Wednesday, June 28, 2023

Mudumalai Tiger Reserve

Mudumalai Tiger Reserve UPSC

The Mudumalai Tiger Reserve is a protected wildlife sanctuary located in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. It is one of the oldest and most prominent tiger reserves in the country. Established in 1940, it covers an core area of about 321 square kilometers and is part of the larger Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve.

The Mudumalai Tiger Reserve is known for its diverse flora and fauna, including a significant population of Bengal tigers, which are the primary attraction for wildlife enthusiasts and conservationists. The vegetation includes tropical moist deciduous forests, dry deciduous forests, and scrub forests. 

The Moyar River flows through the reserve, adding to its natural beauty and providing water sources for the animals.

Table of Contents

  • Mudumalai Tiger Reserve Location
  • Mudumalai Tiger Reserve History
  • Mudumalai Tiger Reserve Area
  • Mudumalai Tiger Reserve Hills
    • Nilgiri Hills
  • Mudumalai Tiger Reserve River
    • Moyar River
  • Mudumalai Tiger Reserve Tribe
    • Todas
    • Kurumbas
    • Irulas
  • Mudumalai Tiger Reserve Flora
  • Mudumalai Tiger Reserve Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptile
  • Top Things to do in Mudumalai Tiger Reserve
  • Mudumalai Tiger Reserve Interpretation Centre
  • Anaikkal Mariamman Temple
  • Mudumalai Tiger Reserve UPSC Questions

Mudumalai Tiger Reserve Location

Mudumalai Tiger Reserve is located in the Nilgiris District of Tamil Nadu state in India. It is situated at the tri-junction of three states, viz, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.

Mudumalai Tiger Reserve has a common boundary with Wyanad Wildlife Sanctuary (Kerala) on the West, Bandipur Tiger Reserve (Karnataka) on the North, and the Nilgiris North Division on the South and East and Gudalur Forest Division on the South West.

The nearest town to Mudumalai Tiger Reserve is Gudalur, which is about 15 kilometers away. The reserve is approximately 240 kilometers southwest of Bangalore and 90 kilometers north of Coimbatore.

Mudumalai Tiger Reserve Nearest Airport:

The nearest airport to Mudumalai Tiger Reserve is Coimbatore International Airport, also known as Peelamedu Airport. It is located approximately 115 kilometers away from the reserve. From the airport, you can hire a taxi or take a bus to reach the reserve.

Mudumalai Tiger Reserve Nearest Railway Station:

The nearest railway station to Mudumalai Tiger Reserve is Udhagamandalam Railway Station, also known as Ooty Railway Station. It is located around 70 kilometers away from the reserve. From the railway station, you can hire a taxi or take a bus to reach the reserve. 

Mudumalai Tiger Reserve History

Mudumalai Tiger Reserve has a rich history of conservation efforts and recognition for its importance in protecting the tiger population and biodiversity in the region.

In 1857, the British Government rented the Mudumalai forest from the Raja of Neelambur for logging purposes.

In 1940, an area of approximately 60 square kilometers within the Mudumalai forest was established as the Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary.

In 1986, the Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary was incorporated into the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, which is the first biosphere reserve in India.

In 1990, the Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary was designated as Mudumalai National Park.

In April 2007, Mudumalai National Park was designated as a tiger reserve under Project Tiger, an initiative aimed at tiger conservation in India.

In December 2007, Mudumalai Tiger Reserve was notified as a "Critical Tiger Habitat," recognizing its importance for tiger conservation.

(CA|TS) Status: Mudumalai Tiger Reserve has received the Conservation Assured | Tiger Standards (CA|TS) status, which signifies effective management of target species, including tigers.

Mudumalai Tiger Reserve Area

The Mudumalai Tiger Reserve covers an approximate area of 321 square kilometers (124 square miles). 

  • Core / critical tiger habitat : 321.00 km2
  • Buffer / peripheral area : 367.59 km2
  • Total : 688.59 km2

Core/Critical Tiger Habitat: The core area or critical tiger habitat of Mudumalai Tiger Reserve covers approximately 321.00 square kilometers (124.03 square miles). This portion is the primary focus for tiger conservation and is managed with strict regulations to ensure the protection and well-being of the tiger population.

Buffer/Peripheral Area: The buffer or peripheral area surrounding the core habitat encompasses approximately 367.59 square kilometers (141.90 square miles). This area acts as a transitional zone between the core habitat and the surrounding human settlements. It helps to provide additional protection and ecological connectivity for the wildlife within the reserve.

