Thursday, April 20, 2023

Sultanpur National Park

Sultanpur National Park UPSC

Sultanpur National Park is a popular bird sanctuary located in the state of Haryana, India. Sultanpur National Park was formerly known as Sultanpur Bird Sanctuary. It is approximately 50 kilometers (30 miles) from Delhi, the capital city of India. The park covers an area of about 1.43 square kilometers (0.55 square miles) and is home to a wide variety of resident and migratory birds.


The park was established in 1991 and was initially a hunting ground for the local Maharajas (kings). However, it was later converted into a bird sanctuary to protect and preserve the avian species found in the region. Sultanpur National Park has since become a significant eco-tourism destination and a haven for birdwatchers and nature enthusiasts.


The park is particularly famous for attracting a large number of migratory birds during the winter months. Over 250 bird species have been recorded in Sultanpur National Park, including both resident and migratory birds. Some of the commonly spotted species include the Siberian crane, greater flamingo, black-headed ibis, painted stork, common teal, and various species of ducks, geese, and waders.


Table of Contents

  • Sultanpur National Park Location
  • Sultanpur National Park History
  • Sultanpur National Park Area
  • Sultanpur National Park River
    • Sahibi River
  • Sultanpur National Park Lake
    • Sultanpur Jheel
  • Sultanpur National Park Flora
    • Tree Species
    • Shrubs Species
    • Grasses Species
    • Aquatic Plants
    • Wetland Vegetation
    • Ornamental Plants
  • Sultanpur National Park Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
      • Resident Birds
      • Migratory Birds
    • Reptiles
  • Waterfowl
  • Central Asian Flyway
  • Top Things to do in Sultanpur National Park
  • Sultanpur National Park UPSC Questions


Sultanpur National Park Location

Sultanpur National Park (formerly Sultanpur Bird Sanctuary) is located in Gurugram district of Haryana, India. It is located at Sultanpur village on Gurugram-Jhajjar highway, 15 km from Gurugram, Haryana and 50 km from Delhi in India. 


The park is easily accessible by road and is well-connected to nearby cities and towns.


Sultanpur National Park Nearest Airport:

The nearest airport to Sultanpur National Park is Indira Gandhi International Airport, located in Delhi. It is approximately 30 kilometers (18 miles) away from the park. From the airport, you can hire a taxi or take a bus to reach Sultanpur National Park.


Sultanpur National Park Nearest Railway Station:

The nearest railway station to Sultanpur National Park is Gurgaon Railway Station, also known as Gurugram Railway Station. It is located in Gurgaon city, which is about 20 kilometers (12 miles) away from the park. From the railway station, you can take a taxi or a local bus to reach Sultanpur National Park.




Sultanpur National Park History

Sultanpur National Park has an interesting history that dates back several centuries. Here's a brief overview:


Historical Hunting Ground: The area where Sultanpur National Park is situated was originally a hunting ground for the Maharajas (kings) of the region. It was used by them for hunting birds and other wildlife.


Transformation into a Bird Sanctuary: In 1969, a severe drought hit the region, resulting in a decline in the water levels of the local wetlands. This led to a significant decrease in the number of migratory birds visiting the area. Recognizing the need for conservation, the local authorities took the initiative to convert Sultanpur into a bird sanctuary.


Establishment as a Bird Sanctuary: In April 1971, Sultanpur Bird Sanctuary was officially established under section 8 of the Punjab Wildlife Preservation Act of 1959. Over time, it gained recognition for its ecological importance and rich avian diversity. 


Establishment as a National Park: In 1991, it was designated as a National Park by the Government of India under the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972, and since then, it has been known as Sultanpur National Park.


Ramsar Site: In 2021, Sultanpur National Park was notified as a Ramsar site, a wetland of international importance, under the criteria of the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, 1971.




Sultanpur National Park Area

Sultanpur National Park covers an area of approximately 1.43 square kilometers (142.52 hectares). It is a relatively small park compared to some of the other national parks in India, but it is an important bird sanctuary and biodiversity hotspot in the region. The park area is home to a variety of migratory and resident birds.




Sultanpur National Park River

Sahibi river flows through Sultanpur National Park.


