Friday, June 30, 2023

Kaziranga Tiger Reserve

Kaziranga Tiger Reserve UPSC

Kaziranga Tiger Reserve is a renowned wildlife sanctuary located in the state of Assam, India. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and is known for its exceptional biodiversity and conservation efforts.

The Kaziranga Tiger Reserve is primarily known for its population of the Indian one-horned rhinoceros, which is one of its flagship species. Kaziranga is home to more than two-thirds of the world's population of this endangered rhino species. Additionally, the park is also known for its significant tiger population, making it an important tiger conservation area. 

Kaziranga Tiger Reserve consists of grasslands, wetlands, and dense forests. It is located in the floodplains of the Brahmaputra River, which contributes to its unique ecosystem. The tall elephant grass, marshlands, and water bodies create an ideal habitat for the diverse wildlife found in the reserve.

Table of Contents

  • Kaziranga Tiger Reserve Location
  • Kaziranga Tiger Reserve History
  • Kaziranga Tiger Reserve Area
  • Kaziranga Tiger Reserve River
  • Kaziranga Tiger Reserve Flora
  • Kaziranga Tiger Reserve Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptile
  • Top Things to do in Kaziranga Tiger Reserve
  • Kaziranga Tiger Reserve UPSC Questions

Kaziranga Tiger Reserve Location

Kaziranga Tiger Reserve is located in the Golaghat, Karbi Anglong and Nagaon districts of Assam in India.

Kaziranga Tiger Reserve Nearest Airport:

The nearest airport to Kaziranga Tiger Reserve is the Jorhat Airport, also known as the Rowriah Airport, located in Jorhat city of Assam. It is approximately 97 kilometers (60 miles) away from the Kaziranga Tiger Reserve. Another nearby airport is the Lokpriya Gopinath Bordoloi International Airport in Guwahati, which is approximately 215 kilometers (134 miles) away.

Kaziranga Tiger Reserve Nearest Railway Station:

The nearest railway station to Kaziranga Tiger Reserve is the Furkating Junction Railway Station, which is located in the town of Furkating in Assam. It is approximately 75 kilometers (47 miles) away from Kaziranga Tiger Reserve. From Furkating Junction, one can hire a taxi or take a bus to reach the reserve.

Kaziranga Tiger Reserve History

The history of Kaziranga Tiger Reserve dates back to the early 20th century when it was initially established as a forest reserve. Here's a brief overview of the history of Kaziranga Tiger Reserve:

Early Years: In 1904, Lady Curzon, the wife of the then Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon, visited the Kaziranga area and was deeply moved by the dwindling population of rhinoceroses. Her concern led to the declaration of Kaziranga as a Reserved Forest in 1905 to provide protection to the rhinos.

Wildlife Sanctuary: In 1950, Kaziranga was designated as a wildlife sanctuary, primarily to protect the Indian one-horned rhinoceros, which was on the brink of extinction. 

National Park Status: Recognizing the ecological significance of Kaziranga, it was declared a national park in 1974. The park's boundaries were expanded to encompass an area of about 858 square kilometers (331 square miles).

UNESCO World Heritage Site: In 1985, Kaziranga National Park was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The designation recognized its outstanding universal value in terms of biodiversity conservation and its role in preserving unique ecosystems.

Tiger Reserve: To further strengthen tiger conservation efforts, Kaziranga was declared a tiger reserve in 2008-09, known as Kaziranga Tiger Reserve. This expansion aimed to protect the habitat and populations of Bengal tigers in the region.

Conservation Success: Over the years, Kaziranga Tiger Reserve has achieved remarkable success in conserving the Indian one-horned rhinoceros. The population of rhinos has increased from a mere handful in the early 20th century to more than 2,000 individuals today, representing two-thirds of the global population.

Kaziranga Tiger Reserve Area

Kaziranga Tiger Reserve spans an impressive area that consists of a core area and a buffer area. The total area of Kaziranga Tiger Reserve is as follows:

  • Core area : 482.0385 sq km
  • Buffer area : 573.8555 sq km
  • Total : 1055.894 sq km

Core Area: The core area of Kaziranga Tiger Reserve covers approximately 482.0385 square kilometers (186.04 square miles). This section of the reserve is the most strictly protected and is dedicated to preserving the critical habitats of key wildlife species, including the Indian one-horned rhinoceros and Bengal tiger. The core area is carefully managed to ensure the conservation and safety of these endangered animals.

Buffer Area: Surrounding the core area, Kaziranga Tiger Reserve includes a buffer area that extends over an area of about 573.8555 square kilometers (221.49 square miles). The buffer zone acts as a transition zone between the core area and the surrounding human-inhabited landscapes. It serves as a protective zone to minimize human-wildlife conflicts and allows for sustainable land use practices while maintaining ecological connectivity.

Total Area: The combined area of the core and buffer areas makes up the total area of Kaziranga Tiger Reserve. In total, Kaziranga Tiger Reserve spans approximately 1055.894 square kilometers (407.53 square miles). This extensive area showcases the commitment to wildlife conservation and habitat preservation in the region.

