Tuesday, June 6, 2023

Bandipur National Park

Bandipur National Park UPSC

Bandipur National Park is a well-known wildlife sanctuary located in the southern Indian state of Karnataka. It is one of the premier tiger reserves in India and forms a part of the larger Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve

Established in 1974 as a tiger reserve under Project Tiger. The park is primarily known for its population of endangered Bengal tigers.

Table of Contents

  • Bandipur National Park Location
  • Bandipur National Park History
  • Bandipur National Park Area
  • Bandipur National Park Hills
    • Himavad Gopalaswamy Betta hill
  • Bandipur National Park River
    • Kabini River
    • Moyar River
    • Nugu River
  • Bandipur National Park Lake
    • Kabini Reservoir
  • Bandipur National Park Flora
  • Bandipur National Park Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptiles
  • Top Things to do in Bandipur National Park
  • Bandipur National Park UPSC Questions

Bandipur National Park Location

Bandipur National Park is located in the Chamarajanagar District and Mysuru District of Karnataka, India. It is located at the tri-junction area of the States of Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala. 

The park is situated in the picturesque Nilgiri Hills, which are part of the larger Western Ghats mountain range. The nearest major city to Bandipur National Park is Mysuru (also known as Mysore), which is approximately 80 kilometers (50 miles) away. The park is easily accessible by road and is well-connected to nearby cities and towns.

Bandipur National Park Nearest Airport:

Bengaluru International Airport is the closest airport to Bandipur National Park, which is 260 km away.

Bandipur National Park Nearest Railway Station:

Mysore Railway Station is the nearest railway junction to Bandipur National Park, situated at a distance of about 80 km.

Bandipur National Park History

Bandipur National Park has a rich history that dates back several decades. Here is a brief overview of its history:

Hunting Reserve: The area where Bandipur National Park is located was originally a private hunting reserve for the Maharajas of the Kingdom of Mysore. Hunting was a popular activity among the royalty during the colonial era.

Establishment as a Wildlife Sanctuary: In 1931, Bandipur was established as a wildlife sanctuary under the Mysore State and named it the Venugopala Wildlife Park (90 km2). It served as a refuge for various species of wildlife, particularly the endangered Indian elephant.

Tiger Reserve Status: In 1973, Bandipur Tiger reserve was established as one of the first 9 Tiger Reserves under Project Tiger.

National Park Status: In 1985, by including adjacent areas from Venugopala Wildlife Park, Bandipur Tiger Reserve was enlarged and named as Bandipur National Park.

Biosphere Reserve: In 1986, Bandipur National Park, Nagarhole National Park, Mudumalai National Park (TN) and Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary (Kerala) area was included in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve by the government of India. The Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve is one of the largest protected areas in India.

UNESCO Recognition: In 2000, Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve of India recognised as World Network of Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO.

Bandipur National Park Area

Bandipur National Park covers an area of approximately 874 square kilometers (337 square miles). It is part of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve since 1986.

Bandipur National Park Hills

The Himavad Gopalaswamy Betta hill is the highest point in the Bandipur National Park area. This peak is well-known among hikers and pilgrims. 

Situated within the park, it stands at an elevation of approximately 1,454 meters (4,770 feet) above sea level. The hill offers panoramic views of the surrounding landscape and is a popular spot for tourists visiting Bandipur National Park.

Bandipur National Park River

Bandipur National Park is traversed by several rivers and streams, which contribute to the overall ecosystem and biodiversity of the park. The most significant river that flows through the park is the Kabini River, Moyar River and Nugu River. 

The park is situated between Kabini river in the north and the Moyar river in the south. The Nugu river runs through the park. 

(1) Kabini River:

The Kabini River is a significant watercourse that flows through the southern Indian states of Kerala and Karnataka. It originates near Kavilumpara in Kozhikode district of Kerala by the confluence of the Panamaram River and the Mananthavady River. It further joins the Kaveri River in Mysore district of Karnataka

Kabini River separates the Bandipur National Park from Nagarhole National Park. The Kabini River is renowned for its picturesque landscapes and abundant wildlife. It serves as a crucial water source for the flora and fauna in Bandipur National Park. 

