Monday, May 22, 2023

Jim Corbett National Park

Jim Corbett National Park UPSC

Jim Corbett National Park is a renowned national park located in the state of Uttarakhand, India. Established in 1936, it is one of the oldest national parks in India and also the first national park to be established in mainland Asia. 


The Jim Corbett National Park is situated in the foothills of the Himalayas, encompassing both hilly and flat regions, with the Ramganga River flowing through it.


The Jim Corbett National Park is named after Jim Corbett, a British-Indian hunter, naturalist, and conservationist who played a key role in its establishment.


Jim Corbett National Park is primarily known for its diverse wildlife and being a haven for Bengal tigers. It is a part of the larger Corbett Tiger Reserve, which includes the Sonanadi Wildlife Sanctuary and the Reserve Forest areas. 


Table of Contents

  • Jim Corbett National Park Location
  • Jim Corbett National Park History
    • Jim Corbett National Park New Name
  • Jim Corbett National Park Area
    • Bhabar-Terai Region
  • Jim Corbett National Park Zones
  • Terai Arc Landscape Program
  • Jim Corbett National Park Hills
  • Jim Corbett National Park Valley
    • Patli Dun Valley
  • Jim Corbett National Park River
    • Ramganga River
    • Sonanadi River
    • Mandal River
    • Palain River
    • Kosi River
  • Jim Corbett National Park Flora
    • Sal Forests
    • Mixed Deciduous Forests
    • Grasslands
    • Riverine Vegetation
    • Bamboo Groves
    • Medicinal Plants
  • Dhikala Grasslands
  • Jim Corbett National Park Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptiles
  • Top Things to do in Jim Corbett National Park
  • Jim Corbett National Park UPSC Questions


Jim Corbett National Park Location

Jim Corbett National Park is situated in Nainital district of Uttarakhand in India. It is located in the Kumaon and Pauri-Garhwal Regions of Uttarakhand State.


Jim Corbett National Park is situated in the foothills of the Himalayas and spans across the Patli Dun Valley and the Ramganga River basin. The park is located between the Siwalik Himalayas and the Terai region.



Jim Corbett National Park Nearest Airport:

For travelers looking to reach Jim Corbett National Park by air, the nearest domestic airport is Phoolbagh in Pantnagar, situated just 50 kilometers away. This well-connected airport provides convenient options for domestic flights, making it a favorable entry point for visitors from various parts of India.


For international travelers or those preferring more extensive flight options, the nearest international airport is Delhi, located approximately 295 kilometers from Jim Corbett National Park. This major airport offers numerous international and domestic flights, facilitating easy access to the park from various global destinations.


Jim Corbett National Park Nearest Railway Station:

For those seeking a scenic train journey to Jim Corbett National Park, the closest railway station is Ramnagar, situated a mere 12 kilometers away. Ramnagar station is well-connected to major cities in India, providing a comfortable and picturesque rail route for visitors to reach the park.




Jim Corbett National Park History

Tehri Garhwal Princely State: A portion of the park's land was once part of the Tehri Garhwal princely state. Later acquired by the British, it is now an integral part of Uttarakhand, contributing to the park's diverse landscape and wildlife habitats.


India's Oldest National Park: Jim Corbett National Park holds the distinction of being India's oldest national park (first national park of India), established during British rule. It also stands as Asia's first national park, a testament to its historical significance in wildlife conservation.


Hailey National Park: In 1936, the park was initially established as Hailey National Park, named after Sir Malcolm Hailey, the Governor of the United Provinces (now Uttar Pradesh) at that time. This marked the first step towards preserving the region's endangered Bengal tigers and other wildlife species.


Renaming as Ramganga National Park: In 1954-1955, the park underwent a renaming process and was called Ramganga National Park, derived from the name of the Ramganga River that gracefully flows through its heart. This renaming celebrated the river's crucial role in sustaining the park's vibrant ecosystem.