Kaziranga Tiger Reserve River

Kaziranga Tiger Reserve is traversed by the Diphlu River, also known as the Diffalu River. The Diphlu River is a tributary of the Brahmaputra River and flows through the core area of the reserve. This river serves as an important water source and plays a significant role in shaping the ecosystem of Kaziranga.

In addition to the Diphlu River, another tributary called the Moradifalu flows along the southern boundary of the reserve. These water bodies, along with other streams and wetlands within the reserve, contribute to the diverse habitats found in Kaziranga Tiger Reserve. They provide essential drinking water and bathing spots for the wildlife and support a variety of aquatic plants and animals.

Kaziranga Tiger Reserve Flora

Kaziranga Tiger Reserve is renowned for its diverse and unique flora, which encompasses a range of ecosystems within the reserve. Here are some of the prominent vegetation types found in Kaziranga:

(1) Eastern Wet Alluvial Grasslands:

The eastern wet alluvial grasslands are a distinctive feature of Kaziranga. These grasslands, dominated by tall elephant grass (Saccharum ravennae), cover a significant portion of the reserve's landscape. The grasslands provide crucial habitat for herbivores like the Indian one-horned rhinoceros, wild water buffalo, and various deer species. They also support a diverse range of bird species.

(2) Assam Alluvial Plains Semi-Evergreen Forests:

The Assam alluvial plains semi-evergreen forests are found in the higher regions of Kaziranga. These forests are characterized by a mix of semi-evergreen and deciduous tree species. Some common trees found in these forests include Bombax ceiba, Dillenia indica, Lagerstroemia speciosa, and Ficus species. These forests provide important shelter and food resources for a variety of wildlife species.

(3) Tropical Moist Mixed Deciduous Forests:

The tropical moist mixed deciduous forests are present in certain pockets of Kaziranga. These forests comprise a diverse range of tree species, including Terminalia arjuna, Lagerstroemia parviflora, Albizia procera, and Tectona grandis. They add to the overall biodiversity of the reserve and offer habitat for various bird species and small mammals.

(4) Wetlands:

Kaziranga Tiger Reserve is characterized by numerous wetlands, including marshes, ponds, and beels (oxbow lakes). These wetlands are home to a variety of aquatic plants such as water lilies, lotus, and water hyacinth. They provide habitat for several water-dependent species, including water birds, turtles, and amphibians.

(5) Sandy "Chaurs":

The "chaurs" in Kaziranga refer to areas with sandy soils. These open grassy areas are interspersed with scattered trees and shrubs. They provide grazing grounds for herbivores and serve as nesting sites for various bird species.

Kaziranga Tiger Reserve Fauna (Kaziranga Tiger Reserve Animals)

Kaziranga Tiger Reserve is renowned for its remarkable fauna and is home to a diverse range of wildlife species, including several endangered and iconic animals. Here are some of the notable fauna found in Kaziranga Tiger Reserve:


  • Bengal Tiger
  • Indian One-Horned Rhinoceros
  • Eastern Swamp Deer
  • Asian Elephant
  • Wild Water Buffalo
  • Hoolock Gibbon
  • Capped Langur
  • Gangetic River Dolphin


  • Kaziranga sanctuary hosts two-thirds of the world’s great One-horned Rhinoceroses.
  • Kaziranga has the largest population of the Wild Water Buffalo anywhere accounting for about 57% of the world population.


  • Great Indian Hornbill
  • Bengal Florican
  • Grey-headed Fishing Eagle
  • Pallas's Fish Eagle
  • Swamp Francolin 
  • Lesser Adjutant Stork
  • Spot-billed Pelican
  • Black-necked Stork 

Note- Kaziranga is recognized as an Important Bird Area by Bird Life International for conservation of avifaunal species.


  • Indian Rock Python
  • King Cobra
  • Indian Cobra
  • Common Indian Krait
  • Bengal Monitor 
  • Common Indian Monitor
  • Assam Roofed Turtle

Top Things to do in Kaziranga Tiger Reserve

Visiting Kaziranga Tiger Reserve offers a unique and unforgettable experience in the heart of Assam, India. Here are some of the top things to do when exploring Kaziranga:

  • Wildlife Safari
  • Birdwatching
  • River Safari
  • Nature Walk
  • Visit the Orchid Park
  • Cultural Experiences
  • Visit the Kaziranga National Orchid and Biodiversity Park
  • Visit the Assamese Villages
  • Elephant Rides
  • Photography

Kaziranga Tiger Reserve UPSC Questions

Q. Kaziranga Tiger Reserve is located in which state?

A. Kaziranga Tiger Reserve is located in the Golaghat, Karbi Anglong and Nagaon districts of Assam in India.

Q. When was Kaziranga declared as a tiger reserve?/In which year Kaziranga was declared as tiger reserve?

A. Kaziranga was declared as a tiger reserve in 2008–09.

Q. Which river passes through Kaziranga Tiger Reserve?

A. Diphlu River passes through Kaziranga Tiger Reserve.

Kaziranga Tiger Reserve

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