Thursday, June 29, 2023

Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve

Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve UPSC

The Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve is a wildlife sanctuary located in the eastern part of the Western Ghats in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. It is one of the famous tiger reserves in India. It is a part of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve.

Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve, also known as the Gateway to Eastern Ghats, is a significant ecosystem and a wildlife corridor in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve between the Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats.

The Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve was established in 2013, with the aim of conserving the diverse flora and fauna of the region, including the endangered Bengal tiger. The landscape of the reserve consists of hills, valleys, and forests, providing a suitable habitat for various species.

Table of Contents

  • Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve Location
  • Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve History
    • What is TX2 Award?
  • Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve Area
  • Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve River
    • Bhavani River
  • Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve Lake
    • Bhavanisagar Reservoir
  • Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve Tribe
    • Irula Tribes
    • Soliga Tribes
  • Sathyamangalam Forests and Veerappan
  • Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve Flora
  • Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptile
  • Top Things to do in Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve
  • Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve UPSC Questions

Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve Location

The Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve is located in the Erode District of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu in southern India. The reserve is situated at the confluence of the Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats.

The Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve encompassing forests of Erode and Sathyamangalam Divisions. It is contiguous with Mudumalai, BRT and Bandipur tiger reserves.

The reserve is bordered by the Moyar River to the north, the Bhavani River to the south, and the state of Karnataka to the west. The varied terrain of the reserve encompasses hills, valleys, and forests, contributing to its rich biodiversity.

Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve Nearest Airport:

The nearest airport to the Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve is Coimbatore International Airport. It is located approximately 105 kilometers (65 miles) southwest of the reserve. Coimbatore Airport is well-connected to major cities in India and serves as the primary airport for accessing the region.

Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve Nearest Railway Station:

As for the nearest railway station, the Erode Junction Railway Station is the most convenient option. It is situated in the city of Erode, which is approximately 60 kilometers (37 miles) east of the Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve. Erode Junction Railway Station is well-connected to various cities in India, and from there, you can continue your journey to the reserve via road transportation.

Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve History

The history of the Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve is closely tied to its conservation efforts and the recognition of its ecological importance. Here is a brief overview of its history:

Early Conservation Efforts: The Sathyamangalam region has a long history of wildlife conservation. In the early 19th century, the area was declared as a reserved forest, indicating its significance in terms of biodiversity and wildlife conservation. Patches of Sandalwood Reserves were notified under the Indian Forests Act, 1927.

Part of Elephant Reserve: In 2003, The Sathyamangalam Forest Division is part of the Bramhagiri-Nilgiris-Eastern Ghats Elephant Reserve notified.

Sathyamangalam Wildlife Sanctuary: In 2008, the Sathyamangalam Wildlife Sanctuary was established in the region. It covered an area of approximately 1,411 square kilometers (545 square miles) and aimed to protect the diverse flora and fauna present in the area.

Upgradation to Tiger Reserve: In 2013, recognizing the significance of the Sathyamangalam Wildlife Sanctuary for tiger conservation, the sanctuary was upgraded to the status of a tiger reserve. This upgrade aimed to provide enhanced protection for the Bengal tiger population and their habitat.

Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve TX2 Award

Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve Award: In 2022, Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve (STR) bags the prestigious TX2 Awards after its tiger number doubled to 80 since 2010. 

What is TX2 Award?

The TX2 Award is a prestigious global recognition given to countries and conservation efforts that have made significant progress in tiger conservation. The award is part of the TX2 initiative, which is a global goal to double the number of wild tigers by the year 2022.

The TX2 initiative was launched in 2010 in response to the drastic decline in tiger populations worldwide. The goal of doubling the tiger population by 2022, the next Chinese Year of the Tiger, was set by the 13 tiger range countries and supported by global partners, including the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) and the Global Tiger Forum (GTF).

The TX2 awards are presented by the Conservation Assured Tiger Standards (CA|TS), Fauna and Flora International (FFI), Global Tiger Forum (GTF), IUCN’s Integrated Tiger Habitat Conservation Programme (ITHCP), Panthera, UNDP, The Lion’s Share, Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) and WWF.

Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve Area

The Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve is spread across an area of approximately 1408.405 square kilometers (543.509 square miles). This area encompasses a diverse range of habitats, including hills, valleys, forests, grasslands, and riverine forests along the Bhavani River.

The Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve consists of a core area and a buffer area. The core area of the reserve spans approximately 793.49331 square kilometers (306.12961 square miles), while the buffer area covers around 614.91210 square kilometers (237.37939 square miles).

When combined, the total area of the Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve is approximately 1408.405 square kilometers (543.509 square miles)

  • Core area : 793.49331 sq km
  • Buffer area : 614.91210 sq km
  • Total : 1408.405

The core area is typically designated as the primary habitat for tigers and other endangered species, where strict protection measures are implemented. The buffer area surrounds the core zone and serves as a transitional zone with controlled human activities to provide additional support for conservation efforts.

Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve River

The Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve is traversed by several rivers and streams, with the most prominent river being the Bhavani River. The Bhavani River flows through the reserve, adding to its ecological significance and supporting the diverse ecosystems within the region.

The Bhavani River originates in the Nilgiri Hills of Tamil Nadu and flows eastward, passing through the Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve before eventually joining the Kaveri River. The river serves as a lifeline for both wildlife and human communities in the region, providing water for drinking, agriculture, and supporting the rich biodiversity of the reserve.

