Wednesday, June 7, 2023

Kudremukh National Park

Kudremukh National Park UPSC

Kudremukh National Park is a renowned national park located in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India. It is named after the Kudremukh Peak, which means "horse face" in the local Kannada language, due to its resemblance to the face of a horse.

Table of Contents

  • Kudremukh National Park Location
  • Kudremukh National Park History
  • Kudremukh National Park Area
  • Kudremukh National Park Hills
    • Kudremukh Peak
    • Kalasa Hill Range
    • Gangamoola Hill
    • Varaha Parvatha
  • Kudremukh National Park River
    • Tunga River
    • Bhadra River
    • Nethravathi River
  • Kudremukh National Park Waterfalls
    • Kadambi Waterfalls
    • Hanuman Gundi Falls
    • Lakya Dam Falls
  • Kudremukh National Park Flora
    • Evergreen Forests
    • Shola Forests
    • Grasslands
    • Medicinal Plants
    • Endemic Species
  • Kudremukh National Park Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptiles
  • Top Things to do in Kudremukh National Park
  • Kudremukh National Park UPSC Questions

Kudremukh National Park Location

Kudremukh National Park is located in the Chikkamagaluru district of Karnataka, India. The national park is situated in the Western Ghats, a mountain range known for its rich biodiversity.

Kudremukh National Park is geographically located at the tri-junction of Dakshina Kannada, Udupi and Chikmagalur districts of Karnataka.

Kudremukh National Park Nearest Airport:

Mangalore Airport is the nearest airport to Kudremukh National Park, which is 190 km away.

Kudremukh National Park Nearest Railway Station:

The nearest railway station to Kudremukh National Park is Mangalore station, which is situated at a distance of 113 km.

Kudremukh National Park History (Kudremukh National Park Established)

The history of Kudremukh National Park is intertwined with the history of the Kudremukh Iron Ore Company Limited (KIOCL) and the environmental concerns raised by its mining activities. Here is a brief overview:

Reserved Forest:  Kudremukh National Park was initially established as a Reserved Forest in the year 1916. Reserved Forests are areas designated for the conservation and sustainable use of forest resources under the Forest Department's administration.

Mining Era: In the 1970s, the Kudremukh region was identified as a potential site for iron ore mining due to the presence of high-quality iron ore deposits. The Kudremukh Iron Ore Company Limited, a government-owned company, commenced mining operations in the area in 1976.

Environmental Concerns: The mining activities in the Kudremukh region raised significant environmental concerns due to deforestation, habitat destruction, and pollution of water bodies. The mining operations involved large-scale removal of forests and clearing of land, impacting the rich biodiversity of the region.

Conservation Movements: In the 1980s, local communities and environmental activists began raising concerns about the ecological damage caused by the mining activities. The conservation movement gained momentum, highlighting the need to protect the pristine forests and wildlife of the region.

Declaration of National Park: In response to the growing environmental concerns, the Government of India declared a portion of the Kudremukh region as a national park in 1987. This move aimed to preserve the biodiversity, ecosystems, and natural beauty of the area.

Mining Phased Out: Over time, the adverse environmental impacts of mining and the efforts of conservationists led to the phasing out of mining activities in the Kudremukh region. The mining operations of KIOCL ceased completely in 2005.

Restoration and Conservation: Following the cessation of mining, efforts were undertaken to restore and conserve the degraded areas within the national park. Reforestation initiatives and conservation measures were implemented to revive the ecosystem and protect the wildlife in the region.

Today, Kudremukh National Park stands as a testament to the conservation efforts and the importance of preserving natural habitats. It serves as a prime example of the delicate balance between development and environmental protection.

Kudremukh National Park Area

The Kudremukh National Park covers an area of approximately 600 square kilometers (231 square miles). The park's landscape is characterized by rolling hills, grasslands, shola forests, and numerous streams. 

The park area is also the origin of three important rivers in Karnataka: the Tunga, Bhadra, and Nethravathi. The park's altitude ranges from about 1,200 meters (3,900 feet) to 1,892 meters (6,207 feet) at the Kudremukh peak.

