Friday, April 5, 2024

Panna National Park

Panna National Park UPSC

Panna National Park is a wildlife reserve located in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India. The topography of the park consists of plateaus, gorges, and dense forests, with the Ken River flowing through it.

Panna National Park is one of the most important tiger reserves in India and is a part of the Panna Tiger Reserve. The park is renowned for its efforts in conserving and protecting the Royal Bengal Tigers, which were once on the verge of extinction in this region.

Table of Contents

  • Panna National Park Location
  • Panna National Park History
  • Panna National Park Area
  • Panna National Park Hills
    • Vindhya Mountain Range
  • Panna National Park River
    • Ken River
    • Raneh Falls
  • Panna National Park Lake
    • Gangau Reservoir
  • Panna National Park Flora
  • Panna National Park Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptiles
  • Panna National Park UPSC Questions

Panna National Park Location

Panna National Park is located in Panna and Chhatarpur districts of Madhya Pradesh in India. The park is situated on the banks of the Ken River, in the Vindhya mountain range. 

It is situated near the town of Panna, which is approximately 57 kilometers (35 miles) from the city of Khajuraho.

Panna National Park Nearest Airport:

The nearest airport to Panna National Park is the Khajuraho Airport, also known as Civil Aerodrome Khajuraho. It is located in Khajuraho, which is about 57 kilometers (35 miles) away from the park. The airport has regular flights connecting it to major cities in India, such as Delhi, Mumbai, and Varanasi.

Panna National Park Nearest Railway Station:

The nearest railway station is Khajuraho railway station which is approximately 40 kms away from the park. The nearest major railway junction is Satna Railway Junction which is 75kms away. 

By Road:

Visitors can also access the Panna National Park by road, as it is well-connected to major cities in Madhya Pradesh and neighboring states. Panna is located on National Highway 39 which starts from Jhansi (Uttar Pradesh) and ends to Ranchi (Chhattisgarh).

Panna National Park History

1. Hunting Preserves for Princely States: The reserved forests of the Panna National Park area were once hunting preserves for the former princely states of Panna, Chhatrapur, and Bijawar. These forests were utilized by the rulers for hunting expeditions and game reserves.

2. Establishment of Panna National Park: In 1981, Panna National Park was established as a wildlife reserve. The park was created to conserve the rich biodiversity and natural habitats present in the region.

3. Designation as Tiger Reserve: In 1994, Panna National Park was designated as India's 22nd tiger reserve and the 5th in the state of Madhya Pradesh. This recognition highlighted the significance of the park in protecting the endangered Royal Bengal Tigers and their habitat.

4. Award of Excellence: In 2007, Panna National Park received the prestigious Award of Excellence as the best-maintained national park in India from the Ministry of Tourism of India. This recognition highlighted the park's efforts in conservation and management practices.

5. Notification as Biosphere Reserve: In 2011, Panna National Park was notified as a Biosphere Reserve by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEF), Government of India. This designation emphasized the park's ecological importance and its role in maintaining the delicate balance of ecosystems.

6. Designation as UNESCO Biosphere Reserve: In 2020, Panna was designated as a Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO. The designation encompasses Panna National Park, three sections of the Gangau Wildlife Sanctuary (I, III, and IV), and the reserved and protected forests of the North Panna Forest Division. This recognition further highlights the park's significance in terms of biodiversity conservation and sustainable development.

Panna National Park Area

Panna National Park covers an area of 542.67 km2 (209.53 sq mi). The landscape of Panna National Park is characterized by green forests, rolling hills, and deep valleys.

The Panna National Park consists of areas from the former Gangau Wildlife Sanctuary created in 1975. This Gangau Wildlife Sanctuary comprised of territorial forests of the present North and South Panna Forest Division to which a portion of the adjoining Chhatarpur forest division was added later. 

Panna National Park Hills

Panna National Park is situated in the Vindhya mountain range, and the terrain of the park is characterized by rocky hills, plateaus, and gorges. 

