Wednesday, April 3, 2024

Kalesar National Park

Kalesar National Park UPSC

Kalesar National Park is a protected area located in the Indian state of Haryana. It is situated in the Shivalik hills of the Himalayas. The park was established in 2003 with the aim of conserving the region's rich biodiversity and promoting eco-tourism.

Kalesar National Park serves as an important ecological and conservation hotspot in the region, contributing to the preservation of the Himalayan ecosystem and promoting environmental awareness. 

It offers a peaceful retreat for nature lovers and wildlife enthusiasts seeking to experience the natural wonders of the Shivalik hills.

Table of Contents

  • Kalesar National Park Location
  • Kalesar National Park History
  • Kalesar National Park Area
  • Kalesar National Park Mountains
    • Shivalik Range
  • Kalesar National Park River
    • Yamuna River
  • Kalesar National Park Flora
    • Trees
    • Shrubs and Climbers
    • Flowering Plants
  • Kalesar National Park Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptiles
  • Kalesar Mahadev Temple
  • Colonial Dak Bungalow
  • Kalesar National Park UPSC Questions

Kalesar National Park Location

Kalesar National Park is located in the Yamunanagar district of Haryana in India. The park share border with three states: Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, and Uttar Pradesh.

The Yamuna river marks the Kalesar National Park’s eastern border with Uttar Pradesh, while the Shiwalik mountain ranges in the north separate it from Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand.

Kalesar National Park and Kalesar Wildlife Sanctuary are contiguous to Simbalbara National Park in Himachal Pradesh and Rajaji National Park in Uttarakhand.

Kalesar National Park Nearest Airport:

The nearest airport to Kalesar National Park is the Chandigarh International Airport, located approximately 92 kilometers (57 miles) away. From the airport, you can hire a taxi or take a bus to reach Kalesar National Park.

Kalesar National Park Nearest Railway Station:

The nearest railway station to Kalesar National Park is Yamunanagar-Jagadhri Railway Station, situated around 23 kilometers (14 miles) away. From the railway station, you can hire a taxi or take a local bus or auto-rickshaw to reach the park.

Kalesar National Park History

Kalesar National Park has a rich history that dates back to ancient times. The area around the park has witnessed the rise and fall of civilizations, as well as the influence of different rulers and empires. Here is an overview of the history of Kalesar National Park:

1. Ancient Origins: The area around Kalesar National Park has a rich history that can be traced back to ancient times. Archaeological finds in the region indicate that it was once a significant center of the Indus Valley Civilization, showcasing the area's historical importance and human settlements from that era.

2. Medieval Period: During the medieval period, the region around Kalesar National Park was under the influence of the Delhi Sultanate. Several forts and monuments were constructed during this time, reflecting the strategic and cultural significance of the area. These structures stood as a testament to the region's historical heritage.

3. Maratha Empire and British Rule: In the 18th century, the area came under the control of the Maratha Empire. Later, with the advent of the British East India Company, the region fell under British rule. The colonial administration impacted the region and brought about changes in governance, infrastructure, and land use.

4. Designation as a Wildlife Sanctuary: In 1996, the government designated Kalesar as a Wildlife Sanctuary. This decision aimed to protect the diverse wildlife and preserve the natural biodiversity of the area. The sanctuary provided a safe haven for numerous animal and plant species, ensuring their conservation.

5. Establishment of Kalesar National Park: Recognizing the ecological importance of the region, a portion of Kalesar Wildlife Sanctuary was declared as Kalesar National Park in 2003. The establishment of the national park aimed to provide enhanced protection to the wildlife and promote sustainable eco-tourism in the area.

6. The Naming of Kalesar National Park: The Kalesar National Park derived its name from the Kalesar Forest, which, in turn, was named after the Kalesar Mahadev Temple located within the park. This ancient temple holds religious and cultural significance and adds to the historical and spiritual aura of the national park.


Kalesar National Park Area

Kalesar National Park covers an area of approximately 46 square kilometers (11570 acres). The park's compact size allows for convenient exploration and wildlife spotting. The relatively small area of the park ensures that its resources and habitats can be effectively managed and conserved.

Just adjacent to the National Park is Kalesar Wildlife Sanctuary and it was notified on 13th December 1996, having an area of 53 km2 (13209 acres).


Kalesar National Park Mountains

Kalesar National Park is located in the foothills of the Shivalik Range, which is a sub-Himalayan mountain range in northern India. The Kalesar National Park is situated at an altitude of 200 to 900 meters above sea level and is characterized by hilly terrain with several small streams and waterfalls.

The mountains in Kalesar National Park are covered with dense forests and home to several species of medicinal plants.