Kudremukh National Park Hills

Kudremukh National Park is characterized by its picturesque hills, which contribute to its stunning natural beauty. The park is located in the Western Ghats mountain range, and its hills are part of the hilly landscape that defines the region. Here are some notable hills in and around Kudremukh National Park:

(1) Kudremukh Peak:

The Kudremukh National Park is named after this prominent peak, which stands at an elevation of 1,892 meters (6,207 feet). The peak resembles the face of a horse, giving it its name "Kudremukh," meaning "horse face" in the local language. It is a popular destination for trekkers and offers breathtaking views of the surrounding landscape.

Kuduremukh is the second highest peak in Karnataka (after Mullayyanagiri). It is also called as the queen of hill peaks in Karnataka. Kuduremukh is declared one of 34 biological hotspots of the world because of its tropical biological richness.

(2) Kalasa Hill Range:

This range of hills is situated near the Kudremukh National Park and is known for its lush greenery and serene environment. It provides a scenic backdrop to the park and offers opportunities for hiking and nature exploration.

(3) Gangamoola Hill:

Located within the boundaries of Kudremukh National Park, Gangamoola Hill is an important peak and the source of three rivers: Tunga, Bhadra, and Nethravathi. It is also known for its rich biodiversity and serves as a crucial habitat for various wildlife species.

(4) Varaha Parvatha:

Located adjacent to Kudremukh National Park, Varaha Parvatha is another prominent peak in the region. It offers panoramic views of the Western Ghats and is often included in trekking routes around the area.

Kudremukh National Park River

Kudremukh National Park is the birthplace of three important rivers in Karnataka, India. These rivers originate from the Western Ghats within or near the boundaries of the national park. Here are the rivers associated with Kudremukh National Park:

(1) Tunga River:

The Tunga River originates from the slopes of the Western Ghats near Kudremukh. It flows through the national park and then traverses the districts of Chikmagalur, Shivamogga, and Udupi before joining the Bhadra River. The Tunga River is significant for the region's agriculture, providing water for irrigation and supporting local communities.

(2) Bhadra River:

The Bhadra River, also known as the Tungabhadra River, originates near the Kudremukh peak within the national park. It flows through the park's pristine forests and continues its course through Shivamogga district. 

The Bhadra River is a major tributary of the Tungabhadra River, which eventually joins the Krishna River. It plays a crucial role in providing water for irrigation, hydroelectric power generation, and sustaining the ecosystem.

(3) Nethravathi River:

The Nethravathi River has its source in the Western Ghats near Kudremukh. It flows through the national park and then traverses the districts of Chikmagalur and Dakshina Kannada before reaching the Arabian Sea. 

The Nethravathi River is an important water source for the region and is known for its scenic beauty. It supports agriculture, provides drinking water to nearby towns and cities, and is significant for its ecological importance.

Kudremukh National Park Waterfalls

Kudremukh National Park in Karnataka, India, is home to several beautiful waterfalls that add to the park's natural charm. Here are a few notable waterfalls within or near Kudremukh National Park:

(1) Kadambi Waterfalls:

The famous Kadambi waterfalls is also located in the Kudremukh National Park. The waterfall has a height of about 30 feet.

(2) Hanuman Gundi Falls (Soothanabbi Falls):

Hanuman Gundi Falls is a popular attraction near Kudremukh National Park. It is nestled amidst hills and dense forests, creating a picturesque setting. The waterfall cascades down from a 100 ft, height, surrounded by lush greenery.

(3) Lakya Dam Falls: 

Located near Kudremukh, Lakya Dam Falls is a scenic waterfall formed by the water release from the Lakya Dam. It is a lesser-known waterfall but offers a serene atmosphere.

The Lakya Dam is a check dam built by Kudremukh Iron Ore Company Ltd across the Lakya River. Lakya is a tributary of River Bhadra.

Kudremukh National Park Flora

Kudremukh National Park is renowned for its rich and diverse flora. The park is located in the Western Ghats, which is recognized as a global biodiversity hotspot. The varying altitudes, abundant rainfall, and fertile soil of the region contribute to the remarkable plant diversity found within the national park. 

