Sunday, June 4, 2023

Gugamal National Park

Gugamal National Park UPSC

Gugamal National Park is a national park located in Maharashtra, India. It was established in 1974 and covers an area of approximately 361.28. The park is named after the Gugamal Range, a hill range that runs through its core.


Gugamal National Park is known for its rich biodiversity and is home to a variety of flora and fauna. The park is characterized by its dense forests, hilly terrain, and numerous streams and rivulets. It forms a part of the larger Melghat Tiger Reserve, which is one of the important tiger reserves in India.


Table of Contents

  • Gugamal National Park Location
  • Gugamal National Park History
  • Gugamal National Park Area
  • Gugamal National Park Hills
    • Satpura Range
  • Gugamal National Park River
    • Tapti River
    • Khandu River
    • Dolar River
    • Sipna River
    • Gadga River
    • Khapra River
    • Wan River
  • Gugamal National Park Tribe
    • Korku Tribe
    • Gond Tribe
  • Gugamal National Park Flora
    • Southern Dry Deciduous Forest
    • Bamboo
    • Orchids and Strobilanthes
    • Medicinal Plants
  • Gugamal National Park Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptiles
  • Top Things to do in Gugamal National Park
  • Gugamal National Park UPSC Questions


Gugamal National Park Location

Gugamal National Park District:

Gugamal National Park is located in the Amravati district of the state of Maharashtra, India. It is located in the Chikhaldara and Dharni tehsils of Amravati district. It is situated in the Satpura Range of hills, specifically in the Melghat region. 


The Gugamal National Park is approximately 75 kilometers (47 miles) west of the city of Amravati and about 220 kilometers (137 miles) northeast of the city of Nagpur. The nearest town to the park is Paratwada, which is about 30 kilometers (19 miles) away. 


The park is easily accessible by road, and there are various transportation options available to reach Gugamal National Park.


Gugamal National Park Nearest Airport:

The nearest airport to reach Gugamal National Park is Nagpur which is 225 km from the park.


Gugamal National Park Nearest Railway Station:

The nearest railway stations are at Badnera/Amravati, 110-km away from the park.




Gugamal National Park History

Gugamal National Park has a relatively recent history. Here is a brief overview:


Establishment: In 1974, Gugamal National Park was established as a national park.


Inclusion in Melghat Tiger Reserve: In 1973-74, Melghat Tiger Reserve was created.  Melghat Tiger Reserve consists of Gugamal National Park, Wan, Ambawarba and Narnala sanctuaries. Melghat Tiger Reserve was the first Tiger Reserve to be declared in the State of Maharashtra. The purpose was to provide a safe habitat for tigers and conserve the overall biodiversity of the area.


Conservation efforts: Since its establishment, Gugamal National Park has been involved in various conservation initiatives. Efforts have been made to protect and restore the natural habitat, prevent poaching and illegal activities, and promote sustainable tourism practices.


Recognition: Gugamal National Park, as part of the Melghat Tiger Reserve, has gained recognition and support from national and international organizations for its conservation efforts. It is recognized as one of the important tiger reserves in India and plays a crucial role in the overall tiger conservation strategy of the country.




Gugamal National Park Area

Gugamal National Park covers an area of approximately 361.28 square kilometers (139.58 square miles). It is a significant protected area in the Amravati district of Maharashtra, India. 




Gugamal National Park Hills

Gugamal National Park is located in the Satpura Range of hills in the Amravati district of Maharashtra, India. The park is named after the Gugamal Range, which runs through its core. These hills contribute to the topography and scenic beauty of the park. 


The hilly terrain of Gugamal National Park consists of rugged slopes, valleys, and plateaus, creating a diverse habitat for wildlife and vegetation. The hills offer vantage points for panoramic views of the surrounding landscape and add to the overall charm of the park. 




Gugamal National Park River

Gugamal National Park is traversed by several rivers and streams that add to its natural beauty and provide water sources for wildlife. The prominent rivers in and around Gugamal National Park include:


(1) Tapti River: 

The Tapti River is one of the major rivers in the region and forms the northern boundary of Gugamal National Park. It flows along the park's northern border, providing water to the flora and fauna within the park.


(2) Melghat River (Khandu River):

The Melghat River, also known as the Khandu River, originates from the hills within the national park. It meanders through the park, offering picturesque views and serving as a crucial water source for the wildlife inhabiting the area.


(3) Dolar River: 

The Dolar River is another significant watercourse in the vicinity of Gugamal National Park. It flows through the park, providing water and sustaining the ecosystem.


(4) Sipna River: 

The Sipna River is another significant river that passes through Gugamal National Park. It originates in the Satpura Range and flows through the Melghat region, providing water to the surrounding areas.


(5) Gadga River: 

The Gadga River is a tributary of the Tapti River and also flows through Gugamal National Park. It adds to the overall water resources of the park and supports the diverse ecosystem.


(6) Khapra River: 

The Khapra River, also known as the Khapra Nadi, is another watercourse that flows through the Gugamal National Park. It is a tributary of the Tapti River and contributes to the riverine ecosystem of the region.


