Saturday, June 3, 2023

Tadoba National Park

Tadoba National Park UPSC

Tadoba National Park, also known as Tadoba Andhari Tiger Reserve, is a popular national park located in the Maharashtra, India. It is one of the largest and oldest national parks in the state and is renowned for its rich biodiversity, scenic landscapes, and tiger population.


Table of Contents

  • Tadoba National Park Location
  • Tadoba National Park History
  • Tadoba National Park Area
  • Tadoba National Park Hills
    • Chimur Hills
    • Moharli Hills
    • Kolsa Hills
  • Tadoba National Park River
    • Andhari River
  • Tadoba National Park Lake
    • Tadoba Lake
    • Kolsa Lake
    • Erai Reservoir
  • Tadoba National Park Tribe
    • Gond Tribe
  • Tadoba National Park Flora
    • Dry Deciduous Forests
    • Moist Peninsular Sal Forests
    • Bamboo Groves
    • Grasslands
    • Medicinal Plants
    • Aquatic Vegetation
  • Tadoba National Park Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptiles
  • Top Things to do in Tadoba National Park
  • Tadoba National Park UPSC Questions


Tadoba National Park Location

Tadoba National Park is located in the Chandrapur district of Maharashtra, India. It is situated in the central part of the country. 


The park is approximately 45 kilometers (28 miles) north of Chandrapur city and is easily accessible by road. The nearest major city is Nagpur, which is around 140 kilometers (87 miles) away from the park.


Tadoba National Park Nearest Airport:

Nagpur International Airport is the nearest airport from park (122 km).


Tadoba National Park Nearest Railway Station:

Chandrapur Railway Station is the nearest railhead from the National Park (45 Km.).




Tadoba National Park History

Tadoba National Park has a rich history that dates back several centuries. Here's an overview of its historical background:


Ancient Times: The region where Tadoba National Park is located has a significant historical and cultural heritage. The Gond tribes, an indigenous community, have inhabited the area for centuries. The Gonds have a deep connection with the forests and wildlife of the region and have played a crucial role in its conservation.


Hunting Reserve: During the colonial era, the forests of Tadoba were used as a hunting ground by the British rulers. The area was declared a game reserve in 1935 by the Central Provinces and Berar Government, and it became a protected forest.


Creation of Tadoba National Park: In 1955, the Tadoba National Park was established, covering an area of 116.5 Kilometre square.


Andhari Wildlife Sanctuary: In 1986, Andhari Wildlife Sanctuary was founded next to the national park. It cover an area of 508.8-kilometre square.


Tiger Reserve Status: In 1995, the Tadoba National Park and the Andhari Wildlife Sanctuary merged. This led to the establishment of the 41st Tiger Reserve under Project Tiger.


Conservation Efforts: Tadoba National Park has been at the forefront of tiger conservation in India. It has implemented various measures to protect the park's wildlife and habitat, including anti-poaching efforts, habitat management, and community involvement in conservation initiatives. The park's success in tiger conservation is evident by the increasing tiger population over the years.




Tadoba National Park Area

Tadoba National Park covers an area of approximately 116.5 square kilometers (45 square miles). Along with the Andhari Wildlife Sanctuary, which spans around 508.8 square kilometers (196.4 square miles), they collectively make up the Tadoba Andhari Tiger Reserve, encompassing a total area of approximately 625.4 square kilometers (241.4 square miles).


Tadoba National Park area is enclosed by dense forest, smooth meadows, along with heavily forested hills ranging from 200 m to 350 m.




Tadoba National Park Hills

Tadoba National Park is surrounded by the hilly terrain of the Satpura Range. The park  surrounding region is characterized by undulating landscapes and hills. These hills contribute to the scenic beauty of the area and offer vantage points for wildlife viewing.


Some of the notable hills near Tadoba National Park include:


(1) Chimur Hills:

The Chimur Hills are situated in the Chandrapur district of Maharashtra, India, near Tadoba National Park. They are a part of the larger Satpura Range that spans across central India. The hills are known for their scenic beauty and contribute to the overall landscape of the region.


(2) Moharli Hills:

Moharli Hills are located on the southern edge of Tadoba National Park. These hills provide a panoramic view of the park and its surrounding forests.


