Thursday, October 5, 2023

Thorangtlang Wildlife Sanctuary

Thorangtlang Wildlife Sanctuary UPSC

Thorangtlang Wildlife Sanctuary is a protected area located in the state of Mizoram, India. The sanctuary is known for its diverse flora and fauna. It is home to a wide range of wildlife species, including various mammals, birds, reptiles, and insects. 

The sanctuary serves as a migration route for elephants from Bangladesh. It highlights the regional importance of the area for the conservation of these majestic animals.

The sanctuary features lush tropical and subtropical vegetation, including dense forests, bamboo groves, and grasslands. The diverse vegetation provides habitats for a variety of wildlife species.

Table of Contents

  • Thorangtlang Wildlife Sanctuary Location
  • Thorangtlang Wildlife Sanctuary History
  • Thorangtlang Wildlife Sanctuary Area
  • Thorangtlang Wildlife Sanctuary Flora
  • Thorangtlang Wildlife Sanctuary Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptile
  • Thorangtlang Wildlife Sanctuary UPSC Questions

Thorangtlang Wildlife Sanctuary Location

The Thorangtlang Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the Lunglei District of the northeastern state of Mizoram, India. It is situated in the eastern part of Mizoram, approximately 245 kilometers south of Aizawl, the state capital of Mizoram. The sanctuary lies close to the Indo-Bangladesh border. 

Thorangtlang Wildlife Sanctuary Nearest Airport:

The nearest airport to Thorangtlang Wildlife Sanctuary is Lengpui Airport (also known as Aizawl Airport). Lengpui Airport is located in the capital city of Mizoram, Aizawl, which is approximately 245 kilometers north of Thorangtlang Wildlife Sanctuary. Travelers can take a flight to Lengpui Airport and then proceed by road to reach the sanctuary.

Thorangtlang Wildlife Sanctuary Nearest Railway Station:

There is no direct railway station near Thorangtlang Wildlife Sanctuary, as Mizoram does not have a railway network. The nearest major railway station to Mizoram is in Silchar, Assam, which is quite a distance away from Thorangtlang. From Silchar, one would need to continue the journey by road to reach the sanctuary. Road transportation is the primary mode of travel within Mizoram.

Thorangtlang Wildlife Sanctuary History

The history of Thorangtlang Wildlife Sanctuary can be traced back to its establishment as a protected area to conserve the region's unique biodiversity. Here is a brief overview of the history of Thorangtlang Wildlife Sanctuary:

Notification as a Reserve Forest: Thorangtlang Wildlife Sanctuary was initially notified as a Reserve Forest in the year 1982. This designation was made official through a government notification by the Government of Mizoram, with reference number FOR, 169/79/130, dated March 11, 1982.

Preliminary Notification: Subsequently, a preliminary notification was issued by the government to declare an area of 50 square kilometers within these Reserve Forests as Thorangtlang Wildlife Sanctuary. This preliminary notification was issued on September 4, 2001, as per government reference number B.12012/17/2001-FST.

Final Notification: The final notification to establish Thorangtlang Wildlife Sanctuary was issued by the government on April 23, 2002. This notification officially declared an area of 50 square kilometers as the sanctuary, and it was issued under government reference number B.12012/17/2001-FST.

International and National Significance: The sanctuary is significant at the international and national levels because it provides protection to six rare and endangered species of wildlife (Tiger, Clouded Leopard Threatened, Leopard Cat, Hoolock Gibbon, Leaf Monkey and Serow) listed in the Red Data Book of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), the Appendices of CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora), and the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 (WPA).

Thorangtlang Wildlife Sanctuary Area

Thorangtlang Wildlife Sanctuary covers an area of approximately 50 square kilometers (5,000 hectares). The sanctuary encompasses a variety of habitats, including evergreen and semi-evergreen forests, which are home to a diverse range of wildlife species. 

Thorangtlang Wildlife Sanctuary Flora

Thorangtlang Wildlife Sanctuary is characterized by a diverse range of flora, owing to its location in the northeastern part of the country and its varied elevation zones. Here are some of the key components of the flora found in Thorangtlang Wildlife Sanctuary:

(1) Tropical Semi-Evergreen Forest:

This type of forest occupies a significant portion of the sanctuary, particularly in the hill areas of the south, central, and western regions. Some important tree species found in these forests include Litsea monopetala, Mesua ferrea, Ficus rigida, Dryptes lancifolia, Schima wallichii, Castonopsis tribuloides, Morinda angustifolia, and Artocarpus nitiden. These forests also contain various bamboo and rattan species in the lower valleys.