(7) Wan River:

The Wan River is a smaller stream that passes through Gugamal National Park. It is a tributary of the Khandu River and helps maintain the water balance within the park.




Gugamal National Park Tribe

Gugamal National Park is located in the Amravati district of Maharashtra, India, and is home to several tribal communities. The indigenous tribes residing in and around the national park are an integral part of the region's cultural heritage. The predominant tribal communities in the area include:


(1) Korku Tribe:

The Korku tribe is one of the major tribal communities found in and around Gugamal National Park. They have traditionally lived in the Melghat region, which encompasses the park. The Korku people have a distinct culture, language, and traditional knowledge of the local ecosystem.


(2) Gond Tribe:

The Gond tribe is another indigenous community that has a presence in the vicinity of Gugamal National Park. They are one of the largest tribal groups in central India and have a rich cultural heritage. The Gond people have a deep connection with the forests and often possess traditional knowledge about the local flora and fauna.




Gugamal National Park Flora

What is the flora of Gugamal National Park?

Gugamal National Park is known for its diverse flora, consisting of various plant species that thrive in the region's tropical dry deciduous forests, bamboo forests, and grasslands. 


Here are some of the notable flora found in Gugamal National Park:


(1) Southern Dry Deciduous Forest: 

Gugamal National Park is characterized by the presence of southern dry deciduous forests. These forests are predominantly composed of teak (Tectona grandis), ain (Terminalia alata), Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis), lendia (Lagerstroemia parviflora), dhawada (Anogeissus latifolia), and kusum (Schleichera oleosa) trees. These tree species are well adapted to the dry conditions of the region.


(2) Bamboo: 

Bamboo is widespread in Gugamal National Park and is an important component of the flora. Various species of bamboo, belonging to the Bambusoideae family, can be found throughout the park. Bamboo plays a crucial role in stabilizing the soil, providing habitat, and serving as a food source for wildlife.


(3) Orchids and Strobilanthes: 

In the upper hills of Gugamal National Park, you can find orchids and Strobilanthes plants. Orchids are known for their beautiful and diverse flowers, while Strobilanthes is a genus that includes several species with attractive blooms. Their presence adds to the floral diversity and visual appeal of the park.


(4) Medicinal Plants:

Gugamal National Park is recognized for its rich variety of medicinal plants. The park's diverse flora includes numerous species with medicinal properties, which are used by local communities for traditional healing practices. These medicinal plants contribute to the overall ecological value and importance of the park.


The combination of these plant species, including teak, ain, Indian gooseberry, lendia, dhawada, kusum, bamboo, orchids, Strobilanthes, and medicinal plants, forms the intricate web of flora within Gugamal National Park. They support the park's ecosystem, provide habitat and food for wildlife, and offer a range of valuable resources to both humans and the environment.




Gugamal National Park Fauna (Gugamal National Park Animals)

Gugamal National Park is famous for which animal?

Gugamal National Park is home to a diverse range of wildlife species, including mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. The park's varied ecosystems, encompassing forests, grasslands, and rivers, provide suitable habitats for a wide array of fauna. 


Here are some notable species found in Gugamal National Park:


Mammals:

  • Bengal Tiger
  • Indian Leopard
  • Sloth Bear
  • Ussuri Dhole
  • Indian Jackal
  • Striped Hyena
  • Four-horned Antelope
  • Sambar
  • Gaur
  • Barking Deer
  • Honey Badger
  • Flying Squirrel
  • Cheetal
  • Nilgai
  • Wild Boar
  • Langur
  • Rhesus Monkey
  • Macaques


Birds:

  • Forest Spotted Owlet
  • Serpent Eagles
  • Paradise Flycatcher
  • Indian Peafowl
  • Indian Roller
  • Malabar Pied Hornbill 
  • Greater Racket-tailed Drongo 
  • White-bellied Drongo


Reptiles:

  • Crocodiles
  • Indian Python 
  • Indian Cobra
  • Monitor Lizards
  • Indian Skink




Top Things to do in Gugamal National Park

Gugamal National Park offers a range of activities and experiences for visitors to enjoy. Here are some of the top things to do in Gugamal National Park:


  • Wildlife Safari
  • Birdwatching
  • Nature Walks
  • Photography
  • Nature Interpretation Center
  • Camping
  • Picnicking




Gugamal National Park UPSC Questions

Q. What is Gugamal National Park also known as?

A. Gugamal National Park is also known as Melghat Tiger Reserve. 


Q. What is Gugamal National Park famous for?

A. Gugamal National Park is famous for Melghat Tiger Reserve. 


Q. In which state is Gugamal National Park?/Where is Gugamal National Park?

A. Gugamal National Park is located in the Amravati district of the state of Maharashtra, India. 


Q. Which river flows from Gugamal National Park?

A. Tapti, Khandu, Dolar, Sipna, Gadga, Khapra, Wan river flows from Gugamal National Park.


Q. When was Gugamal National Park established?

A. Gugamal National Park was established in 1974.

Gugamal National Park

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