Friday, July 12, 2024

Panna Tiger Reserve

Panna Tiger Reserve UPSC

The Panna Tiger Reserve is a national park and tiger reserve located in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India. It is renowned for its rich biodiversity and is home to several endangered species, including the Royal Bengal tiger, which is the main attraction of the reserve. 

The reserve has played a significant role in the conservation of tigers, as it was successful in reintroducing tigers into the area after the local population had been wiped out.

Table of Contents

  • Location
  • History
  • Area
  • Hills
  • River
  • Flora
  • Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptiles
  • UPSC Questions

Panna Tiger Reserve Location

Panna Tiger Reserve is located in Panna and Chhatarpur districts of Madhya Pradesh, India. It is nestled in the Vindhya Hills and is spread along the banks of the Ken River.

The reserve is approximately 32 kilometers (20 miles) from the town of Khajuraho, which is famous for its ancient temples and is a popular tourist destination. 

Nearest Airport:

The nearest airport to Panna Tiger Reserve is the Khajuraho Airport. It is located approximately 40 kilometers (25 miles) away from the reserve. Khajuraho Airport has regular domestic flights connecting it to major cities in India.

Nearest Railway Station:

The nearest railway station to Panna Tiger Reserve is the Khajuraho Railway Station, also known as the Khajuraho Railway Junction. It is located approximately 40 kilometers (25 miles) away from the reserve.

Panna Tiger Reserve History

The history of Panna Tiger Reserve is closely tied to the conservation efforts and the challenges faced in protecting its wildlife. Here is an overview of the significant events and milestones in the history of Panna Tiger Reserve:

1. Hunting Preserves: The reserved forests of the Panna Tiger Reserve was once the hunting preserves of the erstwhile rulers of Panna, Chhatarpur and Bijawar princely states in the past.

2. Formation: Panna National Park, which later became Panna Tiger Reserve, was established in 1981. It was initially spread over an area of 543 square kilometers (210 square miles) and was primarily created to protect the wildlife and habitats of the region. The National Park consists of areas from the former Gangau Wildlife Sanctuary.

3. Tiger Reserve Status: In 1994, Panna National Park was declared a Tiger Reserve by Government of India. It is 22nd tiger reserve of India and the 5th tiger reserve in Madhya Pradesh.

4. Decline in Tiger Population: In the early 2000s, Panna Tiger Reserve faced a severe setback when its entire tiger population was wiped out due to poaching and other factors. By 2009, there were no tigers left in the reserve.

5. Tiger Reintroduction Program: In 2009, a major initiative was undertaken to reintroduce tigers into Panna Tiger Reserve. Tigers from other reserves, including Bandhavgarh National Park and Kanha Tiger Reserve, were translocated to Panna in an effort to restore the tiger population.

6. Conservation Success: The tiger reintroduction program at Panna Tiger Reserve has been considered a success. Over the years, the tiger population has shown significant growth and stability. The reserve has become an important tiger conservation area in India.

7. Recognition and Awards: Panna Tiger Reserve has received recognition for its conservation efforts. It was awarded the "Best Maintained Tourist-Friendly National Park" by the Ministry of Tourism, Government of India, in 20007.

8. Biosphere Reserve: In 2011, Panna Tiger Reserve core area declared a Biosphere Reserve by Government of India. It encompasses Panna National Park, three sections of the Gangau Wildlife Sanctuary and the reserved and protected forests of the North Panna Forest Division.

9. UNESCO Biosphere Reserve: In 2020, Panna Biosphere Reserve recognized by UNESCO. This designation aims to promote the conservation of the area's biodiversity and ecosystems.

Panna Tiger Reserve Area

The Panna Tiger Reserve covers an area of approximately 576.13 square kilometers (222.67 square miles). This area includes the core/critical tiger habitat as well as the buffer zone.

  • Core/Critical Tiger Habitat : 576.13 sq km
  • Buffer : 1002.42 sq km
  • Total : 1578.55 sq km

Core/Critical Tiger Habitat: The core or critical tiger habitat within the Panna Tiger Reserve spans an area of 576.13 square kilometers (222.67 square miles).

Buffer Zone: The buffer zone of the Panna Tiger Reserve covers an area of 1002.42 square kilometers (387.52 square miles). The buffer zone acts as a transitional area between the core tiger habitat and the surrounding human settlements. It aims to provide additional protection to the reserve and mitigate human-wildlife conflicts.

Panna Tiger Reserve Hills

The Panna Tiger Reserve is located in the Vindhya Hills of central India. These hills are a prominent geographical feature of the region and form a part of the larger Vindhya Range. The reserve is nestled amidst these hills, which add to the scenic beauty and natural landscapes of the area. 

