Wednesday, June 7, 2023

Bannerghatta National Park

Bannerghatta National Park UPSC

Bannerghatta National Park is a popular wildlife sanctuary and national park located in the state of Karnataka, India. It is named after the village Bannerghatta, a pilgrimage centre located near the Bannerghatta Biological Park in the northeast corner of the Bannerghatta National Park.

It is known for its diverse flora and fauna. The park is home to a wide variety of animals, including tigers, lions, leopards, elephants, sloth bears, deer, and numerous species of birds. It also houses a butterfly park and a zoo.

One of the major attractions of the park is the safari, where visitors can take a guided tour to see the animals in their natural habitat. It is famous for its Tiger and Lion Safaris. The safari includes a drive through the herbivore area and a separate enclosure for tigers and lions. Visitors can also explore the park on foot through designated trekking trails and nature walks.

Table of Contents

  • Bannerghatta National Park Location
  • Bannerghatta National Park History
  • Bannerghatta National Park Area
  • Bannerghatta National Park Hills
    • Anekal Mountain Range
  • Bannerghatta National Park River
    • Suvarnamukhi River
  • Bannerghatta National Park Flora
  • Bannerghatta National Park Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptiles
  • Bannerghatta National Park Butterfly Park
  • Top Things to do in Bannerghatta National Park
  • Bannerghatta National Park UPSC Questions

Bannerghatta National Park Location

Bannerghatta National Park is located in the southern part of Karnataka, India. It is situated approximately 22 kilometers (14 miles) south of Bangalore, the capital city of Karnataka. The park is easily accessible from Bangalore, and it takes about an hour to reach there by road, depending on the traffic conditions. 

Bannerghatta National Park is situated in the Anekal mountain range and is home to elephants. It’s situated on the northern terminal point of Mysuru Elephant Reserve. Elephants use the Bannerghatta National Park as a corridor between the BR Hills (Biligirirangana Hills) and the Sathyamangalam forest. 

Bannerghatta National Park Nearest Airport:

Kempegowda International Airport Bengaluru is the nearest airport to Bannerghatta National Park, which is 60 Km away.

Bannerghatta National Park Nearest Railway Station:

Bengaluru Railway Station is the nearest railway station to Bannerghatta National Park, which is 22 Km away.

Bannerghatta National Park History

Bannerghatta National Park has an interesting history that dates back several decades. Here is a brief overview of its history:

Early Establishment: The area where Bannerghatta National Park is located has a long history of conservation. In the 1960s, it was established as a zoological park and was used to rehabilitate and conserve wild animals. The park initially covered a smaller area compared to its current size.

Expansion and Formal Declaration: In 1971, Bannerghatta National Park was officially established as a biological park and wildlife sanctuary. The park's boundaries were expanded to accommodate a larger area, encompassing a variety of habitats, including dry deciduous forests, scrublands, and grasslands.

Wildlife Rescue and Rehabilitation: In the early years, Bannerghatta National Park primarily focused on rescuing and rehabilitating orphaned, injured, and captive animals. It served as a center for providing medical care, shelter, and a natural environment for the animals.

Declaration as a National Park: In 1974, the Government of Karnataka declared Bannerghatta National Park as a national park, recognizing its ecological significance and the need for its conservation. This elevated its status and increased efforts for its protection and preservation.

Lion Safari Park: In 1979, a lion safari park was built in Bannerghatta National Park.

Tiger Safari Park: In 1987, a tiger safari park was established in Bannerghatta National Park.

Bannerghatta Biological Park: In 2002, a portion of the Bannerghatta National Park, became a biological reserve, the Bannerghatta Biological Park (BBP). The BBP has four divisions: the zoo, the safari, the butterfly park, and the rescue centre. It is the first biological park in India to have a fenced forested elephant sanctuary. 

Bannerghatta Butterfly Park: In 2006, India's first butterfly enclosure was inaugurated at the Bannerghatta National Park. 

