Friday, April 14, 2023

Keoladeo National Park

Keoladeo Ghana National Park UPSC (Keoladeo Ghana Bird Sanctuary)

Keoladeo Ghana National Park, also known as Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary, is a protected area in the state of Rajasthan, India. The Keoladeo Ghana National Park is home to a variety of bird species, including migratory birds that travel to the park during winter months. 


The Keoladeo National Park was declared a protected sanctuary in 1971 and was later declared a Ramsar Site in 1981 and designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1985.


The Keoladeo National Park is known for its wetlands, which are fed by the Gambhir and Banganga rivers. The wetlands provide a habitat for a wide range of bird species, including the endangered Siberian crane, as well as other wildlife.


Keoladeo Ghana National Park is an important conservation area and is recognized as one of the most significant bird sanctuaries in the world. It is an important site for birdwatchers and nature enthusiasts. The Park attracts thousands of visitors every year, who come to observe the diverse birdlife and experience the unique wetland ecosystem of the park.


Table of Contents

  • Keoladeo National Park Location
  • Keoladeo National Park History
  • Keoladeo National Park Area
  • Keoladeo National Park River
    • Gambhir River
    • Banganga River
  • Keoladeo National Park Lake/Dam
    • Ajan Dam
  • Keoladeo National Park Boundary Wall
  • Keoladeo National Park Flora
    • Plant Species
    • Aquatic Vegetation
    • Floating and Submerged Plants
  • Keoladeo National Park Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptiles
  • Keoladeo National Park Migratory Bird
  • Top Things to do in Keoladeo National Park
  • Keoladeo Ghana National Park UPSC Questions


Keoladeo National Park Location

Keoladeo National Park is located in Bharatpur district of Rajasthan in India. It is a wetland and bird sanctuary. The Keoladeo National Park is easily accessible by road, rail and air. The park is approximately 50 kilometers (31 miles) west of the city of Agra, which is famous for the iconic Taj Mahal. 


Keoladeo National Park Nearest Airport:

The nearest airport to the Keoladeo National Park is is Agra Airport, situated about 56 kilometers from Bharatpur.


Keoladeo National Park Nearest Railway Station:

Bharatpur Junction railway station located just 5 kilometers from the park. 




Keoladeo National Park History

Keoladeo National Park, formerly known as Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary, has a rich and fascinating history. Here is a brief overview of the park's history:


Historical Background: The area where Keoladeo National Park is located has a history dating back to ancient times. The region was part of the Matsya Kingdom, mentioned in the Indian epic Mahabharata. The park's name "Keoladeo" is derived from the ancient Hindu temple dedicated to Lord Shiva, known as Keoladeo or Keoladeo Ghana National Park.


Royal Hunting Ground: In the 18th century, the Maharajas (kings) of Bharatpur recognized the ecological importance of the region and declared it as their private hunting ground. The abundant water bodies and marshlands attracted a diverse range of bird species, making it a favored hunting spot for the royals.


Conservation Efforts: In the late 19th century, the rulers of Bharatpur took steps to protect the birdlife in the area. Maharaja Suraj Mal, in particular, played a significant role in transforming the region into a protected sanctuary. He constructed bunds (embankments) and dykes to regulate the water supply and created artificial lakes and wetlands, which greatly enhanced the habitat for birds.


Post Independence: After India gained independence in 1947, the management of the sanctuary was taken over by the Rajasthan Forest Department.


Declared a Bird Sanctuary: In 1976, the Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary was established as a protected area. It gained recognition for its exceptional avian diversity, attracting migratory birds from various parts of the world. The sanctuary was initially managed by the Rajasthan Forest Department.


Designated as a Ramsar Site: In 1981, Keoladeo Bird Sanctuary was designated as a Ramsar Site, recognizing its international importance as a wetland habitat. The Ramsar Convention is an intergovernmental treaty aimed at the conservation and sustainable use of wetlands.


National Park Status: In 1982, the sanctuary was upgraded to the status of a national park and was renamed Keoladeo National Park. This change in status provided enhanced protection and conservation measures for the park and its biodiversity.


UNESCO World Heritage Site: Keoladeo National Park was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1985. The park's unique ecology, including its diverse bird population and the efforts undertaken for their conservation, were recognized as outstanding universal values.




