Tuesday, August 22, 2023

Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary

Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary UPSC

The Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the state of Maharashtra, India. Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary provides a forest connection between Sanjay Gandhi National Park and Tansa Wildlife Sanctuary.

The sanctuary is home to a diverse range of flora and fauna. It houses various species of plants, trees, and flowering plants. As for wildlife, you can find animals like leopards, monkeys, wild boars, barking deer, various species of birds, reptiles, and amphibians.

Apart from its ecological importance, the sanctuary also holds religious significance for locals. The Tungareshwar Temple, dedicated to Lord Shiva, is situated within the sanctuary. This temple attracts a considerable number of pilgrims, particularly during festivals.

The sanctuary offers several trekking and hiking trails that allow visitors to explore its natural beauty. The treks are of varying difficulty levels, catering to both beginners and experienced trekkers. These trails often provide breathtaking views of the surrounding landscapes.

Table of Contents

  • Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary Location
  • Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary History
  • Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary Area
  • Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary Hills
  • Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary Flora
  • Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptile
  • Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary UPSC Questions

Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary Location

The Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary is located on a plateau east of Vasai and Virar in Palghar district, Maharashtra, India. It is situated in the western part of the state, near the town of Vasai. 

The sanctuary is approximately 50 kilometers north of Mumbai, making it easily accessible from the city. 

Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary Nearest Airport:

The nearest airport to the Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary is Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj International Airport (Mumbai Airport), which is located in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. The sanctuary is approximately 50 kilometers north of Mumbai, so this airport would be the most convenient option for air travel.

Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary Nearest Railway Station:

The nearest railway station to the Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary is Vasai Road Railway Station. Vasai Road is well-connected to the Mumbai Suburban Railway network and serves as a major railway station in the region. From Vasai Road Railway Station, you can take local transportation, such as buses or taxis, to reach the sanctuary, which is situated a few kilometers away.

Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary History

The history of the Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary is intertwined with both its ecological significance and its cultural importance.

Ecological Significance: The roots of the Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary's history lie in its exceptional biodiversity and distinctive ecosystem. Nestled within the Western Ghats, a renowned global biodiversity hotspot, the sanctuary's forests have evolved over centuries, fostering a diverse array of plant and animal species. Its establishment was a response to the pressing need to conserve these unique life forms and their habitats.

Cultural Heritage: Beyond its ecological value, the sanctuary boasts a rich cultural heritage. At its heart stands the Tungareshwar Temple, dedicated to Lord Shiva, which has been a focal point of religious devotion and pilgrimage for generations. The fusion of cultural and ecological aspects adds a distinct layer to the sanctuary's narrative.

Establishment: The 24th of October, 2003, marked a significant milestone in the sanctuary's journey. On this date, the area was officially recognized and designated as a protected area under the Wildlife Protection Act of India. This legal status was established to shield its flora and fauna from potential harm and to promote their long-term well-being.

Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary Area

The Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary covers an area of approximately 85.7 square kilometers. It forms a corridor between Sanjay Gandhi National Park (also known as Borivali National Park) and Tansa Wildlife Sanctuary.

The sanctuary's size allows for the preservation of a diverse range of habitats, flora, and fauna, contributing to its ecological significance and making it a vital component of the region's natural heritage.

Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary Hills

Indeed, the Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary encompasses a hilly terrain that adds to its scenic beauty and ecological diversity. Situated between Virar and Vasai in the suburban fringes of Mumbai, Tungareshwar forms a captivating hill plateau. These hills not only contribute to the sanctuary's picturesque landscape but also provide distinct habitats for various plant and animal species.

The hilly terrain of Tungareshwar offers visitors and nature enthusiasts opportunities for trekking, hiking, and exploration. The varying elevations and undulating landscapes create a range of microhabitats, fostering a diverse array of plant life, including indigenous trees, shrubs, and other flora. The elevation changes also influence the types of animals that inhabit the sanctuary, as different species are adapted to different altitudes and habitats.

Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary Flora

What is the flora and fauna in Tungareshwar?

The Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary is renowned for its diverse flora, which includes a range of plant species adapted to the Western Ghats ecosystem. 

Here is list of plant species that are commonly found in the Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary.

  • Tectona spp. (Teak)
  • Albizia spp. (Albizia)
  • Terminalia spp. (Terminalia)
  • Holarrhena spp. (Holarrhena)
  • Firmiana spp. (Firmiana)
  • Dalbergia spp. (Dalbergia)
  • Garuga spp. (Garuga)
  • Grewia spp. (Grewia)
  • Adina spp. (Adina)
  • Ficus spp. (Fig)
  • Madhuca spp. (Madhuca)
  • Caraya spp. (Caraya)
  • Butea spp. (Butea)
  • Bamboo

Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary Fauna (Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary Animals)

The Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary is home to a diverse array of wildlife species. Here's an overview of the types of fauna commonly found in the sanctuary:


  • Leopard
  • Wild Boar
  • Barking Deer
  • Bonnet Macaque
  • Rhesus Macaque
  • Black-Naped Hare


  • Crested Serpent- Eagle
  • Jungle Owlet
  • White-eyed Buzzard
  • Oriental Honey-Buzzard
  • Emerald Dove
  • Heart-Spotted Woodpecker


  • Common Garden Lizard
  • Green Vine Snake
  • Bronze Grass Skink

Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary UPSC Questions

Q. Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary is located in which state?/In which district is Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary?

A. The Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the state of Maharashtra, India. It is situated in the Palghar district of Maharashtra.

Q. What is Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary famous for?

A. The Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary is famous for several reasons:

(i) Biodiversity: The sanctuary is renowned for its rich biodiversity. It is home to a diverse range of plant and animal species, including various mammals, birds, reptiles, and insects. The sanctuary's location in the Western Ghats contributes to its ecological significance as a hotspot of biodiversity.

(ii) Natural Beauty: The sanctuary's picturesque landscapes, hills, forests, and water bodies contribute to its natural beauty. It's a popular destination for nature enthusiasts, trekkers, and photographers seeking to immerse themselves in the scenic beauty of the region.

(iii) Trekking and Hiking: The sanctuary offers trekking and hiking trails that allow visitors to explore its terrain. These trails offer opportunities for adventure and outdoor activities, making it a favored spot for adventure seekers.

(iv) Tungareshwar Temple: The sanctuary houses the Tungareshwar Temple, dedicated to Lord Shiva. This adds a cultural and religious significance to the sanctuary, attracting pilgrims and devotees seeking spiritual experiences in a natural setting.

(v) Proximity to Mumbai: The sanctuary's relatively close proximity to Mumbai makes it an accessible nature getaway for city residents looking to escape the urban environment and connect with nature.

Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary

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