Renaming as Jim Corbett National Park: In 1956, it was renamed yet again as Corbett National Park. Jim Corbett National Park named after the Jim Corbett who played a key role in its establishment. His significant contributions to wildlife conservation and advocacy for protecting India's natural treasures earned him this distinguished recognition.


Expansion and Tiger Reserve Status: In 1973, the park was granted the prestigious status of a tiger reserve, becoming the Corbett Tiger Reserve. This marked a pivotal moment in India's efforts to conserve the Bengal tiger, and Corbett Tiger Reserve was among the first to be included in the ambitious Project Tiger initiative launched in 1973.



Jim Corbett National Park New Name:

The Union Minister of State for Environment, Forest and Climate Change has recently proposed to change the name of Corbett National Park to Ramganga National Park.




Jim Corbett National Park Area

The Jim Corbett National Park is a part of the Corbett Tiger Reserve. Core area of Corbett Tiger Reserve forms the Corbett National Park (520 square kilometres) while the buffer area contains reserve forests as well as the Sonanadi Wildlife Sanctuary.


The present area of the Jim Corbett Tiger Reserve is 1,318.54 square kilometres (509.09 sq mi) including 520 square kilometres (200 sq mi) of core area and 797.72 square kilometres (308.00 sq mi) of buffer area. 


The buffer area contains reserve forests of 496.54 square kilometres as well as the Sonanadi Wildlife Sanctuary of 301.18 square kilometres.


The whole area of Jim Corbett National Park comprises hills, marshy depressions, riverine belts, grasslands and a large lake. 



Bhabar-Terai Region:

The entire area of the Jim Corbett National Park is mountainous and lies in the Bhabar-Terai Region, on the southern part of the Shivalik Mountains in northern India.


The Bhabar-Terai region is a distinct geographical region located at the base of the Himalayas, stretching across northern India. It encompasses the southern foothills of the Himalayas and extends into the Gangetic plains.


The Bhabar-Terai region is ecologically significant as it serves as a transition zone between the Himalayan ecosystem and the Indo-Gangetic plains.


The term "Bhabar" refers to the narrow belt of porous gravelly soil found at the base of the Himalayas. This area acts as a natural reservoir for groundwater, as it allows water to percolate and recharge the underground aquifers. 


Beyond the Bhabar, lies the "Terai" region, which consists of fertile plains formed by the deposition of alluvial soil carried down from the mountains by rivers. The Terai region is known for its fertile agricultural land and supports a significant population.




Jim Corbett National Park Zones

Jim Corbett National Park is divided into six major different tourism zones, each offering a unique experience and wildlife sightings. These zones are designated for different types of activities, such as safaris, birdwatching, and trekking. 


(1) Bijrani Safari Zone:

The Bijrani Zone is one of the most popular zones for wildlife safaris in Jim Corbett National Park. It is located on the eastern side of the park and is known for its diverse flora and fauna, including tiger sightings. The zone is characterized by dense Sal forests and open grasslands. The entry gate of the zone is located at only 1 Km from Ramnagar city.


(2) Jhirna Safari Zone:

Situated in the southern part of the park, the Jhirna Zone is known for its open grasslands and scrub vegetation. It is open for safaris throughout the year and offers sightings of wildlife such as tigers, elephants, deer, sloth bears, and various bird species. Jhirna Gate is located at a distance of 16 km from Ramnagar city.


(3) Dhela Safari Zone:

The Dhela Zone is located on the southern fringe of Jim Corbett National Park. It offers a mix of dense forests and open grasslands. The Zone is retaining the attention of a large number of tourists because of its rich biodiversity and is open throughout the year. Also, it is located at an approximate distance of 13 Km from Ramnagar City.


(4) Dhikala Zone:

Dhikala Zone is the largest and most prominent zone of Jim Corbett National Park. It is located in the heart of the park and is known for its diverse landscapes, including dense forests, grasslands, and riverine belts. Dhikala is highly regarded for its tiger population and provides stunning views of the Ramganga River. Overnight stays in forest rest houses are available in this zone.