(2) Moyar River:

The Moyar River forms the boundary between Bandipur National Park in Karnataka and Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary in Tamil Nadu. It is a significant tributary of the Bhavani River, which eventually joins the Kaveri River. The river originates in the Nilgiri Hills and flows through the picturesque forests of the Western Ghats.

The Moyar River adds to the beauty and biodiversity of both Bandipur National Park and Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary. It provides a vital water source for wildlife and supports the growth of various plant species along its banks. The river and its surrounding areas offer excellent opportunities for nature enthusiasts and wildlife lovers to experience the natural splendor of the region.

(3) Nugu River:

The Nugu River is a tributary of the Moyar River and flows through the Bandipur National Park.The Nugu River contributes to the water resources of the region and plays a significant role in the ecological balance of the area.

Though relatively smaller in size compared to the Kabini and Moyar rivers, the Nugu River adds to the overall beauty of the landscape surrounding Bandipur National Park. Its presence supports the growth of vegetation and provides additional water sources for wildlife in the region.



Bandipur National Park Lake

The Kabini Reservoir, also known as Kabini Dam, is a prominent water reservoir located on the Kabini River in Karnataka, India. The reservoir is created by a dam built across the river and serves multiple purposes, including irrigation, hydroelectric power generation, and water supply.

The Kabini Reservoir is situated near the border of Karnataka and Kerala, close to the Bandipur National Park. It forms a picturesque lake surrounded by lush greenery and is a popular tourist attraction. The serene surroundings and abundant wildlife make it a favored destination for nature lovers and wildlife enthusiasts.

The reservoir not only fulfills the water requirements of nearby regions but also supports the local flora and fauna. It serves as a crucial water source for wildlife in Bandipur National Park, attracting a variety of animals, including elephants, deer, and numerous bird species.

Additionally, the Kabini Reservoir offers opportunities for various recreational activities such as boating, wildlife safari, and birdwatching. Several resorts and lodges have been established in the vicinity, providing visitors with a chance to enjoy the scenic beauty and indulge in nature-based experiences.

Bandipur National Park Flora

Bandipur National Park is renowned for its diverse and rich flora. The park's vegetation is predominantly classified as dry deciduous forest, moist deciduous forest, and scrubland. Here are some of the notable flora species found in Bandipur National Park:

Bandipur supports a wide range of timber trees including: 

  • Teak (Tectona grandis)
  • Rosewood (Dalbergia latifolia)
  • Sandalwood (Santalum album)
  • Indian-laurel (Terminalia tomentosa)
  • Indian Kino Tree (Pterocarpus marsupium)
  • Giant Clumping Bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus)
  • Clumping Bamboo (Bambusa arundinacea)
  • Dhaman (Grewia tiliaefolia)

There are also several notable flowering and fruiting trees and shrubs including: 

  • Kadam Tree (Adina cordifolia)
  • Indian Gooseberry (Emblica officinalis)
  • Crape-myrtle (Lagerstroemia lanceolata)
  • Axlewood (Anogeissus latifolia)
  • Black Myrobalan (Terminalia chebula)
  • Schleichera Trijuga
  • Odina Wodiar
  • Flame of the Forest (Butea monosperma)
  • Golden Shower Tree (Cassia fistula)
  • Satinwood (Chloroxylon swietenia)
  • Black Cutch (Acacia catechu)
  • Shorea talura
  • Indigoberry (Randia uliginosa)

Bandipur National Park Fauna (Bandipur National Park Animals)

Which animals are found in Bandipur National Park?

Bandipur National Park is renowned for its rich and diverse fauna, with a wide range of animal species inhabiting the park. Here are some of the notable fauna found in Bandipur National Park:


  • Bengal Tiger
  • Asian Elephant
  • Leopard
  • Gaur
  • Sloth Bear
  • Four-horned Antelope
  • Golden Jackal
  • Dhole
  • Chital
  • Gray Langur (Hanuman Langur)
  • Indian Giant Squirrel
  • Civet
  • Jungle Cat
  • Indian Palm
  • Striped Hyena
  • Rusty-spotted Cat
  • Nilgiritahr


  • Blue Peafowl 
  • Gray Junglefowl
  • Drongos
  • Crested Honey Buzzard
  • Red-headed Vulture
  • Indian Vulture
  • Plain Flowerpecker
  • Indian Roller, 
  • Brown Fish Owl
  • Crested Serpent Eagle
  • Changeable Hawk-eagle
  • Osprey


  • Indian Cobra
  • Indian Rock Python
  • Vipers
  • Rat Snake
  • Mugger Crocodiles
  • Monitor Lizards
  • Indian Chameleon 
  • Indian Pond Terrapin
  • Flying Lizards

Top Things to do in Bandipur National Park

What to do in Bandipur National Park?

