Monday, May 22, 2023

Nanda Devi National Park

Nanda Devi National Park UPSC

Nanda Devi National Park is a renowned national park located in the state of Uttarakhand, India. It is named after the majestic Nanda Devi Peak (7816 m), which is the second highest peaks in India and the highest in Uttarakhand. The national park is situated in the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.


Established in 1982, Nanda Devi National Park is known for its breathtaking natural beauty and diverse flora and fauna. The park is surrounded by a ring of towering peaks, including Nanda Devi itself, which stands at an elevation of 7,816 meters (25,643 feet).


The Nanda Devi National Park is characterized by its rugged terrain, deep gorges, and glaciers. It is home to numerous high-altitude species, including the elusive snow leopardNanda Devi National Park is not only a haven for wildlife and nature enthusiasts but also attracts mountaineers and adventure seekers from around the world. 


Table of Contents

  • Nanda Devi National Park Location
  • Nanda Devi National Park History
  • Nanda Devi National Park Area
  • Nanda Devi National Park Hills
    • Nanda Devi Peak
    • Devistan I
    • Devistan II
    • Rishi Kot
  • Nanda Devi National Park River
    • Rishi Ganga River
    • Dhauli Ganga River
    • Alaknanda River
  • Nanda Devi National Park Flora
    • Rhododendron
    • Juniper
    • Birch
    • Fir and Spruce
    • Medicinal and Aromatic Plants
    • Alpine Flowers
  • Nanda Devi National Park Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptiles
  • Top Things to do in Nanda Devi National Park
  • Nanda Devi National Park UPSC Questions


Nanda Devi National Park Location

Nanda Devi National Park is located in the Chamoli district of Uttarakhand state in northern India. The park is situated in the higher reaches of the Garhwal Himalayas and is surrounded by several peaks, including the Nanda Devi Peak, which is the centerpiece of the park. 


The nearest town to the park is Joshimath, which is about 25 kilometers (15.5 miles) away. The park is nestled in the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve and is surrounded by a stunning landscape of mountains, valleys, and glaciers.


The Nanda Devi National Park is lies at an elevation of more than 3,500 m (11,500 ft) above mean sea level.


Nanda Devi National Park Nearest Airport:

For travelers seeking to reach Nanda Devi National Park by air, the nearest airport is Jolly Grant in Dehradun, located approximately 295 kilometers away. From this well-connected airport, visitors can easily make their way to the breathtaking landscapes of Nanda Devi National Park.


Nanda Devi National Park Nearest Railway Station:

For those opting for a scenic train journey to the park, the closest railway station is Rishikesh, situated around 273 kilometers away. This railway station offers convenient connections to various parts of India, providing an enjoyable and picturesque route to Nanda Devi National Park.




Nanda Devi National Park History

Ancient Time: The history of Nanda Devi National Park dates back to ancient times when the region was revered as a sacred place. The Nanda Devi Peak, which gives the park its name, has been a significant religious and cultural symbol for the people living in the surrounding areas.


Early Recognition of Pristine Beauty: Nanda Devi National Park's history traces back to the early 20th century when its remarkable natural beauty and biodiversity caught the attention of British mountaineers and explorers. The area's unique ecological significance and breathtaking landscapes began to attract conservationists and adventurers alike.


Game Sanctuary: In 1936, the area around Nanda Devi Peak was declared a game sanctuary by the British colonial government. This step was taken to protect the diverse flora and fauna found in the region. 


National Park Status: In 1982, the Park was established as Sanjay Gandhi National Park by Notification but was later renamed Nanda Devi National Park. 


Nanda Devi National Park UNESCO World Heritage Site: The Nanda Devi National Park gained additional recognition in 1988 when it was designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It was included as a core zone of the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, along with a buffer zone and a transition zone. 


Biosphere Reserve Status: In 1988, Nanda Devi National Park, along with the Valley of Flowers National Park, was designated as Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, showcasing the harmonious coexistence of nature and human communities. This recognition highlights the park's role in promoting sustainable development while preserving its unique biodiversity.




Nanda Devi National Park Area

Nanda Devi National Park has a total area of approximately 630 square kilometers (240 square miles). This area includes the core zone of the park, which is surrounded by the buffer zone and the transition zone of the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve.


The core zone of Nanda Devi National Park, which is the most strictly protected area, covers a significant portion of the total park area. It is characterized by its rugged terrain, deep gorges, and glaciers, and it is home to the Nanda Devi Peak, which stands at an elevation of 7,816 meters (25,643 feet).


The buffer zone and transition zone around the core area serve as a buffer to protect the core zone and allow for limited human activities. These zones contribute to the overall conservation efforts and management of the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve.




Nanda Devi National Park Hills

Nanda Devi National Park is located in the higher reaches of the Garhwal Himalayas, and therefore it is surrounded by several hills and peaks that enhance the park's natural beauty. 


Here are some notable hills in and around Nanda Devi National Park:


(1) Nanda Devi Peak:

The park is named after this majestic peak, which is the second highest mountain in India and one of the most prominent features of the region. Nanda Devi Peak stands at an elevation of 7,816 meters (25,643 feet) and is a significant attraction for mountaineers and nature enthusiasts.


(2) Devistan I:

  • Devistan I is a mountain of the Garhwal Himalaya.
  • It is located in the Chamoli district of Uttarakhand, India. 
  • The elevation of Devistan I is 6,678 metres (21,909 ft). 
  • It is 52nd highest located entirely within the Uttrakhand.
  • It stands on the western rim of the Nanda Devi National Park. 