(5) Durga Devi Zone:

Situated in the northeastern part of the park, the Durga Devi Zone is known for its scenic beauty and diverse wildlife. It is characterized by dense forests, river streams, and waterfalls. Durga Devi zone is the heaven on planet earth for those who are fond of bird watching. The Entry gate is located at an approximate distance of 36 km from Ramnagar city.


(6) Sitabani Buffer Zone: 

The Sitabani Buffer Zone is an important area adjacent to Jim Corbett National Park. While it is not officially part of the core zones of the park, it serves as a significant extension that contributes to wildlife conservation efforts.


Situated on the northwestern side of the park. While visiting the Sitabani Buffer Zone, visitors can explore the Sitabani Temple, dedicated to Goddess Sita, and other small temples in the area that hold religious significance. 




Terai Arc Landscape Program

The Corbett National Park is a protected area covered by the World Wide Fund (WWF) for Nature under their Terai Arc Landscape Program.


The Terai Arc Landscape (TAL) Program is a collaborative conservation initiative aimed at preserving and restoring the unique biodiversity of the Terai region. It is a joint effort between the governments of India and Nepal, along with several national and international organizations, to protect the wildlife and habitats of the Terai region.


The Terai Arc Landscape spans across the lowland Terai region of Nepal and the Indian states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and Uttarakhand. It encompasses a vast area of approximately 49,000 square kilometers (18,900 square miles) and is known for its rich biodiversity, including endangered species such as tigers, elephants, rhinoceros, and many other flora and fauna.


The program focuses on establishing and maintaining ecological corridors and protected areas to ensure the free movement of wildlife and the preservation of their habitats. These corridors serve as vital linkages between fragmented habitats, enabling the migration and dispersal of wildlife populations.




Jim Corbett National Park Hills

Jim Corbett National Park is located in the foothills of the Himalayas, providing a stunning backdrop of hills and mountains. While the park itself primarily encompasses the plains, it is surrounded by hilly terrain that adds to its scenic beauty and biodiversity.


  • Nainital Hills
  • Bhimtal Hills
  • Naukichital Hills
  • Rishikesh Hills
  • Sattal Hills


The hilly terrain in the vicinity of Jim Corbett National Park also offers opportunities for adventure activities and nature exploration. Visitors can go trekking, hiking, or take nature walks in the hills to immerse themselves in the natural beauty of the area.




Jim Corbett National Park Valley

Jim Corbett National encompasses the Patli Dun valley formed by the Ramganga river.


The Patli Dun valley is located on the eastern side of the park and is part of the larger Corbett Landscape. It is a lush and fertile valley nestled between the Kumaon Hills and the Shivalik Range, offering picturesque landscapes and diverse ecosystems.


The valley is characterized by its gently rolling terrain, wide grasslands, and agricultural fields. It is traversed by several rivers and streams, including the Ramganga River, which flows through the valley, providing water to the surrounding vegetation and wildlife.




Jim Corbett National Park River

Jim Corbett National Park is blessed with several rivers and water bodies that contribute to its ecological diversity and provide crucial habitats for wildlife. 


Here are some of the prominent rivers and water bodies in and around Jim Corbett National Park:


(1) Ramganga River:

The Ramganga River is one of the major rivers in the region and flows through the heart of Jim Corbett National Park. It forms a vital lifeline for the park's ecosystem. The river is known for its scenic beauty and sustains a diverse range of aquatic species, including the mighty Mahseer fish.


  • The Ramganga River originates in the southern slopes of Dudhatoli Hill in Chamoli district of Uttarakhand, India. 
  • Its length is 596 km (370 mi).
  • Ramganga is a tributary of the river Ganges.
  • It merge with Ganga river in Hardoi district of Uttar Pradesh, India.