Shivalik Range:

The Shivalik range stretches for about 2,400 kilometers (1,500 mi) from the Indus River in Pakistan to the Brahmaputra River in India, and is an important watershed for several major rivers in northern India. 

The Shivalik range is 10–50 km (6.2–31.1 mi) wide with an average elevation of 1,500–2,000 m (4,900–6,600 ft). There is a 90 km (56 mi) gap in Shivalik range between the Teesta and Raidak rivers in Assam. The Shivalik Range is known for its rich biodiversity and is home to several species of flora and fauna. 

Kalesar National Park River

Yamuna River passes through Kalesar National Park and marks Kalesar National Park’s eastern border with Uttar Pradesh. Yamuna River is an important source of water for the flora and fauna of the Kalesar National Park, and also provide a habitat for several species of aquatic animals, including fish, turtles, and frogs.

Yamuna River:

The Yamuna River originates from the Yamunotri Glacier at a height of about 4,500 m (14,800 ft) on the southwestern slopes of Bandarpunch peaks of the Lower Himalaya in Uttarakhand,

The Yamuna River travels a total length of 1,376 kilometres (855 mi). The river crosses several states such as Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Delhi, and Uttar Pradesh, before joining the Ganges River in Allahabad (Uttar Pradesh). 

Left Tributaries of Yamuna River

  • Hindon
  • Tons
  • Hanuman Ganga
  • Sasur Khaderi

Right Tributaries of Yamuna River:

  • Giri
  • Baghain
  • Chambal
  • Betwa
  • Sindh
  • Ken

Kalesar National Park Flora

Kalesar National Park is known for its rich and diverse flora, which is primarily composed of deciduous forests and grasslands. The park is also home to several species of medicinal plants that are used by local communities for traditional medicines.


  • Sal
  • Semul
  • Amaltas
  • Bahera
  • Khair
  • Shisham
  • Sain
  • Jhingan
  • Chhal 
  • Teak
  • Eucalyptus

Shrubs and Climbers:

  • Lantana (Lantana camara)
  • Bauhinia (Bauhinia variegata)
  • Rattan (Calamus spp.).

Flowering Plants:

The Kalesar National Park is home to several species of flowering plants, including several species of orchids, hibiscus, and rhododendrons.

Kalesar National Park Fauna

Kalesar National Park is famous for which animal?/The Kalesar National Park of haryana is famous for which fauna?/What are the endangered animals in Kalesar National Park?

Kalesar National Park is home to a diverse range of fauna, including mammals, birds, reptiles, and insects. The park's varied habitat, consisting of mixed deciduous forests, rolling hills, and water bodies, provides a conducive environment for a rich wildlife population. 

Here are some of the notable fauna species found in Kalesar National Park:


  • Indian Leopard
  • Leopard Cat
  • Rusty-spotted Cat
  • Jungle Cat
  • Indian Jackal
  • Asiatic Elephant
  • Chital
  • Sambar
  • Barking Deer
  • Goral
  • Nilgai
  • Indian Crested Porcupine
  • Small Indian Civet
  • Common Palm Civet
  • Gray Langur
  • Rhesus Macaque
  • Indian Gray Mongoose
  • Boar
  • Indian Hare


  • Himalayan Monal
  • Crested Serpent Eagle
  • Black Francolin
  • Red Junglefowl


  • Indian Cobra
  • Common Krait
  • Indian Rock Python

Kalesar Mahadev Temple

Kalesar Mahadev Temple is a popular pilgrimage site located in the Kalesar National Park. The temple is dedicated to Lord Shiva and is believed to have been built in the 12th century AD.

The Kalesar Mahadev Temple has a beautiful architecture and is built in the traditional north Indian style. It has a large central hall with several smaller shrines dedicated to various deities. 

The Kalesar Mahadev Temple is surrounded by lush green forests and hills, and the surroundings provide a serene and peaceful atmosphere.

Colonial Dak Bungalow

Kalesar National Park has a 100-year-old colonial dak bungalow. It is located just 400 meter south of Kalesar Mahadev Temple.

The Bungalow surrounded with multi-layered gardens, and as typical of the Raj bungalow architecture, there are high-ceiling rooms, exquisite parquet flooring and teak paneling along walls. 

Kalesar National Park UPSC Questions

Q. Why is Kalesar National Park famous?

A. Kalesar National Park is famous for fauna like Leopard, Ghoral, Barking deer, Sambar, Chital and Kalesar Mahadev Temple, Colonial Dak Bungalow etc.

Q. Which state is Kalesar National Park?/Kalesar National Park is located in?

A. Kalesar National Park is located in the Yamunanagar district of Haryana in India.

Q. Which river enters Haryana near Kalesar forest?

A. Yamuna river enters Haryana near Kalesar forest.

Kalesar National Park

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