Sahibi River:

  • The Sahibi river is also called the Sabi river.
  • The Sahibi river originates in the Aravalli Range and flows in a southerly direction before joining the Yamuna River in Delhi.
  • The Sahibi River is flowing through Rajasthan, Haryana and Delhi states in India.
  • The Sahibi River is a seasonal river and is largely dependent on rainfall.




Sultanpur National Park Lake

Sultanpur Jheel located in the Sultanpur National Park and main source of water.


Sultanpur Jheel:

Sultanpur Jheel is a large lake in Sultanpur National Park. It is spread over an area of about 1.1 square kilometers. The Sultanpur Jheel is the centerpiece of the park and was created by damming a small tributary of the Yamuna River. 


The lake is surrounded by dense vegetation, including trees, shrubs, and grasses, which provide nesting sites and shelter for birds and other wildlife. It is an important habitat for migratory and resident birds. During the winter months, the lake attracts a large number of migratory birds.


Visitors to the park can enjoy boating on the lake and birdwatching from the watchtowers that are located around the lake. 




Sultanpur National Park Flora

Which plants are found in Sultanpur National Park?

Sultanpur National Park is home to a variety of flora that adds to its biodiversity. The park is dominated by tropical dry deciduous forest, which is characterized by trees that shed their leaves during the dry season. Apart from trees, Sultanpur National Park is also home to several species of shrubs, grasses, and herbs. 


(1) Tree Species:

Along the fringes of the wetlands and in the surrounding areas, you can find a mix of trees and shrubs. Common tree species include:

  • Dhok
  • Khair
  • Banyan 
  • Neem
  • Dhok
  • Babul
  • Ber
  • Jamun


(2) Shrubs Species:

  • Lantana
  • Jatropha
  • Ziziphus


(3) Grasses Species:

The park features different types of grasses and reeds. These plants grow in the marshy areas and provide cover and nesting sites for birds and other wetland species.
  • Cenchrus ciliaris
  • Chrysopogon fulvus
  • Heteropogon contortus


(4) Aquatic Plants: 

The park's wetland areas are adorned with various aquatic plants such as water lilies, lotus, duckweed, and various species of submerged and floating plants. These plants play a crucial role in maintaining the ecological balance and providing habitat and food for numerous aquatic organisms.


(5) Wetland Vegetation: 

Various wetland plants thrive in Sultanpur National Park, such as Typha, Phragmites, Scirpus, and Eleocharis species. These plants have adapted to grow in waterlogged and marshy conditions and provide habitat, food, and nesting sites for wetland birds and other wildlife.


(6) Ornamental Plants:

In addition to the natural vegetation, the park also has a variety of ornamental plants that have been planted for aesthetic purposes. These plants include:

  • Bougainvillea
  • Gulmohar
  • Jacaranda




Sultanpur National Park Fauna (Sultanpur National Park Animals)

Which animals are found in Sultanpur park?

Sultanpur National Park is home to a diverse range of fauna, including mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. During the winter months, the park attracts a large number of migratory birds. Apart from birds, the park also has several species of mammals and reptiles,


Mammals:

  • Blackbuck
  • Nilgai
  • Hog Deer
  • Sambar
  • Leopard


Birds:

Sultanpur National Park is famous for which bird?

Sultanpur National Park is a major habitat for aquatic birds, including migratory and resident birds. Migratory birds start arriving in the Sultanpur National Park in September and migratory birds use the park as a resting place till the following March-April. During summer and monsoon months the Sultanpur National Park is inhabited by many local bird species.


(1) Resident Birds:

  • Common Hoopoe
  • Paddy Field Pipit
  • Purple Sunbird
  • Little Cormorant
  • Indian Cormorant
  • Common Spoonbill
  • Grey Francolin
  • Black Francolin
  • Indian Roller
  • White-throated Kingfisher
  • Indian Spot-billed Duck
  • Painted Stork
  • Black-necked Stork
  • Magpie Robin
  • Greater Coucal
  • Weaver Bird
  • White Ibis
  • Black-headed Ibis
  • Little Egret
  • Great Egret
  • Cattle Egret
  • Crested Lark
  • Red-vented Bulbul
  • Rose-ringed Parakeet
  • Red-wattled Lapwing
  • Shikra
  • Eurasian Collared Dove
  • Red Collared Dove
  • Laughing Dove
  • Spotted Owlet
  • Rock Pigeon
  • Bank Mynah
  • Common Mynah 
  • Asian Green Bee-eater


