Sunday, June 4, 2023

Chandoli National Park

Chandoli National Park UPSC

Chandoli National Park is a protected area located in the state of Maharashtra, India. It is situated in the Sahyadri Range of the Western Ghats. The park covers an area of approximately 317.67 square kilometers and is known for its rich biodiversity and natural beauty.


Established in 2004, Chandoli National Park is part of the larger Sahyadri Tiger Reserve, which includes the Koyna Wildlife Sanctuary and Radhanagari Wildlife Sanctuary. The park derives its name from the Chandoli Dam, which was constructed on the river Warna within its boundaries.


Table of Contents

  • Chandoli National Park Location
  • Chandoli National Park History
  • Chandoli National Park Area
  • Chandoli National Park Hills
    • Sahyadri Range (Western Ghats)
  • Chandoli National Park River
    • Warana River
  • Chandoli National Park Lake
    • Chandoli Lake
  • Chandoli National Park Flora
    • Deciduous Forests
    • Evergreen Forests
    • Grasslands
    • Insectivorous Plant Species
    • Medicinal Plants
    • Aquatic Plants
  • Chandoli National Park Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptiles
  • Top Things to do in Chandoli National Park
  • Chandoli National Park UPSC Questions


Chandoli National Park Location

Chandoli National Park is located in the Satara, Kolhapur and Sangli Districts of Maharashtra, India. It is situated in the Western Ghats. It is situated in the western part of Maharashtra and located near the Chandoli Dam.


Chandoli National Park lies between the Radhanagiri and Koyna Wildlife Sanctuaries and forms the southern part of the Sahyadri Tiger Reserve.


The park is approximately 60 kilometers (37 miles) northwest of Kolhapur city and around 320 kilometers (200 miles) southeast of Mumbai, the capital city of Maharashtra.


Chandoli National Park Nearest Airport:

  • Urun Islampur airport at Kolhapur (30 KM) 
  • Pune airport (210 KM)
  • Mumbai airport (380 KM)


Chandoli National Park Nearest Railway Station:

Sangli Railway Station (75 KM)




Chandoli National Park History

Chandoli National Park has a rich history that dates back several decades. Here is an overview of the park's history:


Pre-Park Era: The Chandoli National Park includes historical places of note including 17th century forts of the Maratha Empire, Prachitgad and Bhairavgad. Most of the protected area was used an open jail for the "prisoners of war" of the early battles during Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj's rule. Chhatrapati Sambhaji Maharaj used Prachitgad as an observation point and recreational place.


Declaration as a Wildlife Sanctuary: In 1985, Chandoli Wildlife Sanctuary was established to protect the region's biodiversity. The sanctuary aimed to safeguard the diverse flora and fauna found in the Western Ghats.


Upgradation to National Park: With the goal of providing enhanced protection and conservation, Chandoli Wildlife Sanctuary was upgraded to Chandoli National Park in 2004. This change in status brought more attention and resources to the area.


Inclusion in Sahyadri Tiger Reserve: Chandoli National Park became part of the Sahyadri Tiger Reserve, which was established in 2008. The reserve is one of the largest tiger conservation areas in India, covering a significant portion of the Western Ghats. Chandoli Park is notable as the southern portion of the Sahyadri Tiger Reserve, with Koyna Wildlife Sanctuary forming the northern part of the reserve.




Chandoli National Park Area

Chandoli National Park covers an area of approximately 317.67 square kilometers (122.62 square miles). This includes the forested regions, hilly terrain, and water bodies within its boundaries. 


Chandoli National Park is located in the Sahyadri Range of the Western Ghats and constitutes the southern part of the Sahyadri Tiger Reserve.


The expansive area of Chandoli National Park provides habitat for a wide range of plant and animal species, making it an important conservation area within the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot.




Chandoli National Park Hills

Chandoli National Park is characterized by its hilly terrain, as it is located in the Sahyadri Range (Western Ghats). The park is situated amidst the picturesque hills of the Western Ghats, offering scenic beauty and diverse landscapes.


The hills in Chandoli National Park are part of the Western Ghats, which are a UNESCO World Heritage Site known for their ecological significance. The terrain features rolling hills, steep slopes, and deep valleys, creating a dramatic and breathtaking landscape.


These hills provide a natural habitat for a wide variety of flora and fauna. The forested slopes are covered with dense vegetation, including deciduous forests and evergreen forests. Various species of trees, shrubs, and grasses thrive in these hills, contributing to the park's rich biodiversity.


Visitors to Chandoli National Park can explore the hills through trekking trails and viewpoints, allowing them to enjoy panoramic vistas of the surrounding landscapes. The hilly terrain also adds to the adventurous spirit of the park, attracting nature enthusiasts and adventure seekers alike.




Chandoli National Park River

Chandoli National Park is home to several rivers and streams that flow through its boundaries, enhancing the natural beauty and ecological significance of the park. The most prominent river that runs through Chandoli National Park is the Warna River.


Warana River is a river that flows through the Sangli and Kolhapur districts in the western Indian state of Maharashtra. It is an important tributary of the Krishna river. The river originates at a height of 914 m above sea level on Prachitgad near Patharpunj plateau in the Sahyadri mountain range. 


The Warna River is a significant watercourse in the region and flows through the park, enriching the surrounding ecosystem. It originates in the Western Ghats and meanders through the hilly terrain of the park, creating a diverse range of habitats and supporting various plant and animal species.


The river serves as a crucial water source for the wildlife in the park, attracting a variety of animals, birds, and aquatic life. It also adds to the scenic charm of Chandoli National Park, with its clear water, rocky banks, and lush vegetation along its course.