Bannerghatta National Park Area

Bannerghatta National Park covers an area of approximately 260.51 sq km. (100.55 square miles.). The park encompasses a diverse range of habitats, including dense forests, scrublands, grasslands, and a man-made lake. These varied ecosystems support a rich biodiversity, making the park an important ecological reserve.

Within the park, there are different zones and sections that cater to various activities and attractions. This includes the safari area, where visitors can take a guided tour to observe animals in their natural habitat. There is also a zoo, butterfly park, trekking trails, a children's park, and a museum, among other facilities.

The expansive area of Bannerghatta National Park provides ample space for wildlife to roam freely and for visitors to explore and appreciate the natural wonders of the region.

Bannerghatta National Park Hills

Anekal Mountain Range:

Bannerghatta National Park is situated in the Anekal Mountain Range, which adds to its natural beauty and biodiversity. The Anekal mountain range is located in the southern part of Karnataka, near the town of Anekal. 

The Anekal mountain range in the vicinity of Bannerghatta National Park offer scenic landscapes and provide a backdrop to the park's diverse ecosystems. The hills contribute to the park's topography and influence the vegetation, water sources, and wildlife habitats within its boundaries.

Visitors to Bannerghatta National Park can enjoy the panoramic views of the surrounding Anekal Mountain Range hills while exploring the park's trekking trails and nature walks. These hills not only enhance the natural charm of the park but also provide opportunities for outdoor activities and nature appreciation.

Bannerghatta National Park River

Suvarnamukhi River:

Bannerghatta National Park is traversed by the Suvarnamukhi River, also known as the Suvarnamukhi Nala. This river flows through the park, adding to its natural beauty and providing a water source for the diverse ecosystems within the park.

The Suvarnamukhi River originates in the Ragihalli forest area, located near the outskirts of Bangalore. It then passes through Bannerghatta National Park, meandering its way through the park's lush greenery and diverse habitats.

The river not only enhances the scenic charm of the park but also plays a crucial role in supporting the park's flora and fauna. It provides water for the various species of plants, animals, and birds that inhabit the park.

Visitors to Bannerghatta National Park can witness the beauty of the Suvarnamukhi River as they explore the park's trails and engage in activities like boating or simply enjoying the serene surroundings near the riverbanks.

Bannerghatta National Park Flora

What is the flora of Bannerghatta National Park?/What type of forest is Bannerghatta National Park?/What is the biodiversity of Bannerghatta?

Bannerghatta National Park boasts a rich and diverse flora, representing various ecosystems and habitats. The park's vegetation consists of a mix of evergreen forests, deciduous forests, scrublands, grasslands, and wetlands. 

Here are some notable flora found in Bannerghatta National Park:

Narcissus latifolia: Narcissus latifolia, commonly known as the broad-leaved narcissus, is a flowering plant species. It produces showy yellow flowers.

Schleichera oleosa: Schleichera oleosa, also known as the lac tree or kusum tree, is a medium-sized tree native to the Indian subcontinent. It is known for its hard wood and the production of a resinous substance called lac.

Terminalia tomentosa: Terminalia tomentosa, commonly known as the Indian silver oak or ashoka tree, is a large deciduous tree found in various parts of India. It is valued for its ornamental appearance and is often planted for its shade and timber.

Sandalwood: Sandalwood (Santalum album) is a highly prized tree known for its fragrant heartwood. It is used in the production of incense, perfumes, and traditional medicines. Sandalwood trees are native to southern India, and their cultivation is actively promoted for commercial purposes.

Neem: Neem (Azadirachta indica) is a versatile tree with multiple uses. It is known for its medicinal properties and is extensively used in Ayurvedic medicine. Neem leaves, bark, and oil are utilized for various purposes, including skincare, pest control, and more.

T. arjuna: Terminalia arjuna, commonly known as arjuna or arjun tree, is a species of deciduous tree native to the Indian subcontinent. It has significance in Ayurveda and is believed to have medicinal properties, particularly for heart-related ailments.

