Saturday, August 5, 2023

Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary

Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary UPSC (Hazaribagh National Park)

Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary (earlier known as Hazaribagh National Park) is a significant wildlife reserve located in the state of Jharkhand, India. The sanctuary is renowned for its diverse flora and fauna.

Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary plays a crucial role in preserving the region's biodiversity and maintaining the ecological balance of the area. The sanctuary offers opportunities for eco-tourism and wildlife safaris. 

Table of Contents

  • Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary Location
  • Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary History
  • Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary Area
  • Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary Hills
  • Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary Lake
  • Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary Flora
  • Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptile
  • Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary UPSC Questions

Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary Location

Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the Hazaribagh district of Jharkhand, India. It is situated in the eastern part of the state. It is easily accessible from major cities in Jharkhand and neighboring states.

Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary Nearest Airport:

The nearest airport to Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary is the Birsa Munda Airport in Ranchi, Jharkhand. The airport is approximately 100 kilometers (about 62 miles) away from the sanctuary. From the airport, you can hire a taxi or use other means of transportation to reach Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary.

Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary Nearest Railway Station:

Regarding the nearest railway station, the Hazaribagh Road railway station is the one closest to the sanctuary. It is situated at a distance of about 22 kilometers (approximately 14 miles) from Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary. After arriving at Hazaribagh Road railway station, you can avail local transport options to reach the sanctuary.

Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary History

Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary has a significant historical and cultural background. Here's a brief overview of its history:

Earlier Royal Jurisdiction: Earlier, the entire area of Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary was under the jurisdiction of the Raja of the erstwhile estate of Ramgarh. This area served as a hunting ground and provided privileges for the royal family's shooting, sports, and other forms of entertainment.

Sanctuary Status: In the year 1954, recognizing the importance of preserving its rich biodiversity and protecting its wildlife, the area was accorded the status of a sanctuary. This decision was made by the revenue department of the Government of Bihar and was formalized on 7th August 1954.

Establishment of Hazaribagh National Park: The Hazaribagh National Park was officially established in 1955, further solidifying the sanctuary's significance as a protected area for wildlife conservation.

Demotion to Wildlife Sanctuary: At a later stage, in 1976, the Hazaribagh National Park was demoted from its national park status to that of a wildlife sanctuary. Despite the change in nomenclature, the focus on conservation and protection of its flora and fauna remained a top priority.

Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary Area

Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary covers an area of approximately 186.25 square kilometers (71.92 square miles). 

Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary Hills

Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary is characterized by its diverse topography, which includes hills, plateaus, and valleys. The sanctuary is situated in the Chota Nagpur Plateau region of Jharkhand, and the presence of hills adds to its scenic beauty and ecological significance.

The hills within Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary offer unique habitats for various wildlife species and contribute to the overall biodiversity of the area. These hills are covered with dense forests and grasslands, providing shelter and food sources for animals like tigers, leopards, bison, deer, and a variety of bird species.

Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary Lake

Rajderwa Lake, also known as Rajrappa Lake, is a prominent water body in Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary in the state of Jharkhand, India. It is located within the sanctuary.

Rajderwa Lake is situated about 25 kilometers (approximately 16 miles) from Hazaribagh town. It is a picturesque reservoir formed by the damming of the Bhera River, surrounded by lush green hills and forests. The lake and its surroundings offer a serene and tranquil environment, making it an ideal spot for picnics and recreational activities.

The Rajderwa Dam, which created the lake, serves as an essential water resource for both irrigation and drinking purposes in the region. The scenic beauty and religious significance of the lake attract visitors from various places.

Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary Flora

Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary is known for its rich and diverse flora, which includes a variety of plant species that thrive in its different ecosystems. The sanctuary's flora comprises both deciduous and evergreen forests, grasslands, and various types of vegetation. 

Some of the key flora found in Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary include:

Sal (Shorea robusta): Sal is one of the dominant tree species found in the sanctuary. It is a valuable timber tree and an important part of the forest ecosystem, providing food and shelter to many animal species.

Mahua (Madhuca longifolia): The mahua tree is another prominent species in the sanctuary. It bears edible fruits that are consumed by local communities and wildlife alike.

Bamboo (Bambusa arundinacea): Bamboo groves can be found in some parts of the sanctuary. Bamboo is an essential resource for various animals, and its presence adds to the ecological diversity of the area.