The riverine forests along the banks of the Bhavani River are vital habitats for several species of flora and fauna. They provide shelter, food, and breeding grounds for a variety of aquatic and terrestrial species, including fish, reptiles, amphibians, birds, and mammals.

Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve Lake

The Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve is not known for having a prominent lake within its boundaries. However, there are lakes and reservoirs in the surrounding region that contribute to the overall water resources and ecological balance in the area. These lakes provide water for irrigation, wildlife, and human settlements.

One such notable lake near the Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve is the Bhavanisagar Reservoir, also known as the Lower Bhavani Dam. It is located on the Bhavani River, downstream from the tiger reserve. The Bhavanisagar Reservoir is a significant water storage reservoir that serves irrigation purposes for agriculture and supports the surrounding ecosystem.

The Bhavanisagar Reservoir not only provides water for irrigation but also attracts a variety of bird species, making it a birdwatching hotspot. Visitors can enjoy the serene surroundings of the reservoir and spot numerous bird species, especially during the migratory season.

Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve Tribe

The Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve is home to indigenous tribal communities, primarily the Irula and Soliga tribes. The Irula tribe, also known as the Urali tribe, and the Soliga community have been residing in the region for generations and have a deep connection with the forests and its resources.

These tribal communities have a unique cultural heritage, traditional knowledge, and a close relationship with the natural environment. They have traditionally engaged in activities such as hunting, gathering, and agriculture, and possess valuable knowledge about the local flora, fauna, and ecosystems.

Sathyamangalam Forests and Veerappan

The Sathyamangalam forests have had historical associations with Veerappan, a notorious criminal and bandit. Veerappan was involved in illegal activities such as poaching elephants for ivory and smuggling sandalwood from the forests. He was active in the region for several years and posed a significant challenge to law enforcement agencies.

Veerappan was eventually killed by the Tamil Nadu Police in October 2004 in a successful operation to curb his illegal activities and restore safety to the area.

Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve Flora (Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve Forest)

The Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve is renowned for its rich and diverse flora, comprising various vegetation types that support a wide array of plant species. The reserve encompasses different habitats, including dry deciduous forests, thorny scrub, riverine forests, and grasslands. 

Here are some of the notable flora found within the Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve:

(1) Dry Deciduous Forests:

The dominant vegetation type in the tiger reserve is dry deciduous forests, characterized by trees that shed their leaves during the dry season. Species like Teak (Tectona grandis), Terminalia (Terminalia spp.), Sandalwood (Santalum album), Indian Rosewood (Dalbergia latifolia), Indian kino tree (Pterocarpus marsupium), and Anogeissus latifolia are commonly found in these forests.

(2) Thorny Scrub:

In the drier and rocky areas of the reserve, thorny scrub vegetation is prevalent. It consists of thorny bushes and shrubs adapted to arid conditions. Acacia species such as Acacia nilotica, Acacia leucophloea, and Ziziphus species are commonly found in these areas.

(3) Riverine Forests:

Along the banks of rivers and streams, riverine forests thrive. These forests have moisture-rich soils and are home to species like Indian Elm (Holoptelea integrifolia), Indian Gooseberry (Phyllanthus emblica), and Bamboo species (Dendrocalamus spp.), which provide important habitat for a variety of wildlife.

(4) Grasslands:

The reserve also has patches of grasslands, which support a diverse range of grass species. These grasslands provide feeding grounds for herbivores and are essential for maintaining a healthy ecosystem.

Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve Fauna (Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve Animals)

The Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve is home to a diverse range of fauna, including several endangered and charismatic species. The reserve's varied habitats, including forests, grasslands, and water bodies, provide suitable environments for a wide array of wildlife. 

Here are some of the notable fauna species found in the Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve:


  • Bengal Tiger
  • Asian Elephant
  • Indian Leopard
  • Indian Gaur
  • Panther
  • Sloth Bear
  • Gaur
  • Spotted Deer
  • Wild Boar
  • Dhole
  • Black Napped Hare
  • Common Langur
  • Nilgiri Langur
  • Striped Neck Mongoose
  • Bonnet Macaque


  • Indian Eagle-Owl
  • Malabar Grey Hornbill
  • Crested Serpent Eagle
  • Indian Peafowl
  • Grey Junglefowl
  • Indian Vulture


  • Mugger Crocodile
  • Indian Rock Python
  • King Cobra
  • Russell’s Viper
  • Indian Chameleon

Top Things to do in Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve

When visiting the Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve, there are several activities and experiences that nature enthusiasts and wildlife lovers can enjoy. Here are some of the top things to do in the Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve:

  • Wildlife Safari
  • Birdwatching
  • Nature Walks and Trekking
  • Wildlife Photography
  • Visit Tribal Villages
  • Explore Waterfalls and Rivers
  • Conservation Awareness Programs

Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve UPSC Questions

Q. Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve in which state?/Where is Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve?/Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve in which place in tiger project?/Where is Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve situated?

A. The Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve is located in the Erode District of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu in southern India.

Q. Which river flows through Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve?

A. Bhavani River flows through Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve.

Q. What is Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve famous for?

A. The Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve is famous for several reasons:

  • Tiger Conservation
  • Biodiversity Hotspot
  • Wildlife Sightings
  • Indigenous Tribal Communities
  • Natural Landscapes
  • Historical Significance

Note- The region has historical significance due to its association with Veerappan, a notorious criminal and bandit who operated in the area. Veerappan was involved in illegal activities such as poaching and smuggling, and his eventual capture and demise by the Tamil Nadu Police in 2004 marked an important chapter in the region's history.

Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve

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