Panna National Park River

Panna National Park is situated on the banks of the Ken River, which is a major river in central India. The river flows through the park, creating several waterfalls, rapids, and gorges, and is an important source of water for the park's wildlife. 

The Ken River is called the lifeline of the Panna National Park. It flows through the park for a distance of approximately 55 kilometers, providing a diverse range of habitats for the park's wildlife.

(1) Ken River:

Ken river originates near the village Ahirgawan on the north-west slopes of Barner Range in Katni district of Madhya Pradesh. It flows through the states of Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. Ken river is a tributary of the Yamuna. It travels a distance of 427 km (265 mi), before merging with the Yamuna at Chilla village, district Banda in Uttar Pradesh. 

It flows for 292 kilometres (181 mi) in Madhya Pradesh, 84 kilometres (52 mi) in Uttar Pradesh, and 51 kilometres (32 mi) forms the boundary between the two states. Ken river tributaries are Bawas, Dewar, Kaith and Baink on the left bank, and Kopra and Bearma of the right. The Raneh Falls and Ken Ghariyal Sanctuary are loacated on Ken river. 

(2) Raneh Falls:

  • Raneh Falls emerges from the confluence of the Ken and Khuddar rivers.
  • It is one of the most prominent waterfalls in the Panna forest area. 
  • It is the only waterfall in Asia having igneous rock.

Panna National Park Lake

Panna National Park is not known for any natural lakes within its boundaries. However, there is a man-made lake called Gangau Reservoir, which is located near the park's entrance and is an important source of water for the park's wildlife.

Gangau Reservoir:

  • It is located at the confluence of Ken and Simiri rivers.
  • The reservoir covers an area of approximately 325 hectares.
  • It was built between 1909 - 1915.

Panna National Park Flora

Panna National Park is home to a diverse range of flora. The vegetation in the park includes tropical dry deciduous forests, tropical moist deciduous forests, and tropical thorn forests, each with its own unique set of plant species.

Some of the major tree species found in Panna National Park include the teak, sal, jamun, mahua, tendu, and flame of the forest. These trees provide important habitats and food sources for the park's wildlife.

The Panna National Park is also home to several species of grasses and shrubs, including the chrysanthemum, grass pea, Indian gooseberry, and Indian coral tree. These species provide important food and shelter for a variety of herbivorous and omnivorous animals.

Additionally, the Panna National Park has several species of medicinal plants, such as the amla, arjun, and bel, which are traditionally used for their medicinal properties. The park also has several species of orchids, ferns, and climbers that add to the scenic beauty of the park.

Panna National Park Fauna (Panna National Park Animals)

Panna National Park is home to a rich diversity of wildlife, including several endangered species. The park is known for its tigers, which were reintroduced to the park in 2009 after a local extinction in 2006.


  • Bengal Tiger
  • Indian Leopard
  • Chital
  • Chinkara
  • Nilgai
  • Sambar Deer
  • Sloth Bear
  • Rusty-spotted Cat
  • Asian Palm Civet


  • White Necked Stork
  • Bareheaded Goose
  • Honey Buuzzard
  • Blossom Headed Parakeet
  • Paradise Flycatcher
  • Slaty Headed Scimitar Babbler
  • Crested Honey Buzzard
  • Changeable Hawk-eagle
  • Red-headed Vulture
  • Indian Vulture


  • Indian Rock Python
  • Mugger Crocodile
  • Monitor Lizard
  • Indian Cobra
  • Russell's Viper
  • Indian Flapshell Turtle

Panna National Park UPSC Questions

Q. Where is the Panna National Park?/Panna National Park is located in which state?/Where is Panna National Park is situated?/Panna National Park in which district?

A. Panna National Park is located in Panna and Chhatarpur districts of Madhya Pradesh, India. 

Q. Panna National Park is famous for which animal?

A. Panna National Park is famous for Tigers.

Q. Which river flows through Panna National Park?/Panna National Park is located in which river?

A. Ken river flows through Panna National Park.

Q. When was Panna National Park established?

A. Panna National Park was established in 1981.

Panna National Park

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