Thursday, June 15, 2023

Dudhwa Tiger Reserve

Dudhwa Tiger Reserve UPSC

Dudhwa Tiger Reserve is a protected area located in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. It was established in 1965 as a sanctuary and later declared a tiger reserve in 1987 under the Project Tiger initiative. The reserve is spread across an area of about 1093.79 and is known for its diverse flora and fauna.

The landscape of Dudhwa Tiger Reserve is characterized by dense forests, grasslands, and wetlands. The reserve is primarily known for its efforts in conserving the endangered Bengal tigers and the Indian rhinoceros.

The vegetation in Dudhwa Tiger Reserve is mainly comprised of sal forests, mixed deciduous forests, and extensive stretches of tall elephant grass. It is home to a wide variety of wildlife, including Bengal tigers, Indian rhinoceros, Indian elephants, swamp deer (also known as Barasingha), leopards, sloth bears, wild boars, and several species of birds.

Table of Contents

  • Dudhwa Tiger Reserve Location
  • Dudhwa Tiger Reserve History
  • Dudhwa Tiger Reserve Area
  • Dudhwa Tiger Reserve River
  • Dudhwa Tiger Reserve Flora
  • Dudhwa Tiger Reserve Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptiles
    • Fishes
  • Top Things to do in Dudhwa Tiger Reserve
  • Dudhwa Tiger Reserve UPSC Questions

Dudhwa Tiger Reserve Location

Dudhwa Tiger Reserve is located in Lakhimpur Kheri and Bahraich districts of Uttar Pradesh, India. It is situated in the Terai region of the Himalayan foothills, near the Indo-Nepal border.

The Dudhwa Tiger Reserve includes the Dudhwa National Park, and two nearby Sanctuaries, viz. Kishanpur and Katerniaghat, besides forest areas of North Kheri, South Kheri and Shahjahanpur forest divisions in its buffer. 

Dudhwa National Park: It is located in the Palia and Nighasan tehsil of district Lakhimpur-Kheri. 

Kishanpur Sanctuary: It is stretched over Gola and Powayan tehsils of Lakhimpur and Shahjahanpur districts respectively. 

Katerniaghat Sanctuary: It is located in the Nanpara tehsil of district Bahraich, with the Indo-Nepal border constituting its Northern boundary. The Katerniaghat portion has a Terai habitat, having linkages with the Royal Bardia National Park of Nepal to the North and the Dudhwa National Park to its West.

Dudhwa Tiger Reserve Nearest Airport:

  • Chaudhary Charan Singh International Airport, Lucknow (238 km.)

Dudhwa Tiger Reserve Nearest Railway Station:

  • Dudhwa Railway Station (4 km.)
  • Lucknow Railway Station (238 km)
  • Shahjahanpur Railway Station (112 km)

Dudhwa Tiger Reserve History

The Dudhwa Tiger Reserve has a rich history that dates back several decades. Here are some key milestones and events in the history of the reserve:

Establishment: Dudhwa National Park, which later became Dudhwa Tiger Reserve, was established in 1965 as a wildlife sanctuary to protect the swamp deer (barasingha) population in the region.

Recognition as a National Park: In 1977, Dudhwa Wildlife Sanctuary was declared a national park. This elevated its status and increased conservation efforts.

Inclusion in Project Tiger: In 1987, Dudhwa National Park and the Kishanpur Wildlife Sanctuary (Lakhimpur and Shahjahanpur districts) was together declared a tiger reserve under Project Tiger, a conservation initiative by the Government of India aimed at protecting the endangered Bengal tiger and its habitat. This brought additional resources and attention to the reserve.

Expansion: In 2000, the Katarniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary (Bahraich district) was added in Dudhwa Tiger Reserve.

Dudhwa Tiger Reserve Area

Dudhwa Tiger Reserve comprises Dudhwa National Park, Kishanpur Wildlife Sanctuary, Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary, and the forests of North Kheri, South Kheri, and Shahjahanpur Forest Divisions. The total area of the reserve is 2,201.7748 square kilometers (850.956 square miles).

  • Core : 1093.79
  • Buffer : 1107.9848
  • Total : 2201.7748

The area distribution within the Dudhwa Tiger Reserve is as follows:

Core Area: The core area, primarily consisting of Dudhwa National Park, covers 1,093.79 square kilometers (422.28 square miles). This area is the primary focus of conservation efforts and strict protection, particularly for flagship species like the Bengal tiger.

Buffer Area: The buffer zone of the Dudhwa Tiger Reserve spans 1,107.9848 square kilometers (428.6774 square miles). The buffer zone acts as a transition area between the core area and the surrounding human settlements. It allows for some degree of sustainable resource use and provides additional protection to the core area.

The combination of the core and buffer areas makes up the total area of the Dudhwa Tiger Reserve, which is 2,201.7748 square kilometers (850.956 square miles). This extensive expanse of protected land contributes to the conservation of wildlife, including the critically endangered species found within the reserve.