(3) Kolsa Hills:

Kolsa Hills are located in the western part of Tadoba Andhari Tiger Reserve. These hills provide a scenic backdrop to the wildlife-rich Kolsa Range.




Tadoba National Park River

Tadoba National Park is blessed with several rivers and water bodies that contribute to its rich biodiversity. The primary river that flows through the park is the Andhari River, from which the Andhari Wildlife Sanctuary, a part of the larger Tadoba-Andhari Tiger Reserve, gets its name.


The Andhari River is a tributary of the Wainganga River, which is one of the major rivers in the region. It originates in the hills of the Seoni district of Madhya Pradesh and flows through the Tadoba region, providing a vital water source to the flora and fauna of the park.


The Andhari River plays a significant role in shaping the ecosystem of Tadoba National Park. It forms the lifeline of the park, supporting a diverse range of wildlife and vegetation. The river provides drinking water for the animals, acts as a habitat for various aquatic species, and attracts a variety of bird species to its banks.




Tadoba National Park Lake

Tadoba National Park does have two lakes within its boundaries. These lakes provide important water sources for the wildlife within the national park and contribute to the overall biodiversity and ecological balance of the area. They offer opportunities for wildlife viewing, birdwatching, and capturing the scenic landscapes within Tadoba National Park.


Here's some information about these lakes:


(1) Tadoba Lake:

Tadoba Lake, also known as Tadoba Lake or Tadoba Tank, is one of the prominent water bodies in the national park. It is located near the Tadoba village, from which the park derives its name. The lake is an artificial reservoir created to provide water for wildlife and is surrounded by dense forest vegetation. 


The Tadoba Lake is around 300 acres in area. It separates the area of the National Park's forest and farmlands, which extends to the Irai reservoir. The Tadoba Lake is perennial in nature. 


It serves as an important water source for animals and attracts a variety of bird species, making it an ideal spot for birdwatching. It acts as a habitat for crocodiles in the Park.


(2) Kolsa Lake:

Kolsa Lake is another significant lake within Tadoba National Park. It is located in the Kolsa range, which is part of the larger reserve. Kolsa Lake is a natural water body formed by the Kolsa River. 


The lake offers a picturesque setting, surrounded by lush greenery and wildlife-rich areas. It is a tranquil spot where visitors can enjoy the beauty of nature and observe various bird species and other animals.


(3) Erai Reservoir:

The Erai Reservoir is a significant water body located near Tadoba National Park. It is a man-made lake formed by the construction of the Erai Dam on the Erai River. The reservoir serves multiple purposes, including irrigation, water supply, and hydroelectric power generation. 


Erai reservoir offers a good habitat for mugger crocodile (marsh crocodile). It also attracts a variety of bird species, making it a popular spot for birdwatching.




Tadoba National Park Tribe

The Tadoba National Park region is home to several tribal communities that have a deep connection with the forests and wildlife in the area. One of the prominent tribes in this region is the Gond tribe. The Gonds are one of the largest tribal communities in India, and they have a significant presence in the states of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, and other parts of central India.


The Gonds have a rich cultural heritage and a strong bond with nature. They traditionally practiced hunting and gathering and had a profound knowledge of the forests, plants, and animals in the region. Over time, with changing conservation policies, their livelihoods have shifted towards other occupations like farming, handicrafts, and tourism-related activities.


The Gonds have contributed to the conservation efforts in the Tadoba National Park region. Their traditional knowledge about the forests and wildlife has played a crucial role in understanding and managing the local ecosystems. They are also involved in eco-tourism initiatives, offering insights into the local culture and traditions to visitors.




Tadoba National Park Flora

Tadoba National Park is known for its diverse flora, encompassing a range of vegetation types that support a rich and thriving ecosystem. 


There are 3 forest ranges in the Tadoba National Park:

  • Kolsa South Range
  • Tadoba North Range
  • Mohurli Range


Here are some of the key elements of the park's flora:


(1) Dry Deciduous Forests:

The predominant vegetation type in Tadoba National Park is dry deciduous forests. These forests are characterized by trees that shed their leaves during the dry season to conserve water. Species such as teak (Tectona grandis), ain (Terminalia alata), bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus), and tendu (Diospyros melanoxylon) are commonly found in these forests.