When combined, the total area of the Mudumalai Tiger Reserve, including both the core and buffer areas, amounts to approximately 688.59 square kilometers (266.94 square miles). This larger area allows for a comprehensive approach to conservation, encompassing not only the core tiger habitat but also the surrounding landscape to maintain ecological balance and mitigate human-wildlife conflicts.

Mudumalai Tiger Reserve Hills

The Mudumalai Tiger Reserve is located in the Nilgiri Hills of Tamil Nadu, India. The Nilgiri Hills are part of the Western Ghats, a mountain range that runs parallel to the western coast of India.

The hills in and around Mudumalai Tiger Reserve are characterized by their lush greenery, diverse flora, and varied topography. The reserve encompasses hilly terrains, valleys, and slopes, which contribute to its rich biodiversity and provide a range of habitats for wildlife species.

The Nilgiri Hills are known for their scenic beauty and are often referred to as the "Blue Mountains" due to the blue hue that envelops them when viewed from a distance. The region is dotted with dense forests, tea plantations, waterfalls, and meandering rivers, adding to the natural charm of the area.

The hilly landscapes of Mudumalai Tiger Reserve not only provide a picturesque backdrop but also play a crucial role in creating a conducive environment for a wide range of wildlife species, including tigers, elephants, leopards, and various bird species. The undulating terrain of the hills offers diverse microhabitats and ecological niches, supporting the overall ecological balance of the reserve.

Mudumalai Tiger Reserve River

The Moyar River flows through the Mudumalai Tiger Reserve, acting as a natural boundary between the Bandipur National Park in Karnataka and the Mudumalai sanctuary in Tamil Nadu. This river serves as a significant geographical feature in the region and has ecological importance.

The Moyar River  is a perennial river that provides water to the flora and fauna within the reserve, supporting the diverse ecosystems present there. The river plays a crucial role in maintaining the connectivity between different habitats and serves as a corridor for wildlife movement. 

Mudumalai Tiger Reserve Tribe

The Mudumalai Tiger Reserve is home to several indigenous tribal communities who have inhabited the region for centuries. These tribes have a deep connection with the land and play a crucial role in the cultural heritage of the area. 

Here are some of the prominent tribal communities found in and around the Mudumalai Tiger Reserve:

(1) Toda:

The Toda tribe is one of the oldest and most well-known tribes in the Nilgiri Hills. They are traditionally cattle herders and reside in small settlements called "munds." The Todas have distinct cultural practices, including their unique huts called "dogles," traditional clothing, and dairy-based economy.

(2) Kurumba:

The Kurumba tribe is another indigenous community in the region. They have a rich cultural heritage and are known for their traditional knowledge of the forests and medicinal plants. The Kurumbas traditionally engage in agriculture, honey collection, and minor forest produce gathering.

 (3) Irulas:

The Irula community is an indigenous tribal group that can be found in various parts of South India, including in the vicinity of the Mudumalai Tiger Reserve. The Irulas have a rich cultural heritage and a distinct way of life.

Traditionally, the Irulas were known for their expertise in snake and rat catching. They had extensive knowledge of the local ecosystem, including identifying and handling venomous snakes. 

Mudumalai Tiger Reserve Flora

The Mudumalai Tiger Reserve is renowned for its diverse flora, which includes various types of forests, grasslands, and swampy areas. Here are some key features of the floral diversity within the reserve:

(1) Semi-evergreen Forests:

These forests consist of a mix of evergreen and deciduous tree species. They are characterized by the presence of both broad-leaved evergreen trees and those that shed their leaves seasonally.

(2) Moist Deciduous Forests: 

These forests are dominated by deciduous tree species that shed their leaves during the dry season. They thrive in areas with relatively higher moisture content.

(3) Dry Deciduous Forests:

These forests predominantly feature deciduous tree species that shed their leaves during the dry season. They are well-adapted to the semi-arid conditions prevalent in some parts of the reserve.

(4) Scrub Forests:

Scrub forests are characterized by relatively shorter trees and shrubs, often found in drier and rocky areas. They play a vital role in the ecological balance of the reserve.

(5) Wild Relatives of Cultivated Plants: 

Mudumalai Tiger Reserve is home to several wild relatives of cultivated plants, including wild rice, ginger, turmeric, cinnamon, solanum (nightshade family), guava, mango, and pepper. These wild varieties serve as a gene pool for cultivated varieties and are crucial for conservation and future crop breeding efforts.

(6) Swampy Areas (Vayals):

The reserve has swampy areas known as "Vayals." These habitats are characterized by waterlogged conditions, supporting a unique vegetation community, including various aquatic plants, reeds, and grasses.

(7) Grasslands:

The Mudumalai Tiger Reserve also encompasses grassland habitats. These open areas are essential for herbivores and provide grazing opportunities for wildlife.