Keoladeo National Park Area

Keoladeo National Park covers an area of approximately 28.73 square kilometers (11.1 square miles). The The Keoladeo Ghana National Park is dominated by wetlands, including shallow lakes, swamps, and marshes, which make up approximately two-thirds of the park's total area. The remaining area is made up of grasslands, woodlands, and scrub forests.




Keoladeo National Park River

Gambhir and Banganga rivers passes through Keoladeo National Park. These two rivers are responsible for creating the wetland ecosystem within the park, which provides a vital habitat for a wide range of bird species and other wildlife.


The wetlands created by these two rivers within Keoladeo National Park play a crucial role in maintaining the ecological balance of the park and are essential for maintaining the health of the bird and animal populations that depend on them for food and water.


(1) Gambhir River:

The Gambhir River is a seasonal river that originates near Karoli in Rajasthan, India. It is also known as the Utangan River.


The Gambhir River is approximately 288 kilometers long and flows through the districts of Bharatpur (Rajasthan), Dholpur (Rajasthan) and Mainpuri (Uttar Pradesh) before joining the Yamuna River. It confluences with Yamuna in Mainpuri district of Uttar Pradesh.


The Gambhir river is fed by several tributaries, including the Banganga, Sesa, Kher and Parbati.


(2) Banganga River:

The Banganga River is a small seasonal river that flows through the town of Bharatpur in Rajasthan, India. It is a tributary of the Gambhir River and is responsible for filling some of the smaller wetlands within Keoladeo National Park. The river is fed by several small streams and tributaries along its course.




Keoladeo National Park Lake/Dam

Keoladeo National Park is not a natural wetland. The main source of water to the Keoladeo National Park is Ajan dam. 


Ajan Dam:

Ajan Dam, also known as the Khatia Dam, is a small earthen dam located in the state of Rajasthan, India. It was constructed in 1760. It is situated approximately 5 kilometers from Keoladeo National Park and is a popular spot for birdwatching and picnicking. Ajan dam gets water from the river Gambhir.


The Ajan Dam and its surrounding areas provide an important habitat for a variety of bird species, including several migratory species that visit the area during the winter months. The dam is particularly known for its large population of painted storks, which nest in the trees around the reservoir.




Keoladeo National Park Boundary Wall

Keoladeo Ghana National Park is the only national park in India that is completely enclosed by a 2 m high boundary wall, which aims to minimise the possibilities of any encroachment, illegal activities and other biotic disturbances. The boundary wall has been effective in protecting the park's biodiversity and preventing human-wildlife conflicts.


The boundary wall was built in the early 20th century to protect the Keoladeo Ghana National Park's flora and fauna from human encroachment and to prevent poaching. The boundary wall is approximately 11 kilometers long and made of brick and stone. It has several gates and entry points for visitors and park staff. 




Keoladeo National Park Flora

Keoladeo National Park is home to a diverse range of flora that supports its unique ecosystem. The park's vegetation comprises various types of plants, including the following:


(1) Wetland Plants:

Keoladeo National Park is characterized by its wetland habitats, which host a variety of aquatic and semi-aquatic plants. These include water lilies, lotus, water hyacinth, water chestnut, and various types of submerged plants like Vallisneria and Hydrilla. These plants provide essential shelter, food, and breeding grounds for many bird species and other aquatic organisms.


(2) Marshland Plants:

The marshy areas of the park are adorned with tall grasses and reeds. Common species found in these areas include Phragmites, Typha, Saccharum, and Cyperus. These grasses provide nesting sites and hiding places for birds and other wildlife.


(3) Woodland Plants:

Keoladeo National Park also encompasses wooded areas that are dominated by various tree species. Common trees found in the park include Kadam, Jamun, Babul, Kandi, and Acacia. These trees provide shade and perching spots for birds, as well as food sources through their fruits, flowers, and leaves.


(4) Dryland Vegetation:

In addition to wetlands, the park has patches of dryland habitats with shrubs and grasses. These areas support plants like Prosopis, Capparis, Ziziphus, and various grass species such as Cynodon and Dichanthium. These plants are adapted to survive in arid conditions and provide cover for small mammals and birds.




