Friday, May 5, 2023

Satpura National Park

Satpura National Park UPSC

Satpura National Park is a well-known national park located in the central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. It is part of the larger Satpura Range and covers an area of approximately 524 square kilometers (202 square miles). 


Established in 1981, Satpura National Park is one of the prime tiger reserves in India and is renowned for its rich biodiversity and scenic beauty.


Satpura National Park is a core part of the Satpura Tiger Reserve, which is spread across an extensive area. The reserve aims to protect the endangered Bengal tiger and provide a safe habitat for various wildlife species.


Table of Contents

  • Satpura National Park Location
  • Satpura National Park History
  • Satpura National Park Area
  • Satpura National Park Hills
    • Satpura Range
    • Dhoopgarh Peak
  • Satpura National Park River
    • Denwa River
  • Satpura National Park Lake
    • Tawa Reservoir
  • Satpura National Park Rock Shelters
  • Satpura National Park Flora
  • Satpura National Park Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptiles
  • Top Things to do in Satpura National Park
  • Satpura National Park UPSC Questions


Satpura National Park Location

Satpura National Park is located in the Narmadapuram District (Hoshangabad district) of Madhya Pradesh in India. Its name is derived from the Satpura range. The nearest town to the national park is Pachmarhi. It is approximately 170 kilometers (105 miles) southwest of Bhopal, the capital city of Madhya Pradesh. 


Satpura National Park Nearest Airport:

Nearest airport to Satpura National Park are-

  • Raja Bhoj Airport in Bhopal (209 Km)
  • Jabalpur Airport (368 Km)
  • Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar International Airport in Nagpur (274 Km)


Satpura National Park Nearest Railway Station:

The nearest railhead to reach the park is-

  • Pipariya (Approx. 50 Km)
  • Bhopal (Approx. 140 Km)
  • Jabalpur (Aprrox. 260 Km)




Satpura National Park History

Satpura National Park has a rich history that dates back to ancient times. Here's an overview of the park's history:


Prehistoric and Ancient Periods: The Satpura region, including the area of the present-day national park, has evidence of human settlements dating back to the Paleolithic and Mesolithic periods. Archaeological discoveries in the region have revealed stone tools, rock paintings, and cave shelters that indicate the presence of early human inhabitants.


Tribal Influence: The Satpura region has been inhabited by various indigenous tribal communities for centuries. These tribes, such as the Gond, Bhil, and Korku, have traditionally lived in harmony with nature and have had an intimate understanding of the forest ecosystem.


Colonial Era: During British colonial rule in India, the forests of Satpura were extensively exploited for their timber and other resources. 


Conversion to National Park: In 1981, it was designated as a national park to provide stricter protection to the flora and fauna of the region.


Tiger Reserve: In recognition of its importance as a habitat for tigers, Satpura National Park was included in the Project Tiger initiative in 2000 and became part of the Satpura Tiger Reserve. This designation aimed to safeguard the critically endangered Bengal tiger and conserve the park's overall biodiversity.


Satpura Tiger Reserve comprises of 3 protected areas namely,

  • Satpura National Park
  • Bori Sanctuary
  • Pachmarhi Sanctuary




Satpura National Park Area

Satpura National Park covers an area of 524 km2 (202 sq mi). Satpura National Park comes under Satpura Tiger Reserve along with Bori Sanctuary and Pachmarhi Sanctuary. Satpura National Park, along with the adjoining Bori and Pachmarhi wildlife sanctuaries, covers an area of 2,200 km2 (850 sq mi).


The terrain of the Satpura National Park is extremely rugged and consists of sandstone peaks, narrow gorges, ravines and dense forests. The altitude ranges from 300 to 1,352 metres (984 to 4,436 ft). The Satpura National Park has Dhoopgarh peak (1,350 metres).




Satpura National Park Hills

Satpura National Park is located in the Satpura Range of hills, which is a range of hills in central India. The Satpura Range is a part of the Deccan Plateau and stretches over an area of about 800 km from the state of Gujarat in the west to Odisha in the east.


The Satpura Range hills in Satpura National Park are rugged and undulating, with elevations ranging from about 300 to 1,350 meters above sea level. The highest point in the Satpura National Park is Dhoopgarh, which is located in the Pachmarhi region of the park and is about 1,350 meters high.


The Satpura Range hills in the park are covered with dense forests, which are home to a wide variety of flora and fauna. The Satpura National Park's terrain is marked by narrow gorges, deep valleys, and steep slopes, which provide a range of habitats for different wildlife species. 


The Satpura Range hills also have several scenic viewpoints, including the Churna and Pachmarhi viewpoints, which offer breathtaking views of the surrounding landscapes.


Dhoopgarh Peak:

  • Dhoopgarh Peak is the highest peak of Satpura Mountain Range.
  • It is situated in Satpura National Park.
  • It is located near the Pachmarhi in the Hoshangabad district of Madhya Pradesh.
  • Dhoopgarh Peak has an elevation of 1,352 metres (4,429 ft).




Satpura National Park River

Satpura National Park is home to several rivers and water bodies, which provide a vital source of water for the park's wildlife and support a rich aquatic ecosystem.