Grewia tilaefolia: Grewia tilaefolia is a species of shrub or small tree belonging to the family Malvaceae. It is native to India and is known for its attractive flowers.

Tamarind: Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) is a tropical tree that produces edible, tangy fruits. It is widely cultivated for its culinary uses, as the pulp of the tamarind fruit is used in various dishes, sauces, and beverages.

Bamboo: Bamboo is a fast-growing perennial grass with various species found in Bannerghatta National Park. Bamboo is known for its versatile uses, including construction, handicrafts, and as a food source for certain animals.

Eucalyptus: Eucalyptus is a diverse genus of flowering trees and shrubs, many of which are native to Australia. Some species have been introduced to other parts of the world, including India. Eucalyptus trees are valued for their timber, essential oils, and as a source of nectar for honey production.

Bauhinia purpurea: Bauhinia purpurea, commonly known as the purple orchid tree or butterfly tree, is a species of flowering tree. It is known for its striking purple flowers and is often cultivated as an ornamental tree.

Samanea saman: Samanea saman, also known as the rain tree or monkey pod tree, is a large, spreading tree with a wide canopy. It is native to tropical regions, including India. The tree is known for its umbrella-like canopy and attractive pink or white flowers.

Peltophorum pterocarpum: Peltophorum pterocarpum, commonly known as the copperpod or golden shower tree, is a medium-sized deciduous tree. It is native to tropical regions and is renowned for its clusters of bright yellow flowers that bloom in abundance, creating a stunning visual display.

Bannerghatta National Park Fauna (Bannerghatta National Park Animals)

Bannerghatta National Park is renowned for its rich and diverse fauna. The park is home to numerous species of mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and insects. Here are some notable examples of the fauna found in Bannerghatta National Park:


  • Indian Elephants
  • Royal Bengal Tiger
  • Lions
  • Indian leopard
  • Gaur
  • Jackal
  • Fox
  • Sloth Bear
  • Indian Gazelle
  • Spotted Deer (Chital)
  • Barking Deer
  • Common Langur
  • Bonnet Macaque
  • Porcupine
  • Hare
  • Wild Boar
  • Pangolin
  • Striped Hyenas
  • Slender Loris


  • Cormorants
  • Little Green Herons
  • Grey Herons
  • Paradise Flycatchers
  • Tickell’s Blue Flycatchers
  • Common Grey Hornbills
  • White-bellied Drongos
  • Spotted Owlets
  • Collared Scops Owls
  • Mottled Wood Owls
  • Eurasian Eagle Owls
  • Peafowl
  • Grey Jungle Fowl
  • Partridges


  • Monitor Lizard
  • Cobras
  • Python
  • Russell's Viper
  • Krait
  • Crocodile
  • Tortoises

Bannerghatta National Park Butterfly Park

Bannerghatta National Park have a dedicated Butterfly Park within its premises, consisting of a butterfly garden, butterfly conservatory, museum, research laboratory, and a curio shop. The butterfly garden spans approximately 7.5 acres and provides a suitable habitat for various species of butterflies to thrive.

The development of the Butterfly Park began in 2003 and was completed in 2007. Since then, it has become a popular attraction within Bannerghatta National Park. The park is home to a diverse range of butterfly species, with a recorded count of 48 species in the area. Visitors have the opportunity to observe these beautiful insects in their natural surroundings.

In addition to the butterfly garden, the park features a butterfly conservatory where butterflies can be seen in a controlled environment. The conservatory provides a close-up view of butterflies and allows visitors to learn more about their behavior and life cycle.

The Butterfly Park also houses a museum that provides educational exhibits and information about butterflies, their habitat, and conservation efforts. It offers visitors the chance to enhance their understanding of butterflies and their ecological importance.

For those interested in further exploration, the research laboratory within the Butterfly Park is worth a visit. It provides insights into the study and conservation efforts related to butterflies. Additionally, there is a captive breeding laboratory where butterflies are bred and raised, contributing to conservation efforts and research.