Semal (Bombax ceiba): Semal is a deciduous tree with large, striking red flowers. It is known for its beautiful blooms and is an important nectar source for bees and other pollinators.

Amla (Phyllanthus emblica): Also known as Indian gooseberry, amla is a small tree that bears edible fruits rich in Vitamin C. It is valued for its medicinal properties.

Jamun (Syzygium cumini): Jamun, or Indian blackberry, is a fruit-bearing tree commonly found in the sanctuary. Its fruits are consumed by wildlife and are also used for culinary purposes by humans.

Palash (Butea monosperma): Palash is a deciduous tree known for its bright orange-red flowers, which bloom during the spring season. It adds a burst of color to the landscape.

Teak (Tectona grandis): Teak is a valuable timber tree and is sometimes found in the sanctuary's forests.

Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary Fauna (Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary Animals)

Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary famous for which animal?

Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary is home to a diverse range of fauna, making it a significant wildlife habitat in the Indian state of Jharkhand. The sanctuary's diverse ecosystems, including forests, grasslands, and hills, support various animal species. 

Some of the prominent fauna found in Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary include:


  • Sambhar
  • Cheetal (Spotted Deer)
  • Nilgai
  • Wild Boars
  • Black Bears
  • Jackals
  • Porcupines
  • Hyenas
  • Pangolins
  • Hares


  • Serpent Eagle
  • Paradise Flycatcher
  • Kingfisher
  • Bee-eater
  • Swifts
  • Different types of Babblers
  • Black Drongo
  • Woodpeckers
  • Lapwings
  • Peafowls
  • Pond Heron
  • Egrets

In addition to the above, Hazaribagh district is known for its vulture population, including species such as:

  • White-backed Vulture
  • Long-billed Vulture or Indian Vulture
  • Himalayan Griffon
  • Egyptian Vulture


  • Pythons
  • Cobras
  • Vipers
  • Frogs
  • Toads

Note- Earlier Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary was home to tigers, leopards, and many more animals but now rarely animals other than nilgai and hyena are seen. 

Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary UPSC Questions

Q. In which state the Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary is situated?

A. Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary is situated in the state of Jharkhand, India. It is located in the Hazaribagh district, which is one of the districts within the state of Jharkhand. 

Q. Is Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary a national park?

A. Hazaribagh National Park was initially established in 1955 and then demoted to the status of a wildlife sanctuary in 1976. This change in nomenclature indicates a shift in the level of protection and management of the area.

Q. Are there tigers in Hazaribagh?

A. In the past, Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary boasted a diverse array of wildlife, including tigers, leopards, and numerous other species. However, in recent times, there has been a decline in the presence of these animals, with only rare sightings of species like nilgai and hyena observed in the sanctuary. This shift in the wildlife population emphasizes the current challenges faced by the sanctuary's biodiversity and highlights the need for continuous conservation efforts. Monitoring and protective measures are crucial to preserve the existing wildlife and create a conducive environment for the return of other species to their natural habitat.

Q. What is Hazaribagh Sanctuary famous for?

A. Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary is famous for its rich biodiversity and diverse flora and fauna. The sanctuary, located in Jharkhand, India, is renowned for the following aspects:

(i) Wildlife Diversity: Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary is known for being home to a variety of wildlife species, including nilgai, sambars, chitals, hyenas, wild boars, langurs, and many others. The sanctuary's diverse ecosystems provide habitats for numerous animals, making it an essential area for wildlife conservation.

(ii) Scenic Beauty: The sanctuary's picturesque landscape, comprising hills, plateaus, and forests, attracts nature enthusiasts and photographers. Visitors can enjoy breathtaking views and serene surroundings during their exploration of the sanctuary.

(iii) Birdwatching: Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary is a haven for birdwatchers. It hosts a wide range of avian species, such as serpent eagles, paradise flycatchers, kingfishers, bee-eaters, and various types of babblers. The sanctuary is also visited by migratory birds during the winter months.

(iv) Vultures: Hazaribagh district is the only place in Jharkhand where vultures can still be seen in the wild. The sanctuary is known for being an important habitat for various vulture species, including the critically endangered White-backed Vulture and Long-billed Vulture.

Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary

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