(2) Moist Peninsular Sal Forests:

Along the riverbanks and low-lying areas, moist peninsular sal forests can be found. Sal trees (Shorea robusta) dominate this forest type, along with other species like haldu (Adina cordifolia), mahua (Madhuca longifolia), and bel (Aegle marmelos).


(3) Bamboo Groves:

Bamboo forms an important component of Tadoba National Park's flora. These dense bamboo groves provide shelter and food for various wildlife species, including tigers.


(4) Grasslands:

Open grasslands are interspersed throughout the park, providing grazing areas for herbivores such as deer, gaur (Indian bison), and wild boars. These grasslands support a variety of grass species, including spear grass (Imperata cylindrica), Cymbopogon spp., and Themeda spp.


(5) Medicinal Plants:

Several medicinal plants can also be found in the Tadoba National Park. Kujali, or Velvet Bean, is a climber plant found here and used as medicine in treating Parkinson's disease. The Bheria plant, whose leaves are used as an insect repellent, is also found here. Beheda, found here, is another important medicinal plant.


(6) Aquatic Vegetation:

The lakes, reservoirs, and water bodies in and around Tadoba National Park support a diverse range of aquatic vegetation. These include species like water lilies, lotuses, and submerged grasses.



The combination of these vegetation types creates a mosaic of habitats within Tadoba National Park, offering suitable conditions for a wide array of wildlife species. It is this varied flora that supports the rich biodiversity and makes Tadoba a significant wildlife sanctuary in India.




Tadoba National Park Fauna (Tadoba National Park Animals)

Which animals are found in Tadoba National Park?

Tadoba National Park is renowned for its rich and diverse fauna. The park provides a habitat for numerous species of mammals, birds, reptiles, and other wildlife. 


Here are some of the notable fauna found in Tadoba National Park:


Mammals:

  • Bengal Tigers
  • Leopards
  • Civets
  • Jungle cats
  • Hyenas
  • Wild Dogs
  • Sloth Bears
  • Neelgai
  • Cheetal
  • Barking Deer
  • Jackals
  • Wolves
  • Foxes
  • Porqupines
  • Gaurs
  • Indian Pangolins
  • Sambhar
  • Rhesus Macaque
  • Rusty Spotted Cats


Birds:

  • Grey Headed Fishing Eagles
  • Peacocks
  • Painted Floricans
  • Paradise Flycatchers
  • Black Naped Blue Flycatchers
  • Asian Paradise Flycatchers
  • Malabar Pied Hornbills
  • Plum Headed Parakeets
  • Bonelli's Eagle
  • Honey Buzzard
  • Shy Jungle Fowl
  • Indian Pitta
  • Indian Scimitar Babbler
  • Tickell's Blue Flycatcher
  • Painted Francolin
  • Asian Paradise Flycatcher
  • Golden Oriole
  • Black Naped Blue Flycatcher
  • Plum Headed Parakeet
  • Gray Jungle Fowl
  • Bonelli's Eagle
  • Crest Ser


Reptiles:

  • Marsh Crocodiles
  • Monitor lizards
  • Indian Python
  • Terrapins
  • Star tortoise
  • Cobra, Russell’s Viper
  • Krait
  • Bronze Tree Snake
  • Rat Snake
  • Leaf Nosed Snake
  • Indian Python




Top Things to do in Tadoba National Park

When visiting Tadoba National Park, there are several exciting activities and experiences to make the most of your trip. 


Here are some top things to do in Tadoba National Park:


  • Wildlife Safari
  • Birdwatching
  • Nature Walks
  • Visit Tadoba Lake
  • Wildlife Photography
  • Visit Tribal Villages
  • Explore Erai Dam and Reservoir




Tadoba National Park UPSC Questions

Q. What is Tadoba National Park known for?

A. Tadoba National Park is known for Tiger Reserve.


Q. Who founded Tadoba National Park?

A. Raja KhandkhyaBallal Shah founded the district Chandrapur where Tadoba National Park situated.


Q. Tadoba National Park is famous for which animal?

A. Tadoba National Park is famous for Bengal Tiger.


Q. Where is Tadoba National Park?/Tadoba National Park is located in which state?

A. Tadoba National Park is located in the Chandrapur district of Maharashtra, India.


Q. How many tigers are there in Tadoba National Park?

A. There are around 115 tigers in Tadoba National Park.

Tadoba National Park

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