(2) Sonanadi River:

The Sonanadi River is a tributary of the Ramganga River and flows through the Sonanadi Wildlife Sanctuary, which is adjacent to Jim Corbett National Park. The river and its surrounding areas offer an important wildlife habitat and are known for their scenic landscapes.


(3) Mandal River:

The Mandal River is a small but significant tributary of the Ramganga River. It flows through the Patli Dun valley, which is located on the eastern side of the Jim Corbett National Park. The Mandal River adds to the beauty of the region and supports the rich biodiversity found in the valley.


  • Mandal River originates within the eastern heights of Talla Salan in Chamoli district of Uttarakhand, India. 
  • The river is a important breeding place of Mahaseer fish.


(4) Palain River:

Palain River flow through Jim Corbett National Park.


(5) Kosi River:

The Kosi River is another important river that passes near the Jim Corbett National Park. It flows through the eastern boundary of the park and merges with the Ramganga River outside the park's limits. The Kosi River provides water and essential habitats for various wildlife species, and its banks are home to a variety of bird species.


  • The length of the Kosi river is 168 km (104 mi).
  • Its basin is spread over an area of about 346 km2 (134 sq mi).
  • Its tributaries is Suyal, Ramgad, Bhowaligad.




Jim Corbett National Park Flora

Jim Corbett National Park boasts a rich and diverse flora, characterized by a variety of plant species that thrive in its different ecosystems. The park's vegetation is influenced by its location in the Terai region and the transition zone between the Himalayas and the plains. 


Here are some of the notable flora found in Jim Corbett National Park:


(1) Sal Forests:

Sal (Shorea robusta) is the dominant tree species in the park and covers a significant portion of its area. Sal forests create a dense and lush canopy, providing habitat and shade for various wildlife species.


(2) Mixed Deciduous Forests:

Apart from sal, the park is home to mixed deciduous forests consisting of trees like Sheesham (Dalbergia sissoo), Khair (Acacia catechu), Rohini (Mallotus philippensis), Dhak (Butea monosperma), and many more. These forests showcase a diverse range of tree species.


(3) Grasslands:

Jim Corbett National Park features extensive grasslands that form important grazing habitats for herbivores. The grasslands are dominated by species such as Imperata cylindrical (Cogon grass) and Saccharum spontaneum (Kans grass).


(4) Riverine Vegetation:

Along the riverbanks and water bodies, you'll find a variety of riparian vegetation, including trees like Jamun (Syzygium cumini), Fig (Ficus spp.), and Arjun (Terminalia arjuna).


(5) Bamboo Groves:

Bamboo species, including Dendrocalamus strictus and Bambusa arundinacea, can be found in certain areas of the park. These dense bamboo groves provide important habitats for birds, mammals, and insects.


(6) Medicinal Plants:

Jim Corbett National Park is also known for its diverse collection of medicinal plants. Several plant species, such as Amla (Emblica officinalis), Harad (Terminalia chebula), and Bel (Aegle marmelos), are valued for their medicinal properties.




Dhikala Grasslands

The Dhikala grasslands are a significant feature within Jim Corbett National Park. Dhikala is a zone located in the core area of the park, known for its vast expanses of grasslands that spread across the landscape.


The Dhikala grasslands are characterized by open spaces covered with tall grasses, including species such as elephant grass (Saccharum ravennae), spear grass (Imperata cylindrica), and various other grass species. These grasslands provide important feeding grounds for herbivores like deer, elephants, and wild boars.


The open nature of the grasslands in Dhikala offers excellent visibility for wildlife spotting and photography. Visitors to Dhikala have a chance to witness a variety of wildlife, including herds of deer, elephants, and even the elusive Royal Bengal tiger, which may occasionally venture into the grasslands.




Jim Corbett National Park Fauna (Jim Corbett National Park Animals)

Jim Corbett National Park is renowned for its diverse and rich fauna, encompassing a wide range of animal species. The park provides a habitat for several iconic and endangered species, making it one of the most popular wildlife destinations in India. 