Dudhwa Tiger Reserve area is a vast alluvial plain and is the doab of Mohana and Suheli rivers. The under-lying soil consists of alluvial formation of the Gangetic plains.

Dudhwa Tiger Reserve River

The Dudhwa Tiger Reserve is traversed by several rivers and water bodies that contribute to the overall ecosystem and biodiversity of the region, which include: Suheli, Mohana, Joraha, Nagrol, Nakua and Newra, besides Sharda and Ull.

  • Suheli and Mohana streams flow through Dudhwa National Park.
  • Sharda River flow through Kishanpur Wildlife Sanctuary.
  • Girwa River flow through Katarniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary.
  • All of these rivers are tributaries of the Ghagra River.

Dudhwa Tiger Reserve Flora

The predominant flora in the Dudhwa Tiger Reserve is the Sal forest (Shorea robusta), accompanied by various associate tree species. These include:

  • Terminalia alata (Asna)
  • Lagerstroemia parviflora (Asidha)
  • Adina cordifolia (Haldu)
  • Mitragyna parviflora (Faldu)
  • Gmelina arborea (Gahmhar)
  • Holoptelea integrifolia (Kanju)
  • Acacia catechu (Khair)
  • Pterocarpus marsupium (Vija sal)
  • Kydia calyina (Poola)
  • Lannea coromandelica (Jhigan)
  • Toona ciliate (Toon)

Other notable flora species found in the Dudhwa Tiger Reserve include:

  • Murraya koenigii (Kath neem)
  • Grewia hirsuta (Van Tulsi)
  • Mallotus philippensis (Rohni)

In addition to these tree species, the reserve is also home to various grasses such as:

  • Phragmites karka (Narkul)
  • Cynodon dactylon (Doob)
  • Vetiveria zizanioides (Khaskhas)
  • Erianthus munj (Moonj)

These flora species collectively form the vegetation cover within the Dudhwa Tiger Reserve, supporting a diverse range of wildlife and contributing to the overall ecological balance of the reserve.

Dudhwa Tiger Reserve Fauna (Dudhwa Tiger Reserve Animals)

Dudhwa Tiger Reserve is renowned for its diverse and abundant wildlife. The reserve is home to a wide range of fauna, including several endangered and critically endangered species. Here are some notable fauna species found in the Dudhwa Tiger Reserve:


  • Tiger
  • Great Indian Rhino
  • Asian Elephant
  • Guldar
  • Swamp Deer
  • Spotted Deer
  • Hog Deer
  • Barking Deer
  • Sambhar
  • Fishing cat
  • Monkey
  • Langur
  • Mongoose
  • Small Indian Mongoose
  • Small Indian civet
  • Jackal
  • Honey Badger
  • Smooth Indian Otter
  • Blue bull
  • Wild Boar
  • Hare


  • Spotbilled Pelican
  • India Longbilled Vulture
  • Large Cornorant
  • Little Cormorant
  • Dabchick
  • Grey Heron
  • White stork
  • Black Stork
  • White Ibis
  • Osprey
  • Red jungle Fowl
  • Sarus Crane
  • White Breasted Water Hen
  • Brown Hawk Owl


  • Mugger
  • Ghariyal
  • Python
  • Sandboa
  • Banded Krait
  • Russel’s Viper
  • Rat Snake
  • Monitor Lizard 
  • King Cobra


  • Rohu
  • Singhi
  • Kacehala

Note- A large number of rhinos are also found in Dudhwa Tiger Reserve. It is the only place in Uttar Pradesh where both Tigers and Rhinos can be spotted together.

Top Things to do in Dudhwa Tiger Reserve

When visiting Dudhwa Tiger Reserve, there are several exciting activities and experiences that you can engage in to make the most of your trip. Here are some of the top things to do in Dudhwa Tiger Reserve:

  • Wildlife Safari
  • Birdwatching
  • Nature Walks
  • Visit the Oxbow Lakes
  • Visit the Kishanpur Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Cultural Encounters
  • Night Safari
  • Visit Dudhwa National Park

Dudhwa Tiger Reserve UPSC Questions

Q. Where is Dudhwa Tiger Reserve?/Dudhwa National Park is located in the state of?/Where is tiger park at Dudhwa situated?

A. Dudhwa Tiger Reserve is located in Lakhimpur Kheri and Bahraich districts of Uttar Pradesh, India.

Q. Which river flows through Dudhwa Tiger Reserve?

A.  Suheli, Mohana, Joraha, Nagrol, Nakua and Newra, besides Sharda and Ull river flows through Dudhwa Tiger Reserve.

Q. Why Dudhwa National Park is famous?

A. Dudhwa National Park is famous for several reasons, making it a popular destination for wildlife enthusiasts and nature lovers. Here are some of the reasons why Dudhwa National Park is renowned:

  • Bengal Tigers
  • Indian Rhinocero
  • Swamp Deer Conservation
  • Avian Diversity
  • Diverse Ecosystem
  • Oxbow Lakes
  • Cultural Heritage
  • Conservation Initiatives

Dudhwa Tiger Reserve

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