Keoladeo National Park Fauna (Keoladeo National Park Fauna Animals)

Keoladeo National Park is famous for which animal?

Keoladeo National Park is renowned for its rich fauna, particularly its avian diversity. However, the park is not limited to birds and is also home to a wide range of other animal species. Here are some of the notable fauna found in Keoladeo National Park:


Mammals:

  • Jackals
  • Sambar
  • Bengal Fox
  • Blackbuck
  • Chital
  • Common Palm Civet
  • Hog Deer
  • Sambar
  • Nilgai
  • Wild Cats
  • Hyenas
  • Wild Boar
  • Porcupine Mongoose


Birds:

  • Siberian Crane
  • Painted Stork
  • Greater Spotted Eagle
  • Imperial Eagle
  • Cormorants
  • Peacocks
  • Darters
  • Owls
  • Waterhens
  • Common Coot
  • Purple Sunbird
  • Baer’s Pochard
  • Dalmatian Pelican
  • Lesser and Greater Adjutants
  • Cinereous Vulture
  • Spot–billed Pelican


Reptiles:

  • Python
  • Krait
  • Cobra
  • Russell’s Viper
  • Common Monitor Lizard




Keoladeo National Park Migratory Bird

Keoladeo National Park is home to a large number of migratory birds that come from various parts of the world during the winter season. The migratory birds at Keoladeo National Park come from as far away as Siberia and Central Asia, and they arrive at the park in October and November each year. 


The Keoladeo National Park provides an ideal habitat for these migratory birds, with its shallow wetlands and marshes providing a perfect feeding ground. Some of the most common migratory birds found in the park include the Siberian Crane, the Greater Flamingo, the Common Teal, the Ruff, the Northern Pintail, and the Rosy Pelican.


Keoladeo National Park is the only known wintering site of the critically endangered Siberian Crane. The park also serves as a wintering area for other globally threatened species such as the Greater Spotted Eagle and Imperial Eagle.




Top Things to do in Keoladeo National Park

Keoladeo National Park offers several activities and experiences for visitors. Here are some of the top things to do in the park:

  • Birdwatching
  • Nature Walks
  • Bicycle Tours
  • Boat Rides
  • Photography
  • Visit Local Villages
  • Attend Cultural Events




Keoladeo Ghana National Park UPSC Questions

Q. Where is Keoladeo National Park?/Keoladeo National Park is located in which state?/Keoladeo National Park is located in which district of Rajasthan?

A. Keoladeo National Park is located in in Bharatpur district of Rajasthan in India.


Q. Keoladeo National Park is situated in which city?

A. Keoladeo National Park is located in Bharatpur city.


Q. Keoladeo National Park is famous for which bird?

A. Keoladeo National Park is famous for Siberian Crane.


Q. Which river flows in Bharatpur Rajasthan?/Keoladeo Ghana National Park on which river?/Which river passes through Keoladeo National Park?

A. Gambhir and Banganga river flows in Keoladeo National Park.


Q. What is Keoladeo National Park famous for?

A. Keoladeo National Park is famous for migratory birds.


Q. Is Bharatpur first national park of India?

A. India’s first national park is Jim Corbett National Park, in Uttarakhand. It was established in 1936.


Q. Is Keoladeo a World Heritage Site?

A. Keoladeo National Park was listed as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1985.


Q. Is Keoladeo a biosphere reserve in India?

A. No.


Q. Which lake is in Keoladeo National Park?/Keoladeo National Park which lake?

A. Keoladeo National Park is not a natural wetland. The main source of water to the national park is Ajan dam. Ajan dam gets water from the river Gambhir.


Q. Is Keoladeo National Park in Montreux Record?

A. Currently, Keoladeo National Park and Loktak Lake (Manipur) are in Montreux record.


Q. Which is largest bird sanctuary in India?/Which is the biggest bird sanctuary?

A. Keoladeo Bird Sanctuary is largest bird sanctuary in India.


Q. Is Keoladeo National Park a tiger reserve?

A. Keoladeo National Park is not a tiger reserve. It is a National Park and Bird Sanctuary in Rajasthan.


Q. Is Keoladeo National Park a Ramsar site?

A. Keoladeo National Park was designated a Wetland of International Importance under the Ramsar Convention in 1981.


Keoladeo National Park

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