Visiting the Butterfly Park at Bannerghatta National Park offers a unique and enriching experience, allowing visitors to appreciate the beauty of butterflies, gain knowledge about their habitat, and contribute to their conservation.

Top Things to do in Bannerghatta National Park

What to see in Bannerghatta National Park?

When visiting Bannerghatta National Park, there are several exciting activities and attractions to explore. Here are some of the top things to do in Bannerghatta National Park:

Wildlife Safari: Embark on a thrilling wildlife safari within the park. You can choose between a bus safari or a private vehicle safari to spot majestic creatures like lions, tigers, bears, elephants, and more in their natural habitat.

Butterfly Park: Visit the Butterfly Park, a dedicated enclosure that houses numerous species of butterflies. Witness the vibrant colors and graceful flight of these beautiful insects as you explore the park's butterfly garden and conservatory.

Zoo Enclosures: Explore the zoo enclosures within the Biological Park area of Bannerghatta. Get up close to a diverse range of animals, including leopards, jaguars, crocodiles, primates, snakes, and various bird species.

Nature Walks and Treks: Enjoy guided nature walks and treks through the park's scenic trails. Immerse yourself in the natural beauty, observe the flora and fauna, and learn about the park's biodiversity.

Elephant Sanctuary: Visit the Elephant Sanctuary within the park to witness these gentle giants up close. Observe their behavior, learn about their conservation, and even participate in activities like elephant feeding and bathing.

Safari to Kaggaladu Bird Sanctuary: Take a safari to the nearby Kaggaladu Bird Sanctuary, known for its large population of migratory birds. Witness the stunning sight of thousands of painted storks and other bird species in their natural habitat.

Nature Interpretation Center: Visit the Nature Interpretation Center to learn more about the flora, fauna, and conservation efforts of the park. Explore educational exhibits and displays that provide insights into the park's natural heritage.

Trek to Mirza Hill: Embark on a trek to Mirza Hill, a nearby hill within the park that offers panoramic views of the surrounding landscape. Enjoy the scenic beauty and capture stunning photographs.

Lion and Tiger Safari: Experience a thrilling lion and tiger safari, where you can observe these majestic big cats from a safe distance. Witness their grace and power as they roam in their enclosures.

Photography and Bird Watching: Bannerghatta National Park provides excellent opportunities for photography and bird watching. Capture breathtaking moments of wildlife in their natural surroundings and spot a wide variety of bird species throughout the park.

Bannerghatta National Park UPSC Questions

Q. What is Bannerghatta National Park known for?/What is Bannerghatta National Park famous for?

A. Bannerghatta National Park is known for its rich biodiversity, diverse wildlife, Safari Experience, Butterfly Park, Zoo and Rescue Center, Trekking and Nature Trails and various attractions.

Q. Which river passes through Bannerghatta National Park?

A. Suvarnamukhi river passes through Bannerghatta National Park.

Q. Who built Bannerghatta National Park?

A. In 1974, the Government of Karnataka declared Bannerghatta National Park as a national park.

Q. Which was the first butterfly national park in India?/Which is Asia's first butterfly park?

A. Bannerghatta National Park Butterfly Park as the first butterfly national park in India.

Q. How many tigers are there in Bannerghatta forest?

A. The Bannerghatta National Park houses 33 tigers, including 7 white tigers. 

Q. Bannerghatta National Park is famous for which animal?

A. Bannerghatta National Park is famous for Tigers, Lions, Indian Elephant etc. animal.

Q. Where is Bannerghatta National Park?/Bannerghatta National Park is located in which state?/Bannerghatta National Park which district?

A. Bannerghatta National Park is located in the Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

Q. How big is Bannerghatta National Park?

A. Bannerghatta National Park covers an area of approximately 260.51 sq km. (100.55 square miles.).

Q. Bannerghatta National Park how many acres?

A. 64,415.83 acres.

Bannerghatta National Park

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