These meadows showcase a different kind of flora compared to the lower altitude forests, adapting to the colder climate and harsh conditions.




Namdapha National Park Fauna (Namdapha National Park Animals)

Namdapha National Park is renowned for its rich and diverse fauna, boasting a wide range of animal species, including several rare and endangered ones. The park's varied ecosystems, ranging from tropical evergreen forests to alpine meadows, support a remarkable biodiversity. 


Namdapha National Park is the largest protected area in the Eastern Himalaya biodiversity hotspotIt is only park in the World to have the four Feline species of big cat namely the Tiger (Panthera Tigris), Leopard (Panthera Pardus), Snow Leopard (Panthera Uncia) and Clouded Leopard (Neofelis Nebulosa).


The Namdapha National Park is also famous for Critically Endangered species like the Namdapha flying squirrel. Hoolock Gibbons, the only ‘ape’ species found in India is found in this National Park. Hoolock Gibbons (Hylobates Hoolock) is a endangered species and only ‘ape’ species found in India.


Here are some notable fauna found in Namdapha National Park:


Mammals:

  • Bengal Tiger (Panthera Tigris)
  • Leopard (Panthera Pardus)
  • Snow Leopard (Panthera Uncia)
  • Clouded Leopard (Neofelis Nebulosa) 
  • Hoolock Gibbons (Hylobates Hoolock)
  • Namdapha Flying Squirrel
  • Assamese Macaque
  • Pig-tailed Macaque
  • Stump-tailed Macaque
  • Asian Elephant
  • Dhole (Indian Wild Dog)
  • Malayan Sun Bear
  • Gaur (Indian Bison)
  • Asiatic Black Bear
  • Takin
  • Red Panda


Birds:

  • White-winged Duck (Endangered Species)
  • Sclater's Monal
  • Blyth's Tragopan
  • Great Hornbill
  • Rufous-necked Hornbill
  • Wreathed Hornbill
  • White-cheeked Partridge
  • Himalayan Wood Owl


Reptiles:  

  • King Cobra
  • Indian Python
  • Reticulated Python
  • Green Pit Viper
  • Skinks
  • Geckos


Amphibians:

  • Namdapha Flying Frog
  • Himalayan Newt
  • Torrent Frog


Insects: 

Namdapha National Park is a haven for insect enthusiasts, with an abundance of butterflies, moths, beetles, and other insects. The park's diverse flora supports a thriving insect population.


Butterflies:

  • Koh-i-noor
  • Naga treebrown
  • Red caliph
  • Cruiser
  • Wizard
  • Fluffy tit
  • East Himalayan Purple Emperor




Top Things to do in Namdapha National Park

Namdapha National Park offers a range of activities and experiences for nature enthusiasts and adventure seekers. 


Here are some of the top things to do in Namdapha National Park:


  • Wildlife Safari
  • Birdwatching
  • Visit Moti Jheel
  • Explore Miao
  • Trekking
  • Camping
  • Visit Indigenous Villages
  • Deban (Forest Camp)
  • Visit Firmbase (Popular Camping Site) 
  • Visit Haldibari (Camping Spot)
  • Visit Gandhigram




Namdapha National Park UPSC Questions

Q. Namdapha National Park is located/situated in which state?

A. Namdapha National Park is located in the Arunachal Pradesh, India.


Q. Namdapha National Park is famous for which animal? (What is Namdapha National Park famous?)

A. Namdapha National Park is famous for Bengal Tiger, Snow Leopard, Clouded Leopard, Hoolock Gibbons, Namdapha Flying Squirrel, White-winged Duck, Namdapha Flying Frog etc. animals.


Q. Where is Namdapha National Park?

A. Namdapha National Park is located in the Changlang district of Arunachal Pradesh, in northeastern India.


Q. Namdapha National Park is situated in which hills?

A. Namdapha National Park is situated in Dapha Bum and Deban Hill.


Q. Namdapha National Park is located in which district?

A. Namdapha National Park is located in the Changlang district of Arunachal Pradesh.


Q. When was established Namdapha National Park?

A. In 1983, Namdapha National Park was established.


Q. Namdapha National Park is situated in which district of Arunachal Pradesh?

A. Namdapha National Park is situated in Changlang district of Arunachal Pradesh.


Q. Which state has Namdapha National Park?

A. Arunachal Pradesh


Q. Is Namdapha National Park located in Dafla Hills? (Namdapha National Park Dafla Hills)

A. Namdapha National Park is not located in Dafla Hills. It is located  between the Dapha bum range of the Mishmi Hills and the Patkai range.

Namdapha National Park

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