When visiting Bandipur National Park, there are several exciting activities and experiences to engage in. Here are some of the top things to do in Bandipur National Park:

Wildlife Safari: Embark on a thrilling wildlife safari through the park to spot its diverse fauna, including tigers, elephants, leopards, deer, and various bird species. Safaris are typically conducted in open jeeps or buses and provide an opportunity to observe wildlife in their natural habitat.

Nature Walks: Take guided nature walks or trekking trails within the park to explore the flora and fauna up close. Experienced naturalists will provide insights into the ecosystem, point out interesting plant and animal species, and enhance your overall wildlife experience.

Birdwatching: Bandipur is a haven for birdwatchers, with over 200 species of birds recorded in the park. Grab your binoculars and spot various colorful birds, including raptors, hornbills, peafowls, and many more.

Visit Gopalaswamy Betta: Climb the Gopalaswamy Betta hill, the highest peak in Bandipur National Park, to enjoy panoramic views of the surrounding forests and catch glimpses of wildlife. The hill is also home to a temple dedicated to Lord Venugopala (Lord Krishna).

Elephant Safari: Get a unique perspective of the park by going on an elephant safari. Traverse through the dense forest on the back of an elephant, accompanied by trained mahouts, and enjoy the close encounters with wildlife.

Explore Nearby Wildlife Reserves: Bandipur National Park is surrounded by other wildlife reserves such as Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, Nagarhole National Park, and Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary. Consider exploring these neighboring reserves to enhance your wildlife experience.

Photography: Capture the stunning landscapes, wildlife, and flora of Bandipur National Park through photography. From majestic tigers to colorful birds and serene landscapes, the park offers ample opportunities for wildlife and nature photography.

Visit Tribal Villages: Interact with the indigenous tribal communities residing near the park, such as the Soliga and Jenu Kuruba tribes. Learn about their way of life, culture, and traditional practices.

Stay at Jungle Resorts: Experience the thrill of staying in jungle resorts and lodges within or near the park. These accommodations offer a unique blend of comfort and wilderness, providing an immersive experience of living amidst nature.

Volunteer for Conservation Activities: Some organizations offer volunteering opportunities in Bandipur National Park, where you can participate in conservation activities, such as habitat restoration, wildlife monitoring, and community engagement programs.

Bandipur National Park UPSC Questions

Q. Where is Bandipur National Park?/Bandipur National Park is located in which state?/Bandipur National Park in which district?

A. Bandipur National Park is located in the Chamarajanagar District and Mysuru District of Karnataka, India.

Q. Bandipur National Park is famous for which animal?/Bandipur National Park protects which animal?

A. Bandipur National Park is famous for Bengal Tiger.

Q. What is Bandipur National Park famous for?/What is Bandipur National Park known for?

A. Bandipur National Park fis amous for Tiger Reserve.

Q. Which river flows through Bandipur National Park?

A. Kabini, Moyar, Nugu river flows through Bandipur National Park.

Q. When was Bandipur National Park established?

A. Bandipur National Park was established in 1985.

Q. What is Bandipur National Park primarily known?

A. Bandipur National Park is primarily known for its rich biodiversity and as a vital habitat for various endangered and iconic wildlife species. It is recognized as one of the most significant tiger reserves in India and is renowned for its successful conservation efforts in protecting the Bengal tiger population. Bandipur National Park is also famous for its significant population of Indian elephants, which roam freely in the park's forests.

Q. What is the old name of Bandipur National Park?

A. Venugopala Wildlife Park  is the old name of Bandipur National Park.

Bandipur National Park

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