(2) Migratory Birds:

  • Siberian Cranes
  • Greater Flamingo
  • Demoiselle Crane
  • Ruff
  • Northern Pintail
  • Yellow Wagtail
  • White Wagtail
  • Northern Shoveller
  • Rosy Pelican
  • Spot-billed Pelican
  • Gadwall
  • Wood Sandpiper
  • Spotted Sandpiper
  • Black-winged Stilt
  • Eurasian Teal
  • Common Greenshank
  • Eurasian Wigeon
  • Black-tailed Godwit
  • Spotted Redshank
  • Starling
  • Bluethroat Pipit
  • Long-billed Pipit


Reptiles:

  • Monitor Lizards
  • Indian Pythons
  • Cobras




Waterfowl

Sultanpur National Park is home to a diverse range of waterfowl species, both resident and migratory. The park is a important wintering ground for waterfowl.


Waterfowl are birds that are adapted to living in or near bodies of water, such as lakes, rivers, ponds, and wetlands. They are known for their aquatic habits and their ability to swim, dive, and feed underwater.


Some of the common waterfowl species found in the park include painted stork, white ibis, black-necked stork, spot-billed duck, common teal, northern pintail, gadwall, and mallard, among others. During the winter months, the park attracts a large number of migratory waterfowl, including the Siberian crane, greater flamingo, bar-headed goose, and sarus crane, among others.


The lake at Sultanpur National Park provides an important habitat for waterfowl, offering them a source of food and shelter. Visitors to the park can observe and appreciate the beauty of waterfowl as they swim, dive, and feed in the lake. The park also has several watchtowers located around the lake, providing visitors with a unique opportunity to observe waterfowl up close.




Central Asian Flyway

The Central Asian Flyway is a migratory route taken by several species of birds that breed in northern Asia and Europe and winter in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Australia. The route encompasses a vast area that extends from the Arctic tundra in the north to the Indian Ocean in the south, covering several countries along the way.


Sultanpur National Park is part of Central Asian Flyway. Sultanpur National Park is an important stopover for migratory birds that use the Central Asian Flyway. The park provides a critical habitat for these birds, offering them food, shelter, and breeding grounds.


During the winter months, the park attracts a large number of migratory birds, including several species of waterfowl like the Siberian crane, greater flamingo, bar-headed goose, and sarus crane. The Sultanpur National Park also attracts several species of waders, shorebirds, and raptors, among others.




Top Things to do in Sultanpur National Park

Sultanpur National Park offers visitors a range of activities and experiences that allow them to appreciate the beauty of nature and the diversity of wildlife. Here are some of the top things to do in Sultanpur National Park:


  • Birdwatching
  • Wildlife safari
  • Nature walks
  • Photography
  • Boating
  • Picnicking




Sultanpur National Park UPSC Questions

Q. Why Sultanpur National Park is famous?

A. Sultanpur National Park is famous for its migratory and resident birds.


Q. Is Sultanpur National Park a wetland UPSC?

A. Sultanpur National Park is a wetland. It was notified as a Ramsar site, a wetland of international importance, in 2021 under the criteria of the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, 1971.


Q. Q. Where is Sultanpur National Park?/In which state Sultanpur National Park is found?

A. Sultanpur National Park is located in Gurugram district of Haryann, India.


Q. Who founded Sultanpur National Park?

A. Dr Salim Ali is credited for the establishment of Sultanpur Bird Sanctuary.


Q. Is Sultanpur National Park a Ramsar site?

A. Sultanpur National Park was notified as a Ramsar site in 2021.


Q. When was Sultanpur National Park built?/In which year Sultanpur Bird Sanctuary became a national park?/In which year the Sultanpur National Park established?

A. Sultanpur National Park was established in 1991.


Q. Which river flows through Sultanpur wetland?

A. Sahibi River river flows through Sultanpur wetland.

Sultanpur National Park

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