Note- The Mudumalai Tiger Reserve has tall grasses, commonly referred to as ‘Elephant Grass’.

Mudumalai Tiger Reserve Fauna (Mudumalai Tiger Reserve Animals)

The Mudumalai Tiger Reserve is known for its rich and diverse fauna. The reserve provides habitat for a wide range of animal species, including several endangered and charismatic species. Here are some of the notable fauna found in the Mudumalai Tiger Reserve:


  • Tiger
  • Asian Elephant
  • Indian Gaur
  • Spotted Deer
  • Common Langur
  • Malabar Giant Squirrel
  • Wild Dog
  • Jungle Cat


  • Indian Peafowl
  • Malabar Grey Hornbill
  • Malabar Pied Hornbill
  • Malabar Trogon
  • Indian Roller
  • Asian Paradise Flycatcher
  • White-bellied Woodpecker
  • Malabar Whistling Thrush
  • Great Indian Hornbill


  • King Cobra
  • Indian Rock Python
  • Common Krait
  • Russell's Viper
  • Indian Chameleon
  • Monitor Lizard

Top Things to do in Mudumalai Tiger Reserve

When visiting the Mudumalai Tiger Reserve, there are several exciting activities and experiences to enjoy. Here are some of the top things to do in Mudumalai Tiger Reserve:

  • Wildlife Safari
  • Birdwatching
  • Nature Walks and Trekking
  • Visit Moyar River
  • Explore Tribal Culture
  • Visit Nearby Attractions
  • Visit the Elephant Camp
  • Nature Photography
  • Nature Interpretation Centers
  • Relax and Unwind

Mudumalai Tiger Reserve Interpretation Centre

The Mudumalai Tiger Reserve has an interpretation center that provides visitors with valuable information about the reserve's flora, fauna, and conservation efforts. The interpretation center serves as an educational hub and offers various exhibits, displays, and interactive materials to enhance visitors' understanding and appreciation of the reserve's biodiversity.

At the interpretation center, you can expect to find:

Information Panels: The center features information panels that provide details about the wildlife, vegetation, and ecosystems found within the Mudumalai Tiger Reserve. These panels offer insights into the rich biodiversity of the region and the importance of conservation.

Specimen Displays: The interpretation center showcases specimens of plants, animals, and other natural elements found in the reserve. These displays offer a closer look at the diverse flora and fauna, allowing visitors to learn about their unique features and adaptations.

Audiovisual Presentations: The center may have audiovisual presentations, including videos and slideshows, that showcase the wildlife, landscapes, and conservation efforts in Mudumalai Tiger Reserve. These presentations provide a visual and auditory experience to enhance visitors' understanding of the reserve's natural wonders.

Conservation Information: The interpretation center also focuses on the conservation initiatives and challenges faced in protecting the biodiversity of Mudumalai Tiger Reserve. It may provide information about conservation projects, research activities, and community engagement programs aimed at preserving the ecosystem.

Educational Activities: The center may organize educational activities such as workshops, talks, and guided tours to engage visitors and deepen their knowledge about the reserve. These activities may be conducted by knowledgeable staff or experts in the field.

Souvenir Shop: Some interpretation centers have a souvenir shop where visitors can purchase books, guides, maps, and other nature-related items as mementos of their visit to the Mudumalai Tiger Reserve.

Visiting the interpretation center is a great way to enhance your understanding of the reserve's biodiversity, conservation efforts, and the importance of preserving natural habitats. It provides a platform for learning, appreciation, and raising awareness about the unique ecological significance of Mudumalai Tiger Reserve.

Anaikkal Mariamman Temple in Mudumalai Tiger Reserve

The Anaikkal Mariamman Temple is located in the buffer zone of the Mudumalai Tiger Reserve. It is a revered Hindu temple dedicated to the goddess Mariamman, located in the vicinity of the Mudumalai Tiger Reserve. The temple is known for its religious significance and attracts devotees from the surrounding areas.

Mudumalai Tiger Reserve UPSC Questions

Q. Where is Mudumalai Tiger Reserve UPSC?/Mudumalai Tiger Reserve in which state?/In which state the Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary situated?

A. Mudumalai Tiger Reserve is located in the Nilgiris District of Tamil Nadu, India.

Q. Which river passes through Mudumalai Tiger Reserve?

A. Moyar river pases through Mudumalai Tiger Reserve.

Q. How many tigers in Mudumalai Tiger Reserve?

A. As of 2018, the tiger population in the Mudumalai Tiger Reserve was estimated to  103 adult tigers.

Mudumalai Tiger Reserve

No comments:

Post a Comment