Denwa river passes through the Satpura National Park. It is one of the major rivers that flow through Satpura National Park. Denwa river is also known as the lifeline of the Satpura National Park. The Denwa river is fed by several small streams and tributaries. It is a vital source of water for the park's wildlife, and its banks are home to a variety of aquatic species.


Denwa River:

  • Denwa river originates from south-eastern part of the Hoshangabad district in Madhya Pradesh State.
  • Denwa is a tributary of the Tawa, which is the largest tributary of Narmada River..
  • Denwa river join the Tawa river at the south of Ranipur.




Satpura National Park Lake

Another major water body in the Satpura National Park is the Tawa Reservoir, which is a man-made lake formed by the Tawa Dam. The reservoir is located on the Tawa River, which flows through the Satpura National Park's buffer zone. 


Tawa Reservoir forms the western boundary of Satpura National Park and Bori Wildlife Sanctuary.


Tawa Reservoir:

  • It is a reservoir on the Tawa River.
  • It is located in Itarsi of Narmadapuram District of Madhya Pradesh state.
  • It is located at the confluence of Tawa & Denwa river.
  • It was formed by the construction of the Tawa Dam, which began in 1958 and was completed in 1978. 




Satpura National Park Rock Shelters

What do the rock paintings found in rock shelters of Satpura National Park depict?

Satpura National Park is important from view point of archaeology. There are more than 50 Rock Shelters. The rock shelters in Satpura National Park are known for their ancient rock paintings, which depict various scenes from the lives of ancient humans who inhabited the area. These rock paintings are believed to date back to prehistoric times and are a testament to the rich cultural history of the region.


The paintings depict a wide variety of subjects, including hunting scenes, animal and bird figures, and human figures engaged in daily activities like dancing, cooking, and farming. The colors used in the paintings are mostly red and white, with occasional use of yellow and green pigments.


The paintings also depict different hunting techniques used by the ancient humans, such as the use of bows and arrows, traps, and spears. Some of the paintings also depict religious and spiritual practices, including shamanism and animal worship.




Satpura National Park Flora

Satpura National Park is known for its diverse flora, encompassing various vegetation types due to its location in the central Indian highlands. Here are some of the prominent flora found in Satpura National Park:


(1) Moist Deciduous Forests:

These forests dominate a significant portion of the park. They are characterized by trees that shed their leaves during the dry season. Sal (Shorea robusta) is the most prominent tree species in this type of forest. Other trees commonly found include teak (Tectona grandis), tendu (Diospyros melanoxylon), mahua (Madhuca longifolia), and bamboo.


(2) Dry Deciduous Forests:

These forests occur in drier areas of the park and are characterized by trees that shed their leaves for a significant part of the year. Species such as dhawda (Anogeissus pendula), khair (Acacia catechu), and bija (Pterocarpus marsupium) are common in this type of forest.


(3) Grasslands:

Satpura National Park has extensive grasslands, which provide grazing grounds for herbivores. These grasslands support a variety of grass species, including elephant grass (Saccharum ravennae), spear grass (Heteropogon contortus), and Themeda grass (Themeda anathera).


(4) Riverine Forests:

Along the banks of rivers and streams that flow through the park, riverine forests can be found. These forests are characterized by species such as arjun (Terminalia arjuna), jamun (Syzygium cumini), and bamboo. These areas provide important habitat for various bird species.




Satpura National Park Fauna (Satpura National Park Animals)

Satpura National Park is home to a rich diversity of wildlife, including several rare and endangered species. Some of the notable wildlife species found in the Satpura National Park are:


Mammals:

  • Tiger
  • Leopard
  • Indian Bison
  • Indian Giant Squirrel
  • Sambar
  • Chital
  • Indian Muntjac
  • Four-horned Antelope
  • Chinkara
  • Nilgai
  • Langur
  • Wild Boar


Birds:

  • Malabar Pied Hornbill
  • Racket-tailed Drongo
  • Crested Serpent Eagle
  • Yellow-footed Green Pigeon


Reptiles:

  • Indian Rock Python
  • Russel's Viper
  • Indian Cobra
  • Monitor Lizard
  • Mugger Crocodile




Top Things to do in Satpura National Park

There are several things to do in Satpura National Park for nature lovers and adventure seekers. Here are some of the top activities to do in the park:


  • Visit Dhoopgarh Peak
  • Bee Falls
  • Denwa Backwaters
  • Shri Nagdwar Swami Temple
  • Rock Paintings
  • Pandav Caves




Satpura National Park UPSC Questions

Q. Satpura National Park is famous for which animal?

A. Satpura National Park is famous for Tigers.


Q. Where is Satpura National Park?/Satpura National Park is located in which state/district?

A. Satpura National Park is located in the Narmadapuram District (Hoshangabad district) of Madhya Pradesh in India.


Q. When was Satpura National Park established?

A. Satpura National Park was established in 1981.


Q. What is Satpura National Park famous for?

A. Satpura National Park famous for rock paintings.


Q. Satpura National Park is a part of which biosphere reserve?

A. Satpura National Park is a part of Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve.

Satpura National Park

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