The Kudremukh National Park has abundant coffee and tea plantations around its northern and eastern boundaries.

Here are some notable flora species found in Kudremukh National Park:

(1) Evergreen Forests: 

The Kudremukh National Park is primarily covered with evergreen forests, characterized by tall and dense trees that retain their green foliage throughout the year. Species such as Dipterocarpus indicus, Mesua ferrea, Hopea parviflora, and Syzygium densiflorum are commonly found in these forests.

(2) Shola Forests:

Kudremukh National Park also encompasses shola forests, which are unique montane evergreen forests found in the higher altitudes of the Western Ghats. These forests are characterized by stunted trees, rhododendrons, and various species of orchids. Some notable tree species include Rhodomyrtus tomentosa, Michelia nilagirica, and Vaccinium spp.

(3) Grasslands:

Within the park, there are extensive grasslands known as "sholas" and "montane grasslands." These grasslands provide habitat for various species of grasses, sedges, and herbs, such as Chrysopogon zizanioides, Eulalia spp., and Impatiens spp.

(4) Medicinal Plants:

Kudremukh National Park is known to harbor several medicinal plants. Species like Acorus calamus, Asparagus racemosus, Rauvolfia serpentina, and Picrorhiza kurroa are valued for their therapeutic properties and are used in traditional medicine systems.

(5) Endemic Species:

The Western Ghats region, including Kudremukh National Park, is home to numerous plant species that are endemic to the area. These include species like Ceropegia vincaefolia, Gymnema khandalense, and Impatiens lawii, among others.

Kudremukh National Park Fauna (Kudremukh National Park Animals)

Kudremukh National Park is famous for which animal?

Kudremukh National Park is known for its diverse and abundant fauna. The park's rich and varied ecosystems support a wide range of wildlife species, including mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and insects. 

Here are some notable examples of fauna found in Kudremukh National Park:


  • Tigers
  • Wild Dogs
  • Leopards
  • Malabar Giant Squirrels
  • Sloth Bears
  • Common Langurs
  • Gaur
  • Sambar
  • Barking Deer
  • Spotted Deer
  • Sloth Bears


  • Malabar Whistling Thrush
  • Malabar Trogon
  • Imperial Pigeon
  • Great Pied Hornbill
  • Great Indian Hornbill
  • Nilgiri Flycatcher
  • Indian Pitta


  • King Cobras
  • Russell's Vipers
  • Indian Rock Pythons
  • Malabar Pit Vipers
  • Kudremukh Day Gecko

Top Things to do in Kudremukh National Park

Kudremukh National Park offers a range of activities and experiences for visitors to enjoy its natural beauty and explore its diverse ecosystems. Here are some top things to do in Kudremukh National Park:

  • Trek to Kudremukh Pea
  • Wildlife Spotting
  • Visit Waterfalls
  • Birdwatching
  • Photography and Nature Walks
  • Explore the Tea and Coffee Plantations
  • Experience the Local Culture
  • Visit Lord Varaha Statue

Kudremukh National Park UPSC Questions

Q. Why is Kudremukh National Park famous?

A. Kudremukh National Park is famous for several reasons, making it a popular destination for nature enthusiasts and wildlife lovers. Here are some of the reasons why Kudremukh National Park is renowned:

  • Biodiversity Hotspot
  • Scenic Landscapes
  • Trekking Destination
  • Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Conservation Efforts
  • Cultural Significance

Q. Which river flows in Kudremukh National Park?

A. Tunga, Bhadra and Nethravathi river flows in Kudremukh National Park.

Q. When was Kudremukh National Park established?

A. Kudremukh National Park was established in 1987.

Q. Is Kudremukh a Tiger Reserve?

A. No, Kudremukh National Park is not designated as a Tiger Reserve. It is primarily recognized as a national park and a protected area due to its rich biodiversity and unique ecosystems. 

Q. Where is Kudremukh National Park?/Kudremukh National Park is situated in which district?/Kudremukh National Park is situated in which state?/Where is Kudremukh National Park close to?

A. Kudremukh National Park is located in the Chikkamagaluru district of Karnataka, India.

Kudremukh National Park

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