Panna Tiger Reserve River

The Panna Tiger Reserve is bordered by the Ken River, which flows through the region. The Ken River is a major watercourse in central India and plays a significant role in shaping the ecosystem of the reserve. 

The Ken River serves as a lifeline for the wildlife in the Panna Tiger Reserve, providing a source of water for drinking. It also supports a variety of aquatic species and acts as a vital corridor for wildlife movement within the reserve.

The river offers opportunities for boat safaris and other recreational activities, allowing visitors to explore the reserve from a unique perspective. 

Panna Tiger Reserve Flora (Panna Tiger Reserve Forest)

What type of forest is Panna Tiger Reserve?

The Panna Tiger Reserve is known for its rich and diverse flora, with a variety of vegetation types found within its boundaries. The reserve encompasses a range of ecosystems, including deciduous forests, grasslands, and riverine forests. 

Here are some of the prominent flora species found in the Panna Tiger Reserve:

Teak (Tectona grandis): Teak trees are dominant in the reserve and form significant portions of the forests. Known for their high-quality timber, teak trees provide shade and habitat for various wildlife species.

Sal (Shorea robusta): Sal trees are another prominent species in the reserve's forests. These large and majestic trees are an important component of the deciduous forest ecosystem, providing shelter and food for numerous animals.

Jamun (Syzygium cumini): Jamun trees are common in the Panna Tiger Reserve and are characterized by their dark purple edible fruits. They are an important food source for birds and other animals.

Mahua (Madhuca longifolia): Mahua trees are found in abundance in the reserve and bear fragrant flowers and edible fruits. The flowers are used to make traditional alcoholic beverages and the tree serves as a food source for animals.

Bamboo: Several species of bamboo are found in the reserve, such as Dendrocalamus strictus and Bambusa arundinacea. Bamboo provides habitat, food, and nesting materials for various species, including birds and primates.

Grasslands: Panna Tiger Reserve also features grasslands and meadows, which are important for herbivores like deer and antelopes. These grasslands support a variety of grass species and contribute to the overall biodiversity of the reserve.

Apart from these prominent species, the reserve is home to a wide range of other plant species, including climbers, shrubs, and medicinal plants. 

Panna Tiger Reserve Fauna (Panna Tiger Reserve Animals)

The Panna Tiger Reserve is home to a diverse range of fauna, including several iconic and endangered species. Here are some of the notable wildlife species found within the reserve:


  • Royal Bengal Tiger
  • Indian leopard
  • Sloth Bear
  • Rusty-spotted Cat
  • Asian Palm Civet
  • Chital (Spotted Deer)
  • Chinkara
  • Sambar Deer 
  • Nilgai
  • Indian Wolf


  • Changeable Hawk-eagle
  • Indian Vulture
  • Bar-headed Goose
  • Crested Honey Buzzard
  • Red-headed Vulture
  • Blossom-headed Parakeet


  • Indian Python
  • Indian Cobra
  • Russell’s Viper
  • Common Krait
  • Mugger Crocodile

Panna Tiger Reserve UPSC Questions

Q. Where is Panna Tiger Reserve situated?/Panna Tiger Reserve is located in which state?

A. Panna Tiger Reserve is located in Panna and Chhatarpur districts of Madhya Pradesh, India.

Q. In which range is Panna Tiger Reserve?

A. Panna Tiger Reserve is located in Vindhyan Range in northern Madhya Pradesh, India.

Q. Which river flows/passes from Panna Tiger Reserve?

A. Ken river flows/passes from Panna Tiger Reserve.

Q. Is Panna is a tiger reserve?

A. Yes, Panna is a tiger reserve. Panna Tiger Reserve, also known as Panna National Park, is located in the Panna and Chhatarpur districts of Madhya Pradesh, India. 

Q. Local extinction of tigers in Panna Tiger Reserve happened in which year?

A. The local extinction of tigers in Panna Tiger Reserve occurred in the year 2009. The reserve faced a severe setback when the entire tiger population was wiped out due to poaching and other factors. However, subsequent efforts were made to reintroduce tigers into the reserve, and the population has shown significant growth and stability since then. The successful reintroduction program has restored the presence of tigers in Panna Tiger Reserve and contributed to its status as a significant tiger conservation area in India.

Q. How many tigers in Panna Tiger Reserve?

A. According to reports, the reserve is home to approximately 80 to 85 tigers. 

Q. What is Panna Tiger Reserve famous for?/Why is Panna Tiger Reserve famous?

A. Panna Tiger Reserve is famous for several reasons, making it a renowned and significant destination in India. Here are some of the notable aspects for which Panna Tiger Reserve is famous:

  • Royal Bengal Tigers
  • Biodiversity
  • River Ken
  • Landscape and Scenic Beauty
  • Wildlife Safaris
  • Cultural Heritage

Panna Tiger Reserve

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