Additionally, there may be smaller streams and tributaries within the park that contribute to the overall hydrology of the area. These water bodies further enhance the biodiversity and provide habitats for aquatic species.




Chandoli National Park Lake

Chandoli Dam is a significant structure located within the Chandoli National Park in Maharashtra, India. It is built across the river Warna, a prominent watercourse in the region. The dam serves multiple purposes, including irrigation, water supply, and hydroelectric power generation.


The construction of Chandoli Dam was completed in 1986 as part of a water conservation project. It is a gravity dam, made of concrete, and has a height of about 102 meters (335 feet). The dam creates a reservoir known as the Chandoli Reservoir or Chandoli Lake, which spans across a vast area and extends within the boundaries of Chandoli National Park.


The Chandoli Dam and reservoir have significant importance in the region. They contribute to the agricultural irrigation needs of nearby areas, provide drinking water to local communities, and support hydroelectric power generation. The dam's reservoir also adds to the scenic beauty of Chandoli National Park, attracting visitors who come to enjoy the serene surroundings and engage in various recreational activities.




Chandoli National Park Flora

Which plant is found in Chandoli National Park?

Chandoli National Park is renowned for its diverse and lush flora, representing the rich biodiversity of the Western Ghats. The park's vegetation includes a wide range of plant species, including both evergreen and deciduous forests. 


Here are some notable flora found in Chandoli National Park:


(1) Deciduous Forests: 

The park is predominantly covered by deciduous forests, characterized by trees that shed their leaves during certain seasons. Trees such as teak (Tectona grandis), ain (Terminalia elliptica), hirda (Terminalia chebula), and javan (Lagerstroemia microcarpa) are common in these forests.


(2) Evergreen Forests:

Some areas within the park are characterized by evergreen forests, which retain their foliage throughout the year. These forests are home to a variety of tree species, including blackwood (Dalbergia latifolia), mathi (Terminalla tomentosa), and katak (Flacourtia indica).


(3) Grasslands:

Chandoli National Park also features patches of grasslands, providing open habitats for various species. These grasslands support a diverse array of grasses and herbaceous plants that play a crucial role in the park's ecosystem.


Grasses commonly seen here include bangala or bluestem grass sp., dongari or golden beard grass (fulvus), black spear grass, kalikusli or tangle grass, anjan grass or buffel grass, grader grass or karad or kangaroo grass (quadrivalvis) and grasses belonging to family Poaceae, like saphet-kusli or Aristida funiculata].


(4) Insectivorous Plant Species:

Insectivorous plant species like sundews and bladderworts sp. are also found in this protected area.


(5) Medicinal Plants:

The park is known to harbor a range of medicinal plants that have traditional and cultural importance. These include species like aloe vera, Indian sarsaparilla (Hemidesmus indicus), and devil's claw (Harpagophytum procumbens).


(6) Aquatic Plants:

The water bodies within the park, such as the Warna River and the Chandoli Reservoir, support a variety of aquatic plants like water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and water lilies (Nymphaea spp.).




Chandoli National Park Fauna (Chandoli National Park Animals)

Chandoli National Park is home to a diverse range of fauna, including mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and insects. The park's rich biodiversity is supported by its varied ecosystems, including forests, grasslands, and water bodies. 


Here are some notable examples of the fauna found in Chandoli National Park:


Mammals:

  • Bengal Tiger
  • Leopard
  • Indian Bison
  • Leopard Cat
  • Sloth Bear
  • Indian Giant Squirrel
  • Barking Deer
  • Sambar Deer
  • Mouse Deer
  • Blackbuck 


Birds:

  • Malabar Pied Hornbill
  • Malabar Grey Hornbill
  • Indian Grey Hornbill
  • Crested Serpent Eagle
  • Malabar Trogon
  • Indian Pitta
  • Rufous-bellied Eagle


Reptiles:

  • Indian Rock Python
  • King Cobra
  • Common Krait
  • Indian Rat Snake
  • Malabar Pit Viper




Top Things to do in Chandoli National Park

Chandoli National Park offers a range of activities and experiences for visitors who want to explore its natural beauty and biodiversity. Here are some top things to do in Chandoli National Park:


  • Wildlife Safari
  • Nature Walks and Trekking
  • Birdwatching
  • Photography
  • Boating and Fishing
  • Nature Interpretation Center
  • Camping and Picnicking




Chandoli National Park UPSC Questions

Q. Why Chandoli National Park is famous?

A.Chandoli National Park is famous for several reasons, which contribute to its prominence among nature enthusiasts, wildlife lovers, and adventure seekers. Here are some reasons why Chandoli National Park is renowned:

  • Biodiversity Hotspot
  • Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Scenic Landscapes
  • Trekking and Adventure
  • Birdwatching Paradise
  • Cultural Heritage (Prachitgad and Bhairavgad)


Q. Which river passes through Chandoli National Park?

A. Warana river passes through Chandoli National Park.


Q. Which animal is protected in Chandoli National Park?

A. Several animal species are protected in Chandoli National Park under the Wildlife Protection Act of India. Some of the protected animals in the park include:

  • Bengal Tiger
  • Indian Leopard
  • Indian Bison (Gaur) 
  • Sloth Bear
  • Indian Giant Squirrel 


Q. Where is Chandoli National Park located?/Chandoli National Park is in which state?/Chandoli National Park is located in which district?

A. Chandoli National Park is located in the Satara, Kolhapur and Sangli Districts of Maharashtra, India.


Q. Chandoli National Park is famous for which animal?

A. Chandoli National Park is particularly famous for being a habitat for the Indian bison, also known as the Indian gaur (Bos gaurus).

Chandoli National Park

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