Here are some of the notable fauna found in Jim Corbett National Park:


Mammals:

  • Tiger
  • Elephants
  • Leopards
  • Barking Deer
  • Sambar Deer
  • Hog Deer
  • Chital
  • Sloth Bear
  • Himalayan Black Bears
  • Indian Grey Mongoose
  • Otters
  • Martens
  • Himalayan Goral
  • Indian Pangolins 
  • Langur
  • Rhesus Macaques


Birds:

  • Great hornbill
  • Crested kingfisher
  • Collared falconet
  • River lapwing
  • Ruddy shelduck
  • Black francolin
  • Chestnut-headed bee-eater
  • Pin-tailed green pigeon
  • Brown fish owl
  • Great barbet
  • Owls 
  • Nightjars


Reptiles:

  • Gharial
  • Mugger Crocodile
  • Indian Python
  • King Cobra




Top Things to do in Jim Corbett National Park

When visiting Jim Corbett National Park, there are several exciting activities and experiences that you can enjoy. 


Here are some of the top things to do in Jim Corbett National Park:


  • Wildlife Safari
  • Birdwatching
  • Nature Walks
  • Visit Dhikala
  • Corbett Museum
  • Corbett Waterfall
  • River Rafting
  • Village Tours
  • Fishing
  • Wildlife Photography


These activities provide a mix of adventure, wildlife encounters, and immersion in nature, allowing you to make the most of your visit to Jim Corbett National Park.




Jim Corbett National Park UPSC Questions

Q. Where is Jim Corbett National Park?/Jim Corbett National Park is located in which state?/Where is Jim Corbett National Park situated in Uttarakhand?

A. Jim Corbett National Park is situated in Nainital district of Uttarakhand in India.


Q. How many tigers are there in Jim Corbett National Park?

A. Around 250 tigers are there in Jim Corbett National Park.


Q. What is the new name of Jim Corbett National Park?

A. he Union Minister of State for Environment, Forest and Climate Change has recently proposed to change the name of Corbett National Park to Ramganga National Park.


Q. What is the old name of Jim Corbett National Park?

A. Hailey National Park is the old name of Jim Corbett National Park.


Q. What is Jim Corbett National Park famous for? (Why Jim Corbett National Park is famous?)

A. Jim Corbett National Park is famous for Royal Bengal Tiger. Also, Jim Corbett National Park is India’s oldest national park (first national park of India) and Asia’s first national park.


Q. How many lions in Jim Corbett National Park?

A. There is no lions in Jim Corbett National Park. The park is famous for Royal Bengal Tiger.


Q. Which river flows through Jim Corbett National Park?

A. Ramganga, Sonanadi, Mandal, Palain and Kosi river flows through Jim Corbett National Park.


Q. 10 lines on Jim Corbett National Park?

A. 

  1. Jim Corbett National Park, India's oldest, was established in 1936 to conserve the Bengal tiger and wildlife.
  2. Located in Uttarakhand, it covers an area of approximately 520 square kilometers.
  3. The park is named after the renowned hunter-turned-conservationist, Jim Corbett, who played a key role in its establishment.
  4. It is Asia's first national park and a significant part of India's wildlife conservation history.
  5. Jim Corbett National Park boasts diverse landscapes, including hills, rivers, grasslands, and dense forests.
  6. The Ramganga River flows through the park, adding to its picturesque charm and serving as a lifeline to the ecosystem.
  7. It offers thrilling safari experiences, allowing visitors to encounter tigers, elephants, leopards, and various bird species in their natural habitat.
  8. The park is also home to over 600 bird species, making it a paradise for birdwatchers.
  9. In 1973, Jim Corbett National Park was declared a tiger reserve under the Project Tiger initiative.
  10. With its rich biodiversity, historical significance, and conservation efforts, Jim Corbett National Park remains a top destination for nature lovers and wildlife enthusiasts.

Jim Corbett National Park

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