(3) Devistan II:

  • Devistan II is a mountain of the Garhwal Himalaya.
  • It is located in the Chamoli district of Uttarakhand, India.
  • The elevation of Devistan II is 6,529 metres (21,421 ft).
  • It is 81st joint highest located entirely within the Uttrakhand. 
  • It stands on the western rim of the Nanda Devi Sanctuary.


(4) Rishi Kot:

  • Rishi Kot is a mountain of the Garhwal Himalaya in Uttarakhand India. 
  • The elevation of Rishi Kot is 6,236 metres (20,459 ft).
  • It is 134th joint highest located entirely within the Uttrakhand. 




Nanda Devi National Park River

Nanda Devi National Park is blessed with numerous rivers and streams that flow through its pristine landscape. These water bodies not only add to the scenic beauty of the park but also play a vital role in sustaining the diverse ecosystems within it. 


Here are some of the notable rivers in and around Nanda Devi National Park:


(1) Rishi Ganga: 

Rishi Ganga is a major river that flows through the Rishi Ganga Valley, which lies on the eastern side of Nanda Devi National Park.


  • Rishiganga is a river in the Chamoli district, Uttarakhand, India. 
  • It originate from the Uttari Nanda Devi Glacier on the Nanda Devi mountain. 
  • It flows into the Dhauliganga River near the village Rini in the Chamoli district of Uttarakhand, India.


(2) Dhauli Ganga:

Dhauli Ganga is another significant river that flow through Nanda Devi National Park. It joins the Alaknanda River at Vishnuprayag.


(3) Alaknanda River:

The Alaknanda River, one of the two headstreams of the Ganges, flows through the region surrounding Nanda Devi National Park.




Nanda Devi National Park Flora

Nanda Devi National Park is renowned for its rich and diverse flora, owing to its varied altitudinal range and unique ecosystems. The park's flora is adapted to the harsh mountain environment, and it includes a wide variety of alpine, sub-alpine, and temperate vegetation. 


Here are some of the notable flora species found in Nanda Devi National Park:


(1) Rhododendron:

The Nanda Devi National Park is home to several species of rhododendron, including Rhododendron arboreum (the national flower of Nepal), Rhododendron campanulatum, and Rhododendron lepidotum. These vibrant flowering shrubs add a burst of color to the park's landscapes.


(2) Juniper:

Various species of juniper trees, such as Juniperus indica and Juniperus communis, can be found in the Nanda Devi National Park. These evergreen trees are well-adapted to the high-altitude regions and often form dense forests.


(3) Birch:

Betula utilis, commonly known as Himalayan birch, is a common tree species in Nanda Devi National Park. Its distinctive white bark adds to the visual appeal of the park's forests.


(4) Fir and Spruce:

Nanda Devi National Park is also characterized by its coniferous forests, which include species like Picea smithiana (Himalayan spruce) and Abies pindrow (West Himalayan fir). These trees provide shelter and food for various wildlife species.


(5) Medicinal and Aromatic Plants:

The Nanda Devi National Park is home to a wide range of medicinal and aromatic plants, including Indian aconite, Kutki, Brahma Kamal, and many more. These plants have traditional and medicinal significance for local communities.


(6) Alpine Flowers (Nanda Devi National Park Flowers): 

In the higher reaches of Nanda Devi National Park, especially in the Valley of Flowers, a remarkable variety of alpine flowers bloom during the summer season. This includes species like Brahma Kamal (Saussurea obvallata), Blue Poppy (Meconopsis), Himalayan Edelweiss (Leontopodium nivale), and several species of primroses, saxifrages, gentians, anemones, and asters are common in these areas.




Nanda Devi National Park Fauna (Nanda Devi National Park Animals)

Nanda Devi National Park is renowned for its diverse and unique fauna. The park provides habitat to a wide range of animal species, including some rare and endangered ones. 


Here are some notable fauna found in Nanda Devi National Park:


Mammals:

  • Snow Leopard
  • Himalayan Black Bear
  • Himalayan Musk Deer
  • Himalayan Brown Bear
  • Bharal (Blue Sheep)
  • Himalayan Tahr
  • Mainland Serow
  • Langurs


Birds:

  • Himalayan Monal
  • Himalayan Griffon
  • Golden Eagles
  • Yellow Bellied Fantail Flycatcher
  • Orange Flanked Bush Ribbon
  • Crested Black Tit
  • Indian Tree Pipit
  • Blue Fronted Redstart
  • Common Rose Finch
  • Vinaceous Breasted Pipit


Reptiles:

  • Himalayan Pit Viper
  • Common Indian Skink
  • Himalayan Rock Agama
  • Himalayan Keelback




Top Things to do in Nanda Devi National Park

Nanda Devi National Park offers a wide range of activities and experiences for visitors who appreciate its natural beauty and diverse ecosystems. 


Here are some top things to do in Nanda Devi National Park:


  • Trekking and Hiking
  • Wildlife Spotting
  • Visit the Valley of Flowers
  • Explore Rishi Ganga Valley
  • Visit Tapovan
  • Photography
  • Experience Local Culture
  • Enjoy Nature and Serenity




Nanda Devi National Park UPSC Questions

Q. Nanda Devi National Park is famous for which animal?

A. Nanda Devi National Park is famous for Snow Leopard, Himalayan Black Bear, Himalayan Musk Deer, Himalayan Brown Bear, Bharal (Blue Sheep), Himalayan Tahr, Mainland Serow etc.


Q. Nanda Devi National Park is located in which state?/Where is Nanda Devi National Park situated?/ In which state do we find Nanda Devi and Valley of Flowers National Park?

A. Nanda Devi National Park is located in the Chamoli district of Uttarakhand state.


Q. Which river flows through Nanda Devi National Park?

A. Rishi Ganga, Dhauli Ganga and Alaknanda river flows through Nanda Devi National Park

Nanda Devi National Park

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