(2) Shrubs:

The sanctuary is home to a variety of shrub species, including Bridelia monoica (Phaktel), Tabernaemontana divarcaita (Keltebengbeh), Gnetum gnemon (Pelh), Maesa indica (Arngeng), and Leeca indica (Kawlkar), among others.

(3) Herbs:

Herbaceous vegetation in the sanctuary includes species like Elatostema sessile (Suanglung-an), Solanum nigrum (Anhling), Microlepia strigosa (Katchat), Gleichenia linearis (Arthladawn), Solanum viarum (Athlohling), and more.

(4) Rare and Endangered Species:

The sanctuary is home to species of conservation importance. These include Quercus species (oaks), Betula species (birches), wild orchids, and the rare bamboo species Chimnobambusa collasa. Proper conservation efforts are necessary to protect these rare and endangered plants.

(5) Other Flora:

Apart from the mentioned species, the sanctuary likely hosts a wide variety of other plant species, including various ferns, mosses, lichens, and epiphytes, given its diverse forest types and elevation ranges.

Thorangtlang Wildlife Sanctuary Fauna (Thorangtlang Wildlife Sanctuary Animals)

Thorangtlang Wildlife Sanctuary is known for its diverse fauna, including various mammals, birds, reptiles, and other wildlife species. Here is an overview of some of the notable fauna found in the sanctuary:


  • Tiger (Sakei)
  • Leopard (Keite)
  • Clouded Leopard (Kelral)
  • Jungle Cat (Sauak)
  • Leopard Cat (Sanghar)
  • Common Civet (Zawbuang)
  • Sambar (Sazuk)
  • Barking deer (Sakhi)
  • Serow (Saza)
  • Goral (Sathar)
  • Himalayan Black Bear (Savawm)
  • Wild boar (Sanghal)
  • Civet Cat (Sazaw)
  • Binturong (Zamphu)
  • Hoolock gibbon (Hauhuk)
  • Rhesus macaque (Zawng)
  • Assamese macaque (Zawng)
  • Slow lorris (Sahuai)
  • Leaf Monkey


  • Great Indian Hornbill
  • Wreathed Hornbill
  • Khaleej Pheasant
  • Bhutan Peacock-pheasant
  • Red Junglefowl
  • Partridges
  • Woodpecker
  • Barbet
  • Cuckoo
  • Parakeet
  • Owl
  • Dove
  • Eagle
  • Pitta
  • Leafbird, Magpie
  • Minivet
  • Warbler


  • Common Indian Rat Snake (Rulhlai)
  • Green Pit Viper (Rultuha)

Thorangtlang Wildlife Sanctuary UPSC Questions

Q. What is the Thorangtlang Wildlife Sanctuary famous for?

A. Thorangtlang Wildlife Sanctuary in Mizoram, India, is famous for several reasons:

(i) Rich Biodiversity: The sanctuary is renowned for its rich and diverse biodiversity, including a wide variety of plant and animal species. It is home to numerous rare and endangered species, making it a biodiversity hotspot in the region.

(ii) Unique Flora: Thorangtlang Wildlife Sanctuary is known for its unique flora, including tropical semi-evergreen forests and a variety of plant communities. It provides a habitat for a range of tree species, shrubs, herbs, and rare plants.

(iii) Wildlife Conservation: The sanctuary is dedicated to the conservation of wildlife, especially rare and endangered species. It provides a safe haven for animals such as tigers, leopards, clouded leopards, hoolock gibbons, and various deer species.

(iv) Conservation Significance: Thorangtlang Wildlife Sanctuary holds international and national significance as it protects several rare and endangered species listed in the Red Data Book of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), the Appendices of CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora), and India's Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.

(v) Cultural and Local Importance: The sanctuary is also culturally significant for the local Mizo communities, who have a connection with the land and its resources.

Thorangtlang Wildlife Sanctuary

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