Saturday, June 17, 2023

Kalagarh Tiger Reserve

Kalagarh Tiger Reserve UPSC

Kalagarh Tiger Reserve is a protected area located in the state of Uttarakhand, India. It is part of the larger Corbett Tiger Reserve and covers an area of approximately 301 square kilometers (116 square miles), which also includes Sonanadi Wildlife Sanctuary, along with Jim Corbett Park.

The Kalagarh Tiger Reserve is situated in the foothills of the Himalayas and is named after the Kalagarh dam, which was constructed on the Ramganga River. The reserve is known for its diverse flora and fauna, including the majestic Bengal tigers, which are the main attraction for wildlife enthusiasts and tourists.

Conservation efforts are in place to protect the rich biodiversity of Kalagarh Tiger Reserve, and it plays a significant role in the conservation of the critically endangered Bengal tiger population in India.

Table of Contents

  • Kalagarh Tiger Reserve Location
  • Kalagarh Tiger Reserve History
  • Kalagarh Tiger Reserve Area
  • Kalagarh Tiger Reserve River
    • Ramganga River
  • Kalagarh Tiger Reserve Flora
    • Moist Deciduous Forests
    • Riverine Vegetation
    • Grasslands
    • Aquatic Vegetation
  • Kalagarh Tiger Reserve Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptiles
  • Top Things to do in Kalagarh Tiger Reserve
  • Kalagarh Tiger Reserve UPSC Questions

Kalagarh Tiger Reserve Location

Kalagarh Tiger Reserve is located in the Lansdowne Division of Pauri Garhwal district in Uttarakhand, India. The reserve is approximately 40 kilometers (25 miles) from Ramnagar town, which serves as the main gateway to the Corbett Tiger Reserve. 

Kalagarh Tiger Reserve Nearest Airport:

The nearest airport is Jolly Grant at Dehradun, which is 119 kms away.

Kalagarh Tiger Reserve Nearest Railway Station:

The nearest railway station is at Kotdwara (14 kms).

Kalagarh Tiger Reserve History

The history of Kalagarh Tiger Reserve is closely intertwined with the establishment and evolution of the larger Corbett Tiger Reserve. Here is a brief overview:

Foundation: The Kalagarh Wildlife Sanctuary, which later became part of the Corbett Tiger Reserve, was established in 1974. It was named after the Kalagarh dam built on the Ramganga River.

Corbett Tiger Reserve: In 1973, the Indian government launched Project Tiger, a conservation initiative aimed at protecting the endangered Bengal tiger and its habitat. As part of this project, several wildlife sanctuaries, including Kalagarh, were merged to form the Corbett Tiger Reserve. The reserve was named in honor of Jim Corbett, a renowned British hunter turned conservationist, who played a crucial role in the establishment of national parks and conservation efforts in India.

Conservation Efforts: Over the years, Kalagarh Tiger Reserve has been actively involved in tiger conservation and habitat management. Various measures have been implemented to curb poaching, reduce human-wildlife conflict, and promote sustainable tourism.

Kalagarh Tiger Reserve Area

The Kalagarh Tiger Reserve, also known as Kalagarh Wildlife Sanctuary, covers an area of approximately 301 square kilometers (116 square miles). It is a part of the larger Corbett Tiger Reserve, which itself spans across an area of around 1288.31 square kilometers (about 497.50 square miles).

The protected area encompasses a range of habitats, including moist deciduous forests, grasslands, and water bodies. These habitats provide a suitable environment for a variety of wildlife species, including the iconic Bengal tigers, elephants, leopards, deer, wild boars, and numerous bird species.

Kalagarh Tiger Reserve River

The Kalagarh Tiger Reserve is bordered by the Ramganga River, which flows through the reserve and adds to its ecological significance. The Ramganga River is a major tributary of the Ganges River and plays a vital role in shaping the landscape and supporting the diverse ecosystems within the reserve.

The Ramganga River is known for its scenic beauty, with stretches of flowing water, rapids, and tranquil pools. It adds to the charm of the Kalagarh Tiger Reserve and offers visitors the opportunity to engage in activities like river safaris, boating, and angling.

The riverine ecosystem along the Ramganga River supports a diverse array of flora and fauna, making it an important corridor for wildlife movement within the reserve. The river serves as a natural boundary for the Kalagarh Tiger Reserve, enhancing its ecological connectivity with the surrounding landscape.

Kalagarh Tiger Reserve Flora

The Kalagarh Tiger Reserve is characterized by a diverse range of flora, representing different types of vegetation and habitats. The reserve's flora is influenced by its location in the foothills of the Himalayas and the presence of the Ramganga River. Here are some notable components of the flora in Kalagarh Tiger Reserve:

(1) Moist Deciduous Forests: 

The dominant forest type in the Kalagarh Tiger Reserve is moist deciduous forests. These forests are characterized by trees that shed their leaves during the dry season. Sal (Shorea robusta) is the most common tree species, forming dense stands. Other tree species found in the forests include semal (Bombax ceiba), kusum (Schleichera oleosa), and rohini (Mallotus philippensis).

(2) Riverine Vegetation:

The vegetation along the banks of the Ramganga River is characterized by a mix of trees, shrubs, and grasses. This riverine vegetation includes species like eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp.), babul (Acacia nilotica), sissoo (Dalbergia sissoo), and various grass species that provide valuable food and cover for wildlife.

(3) Grasslands:

Open grasslands are found in certain areas of the reserve, providing grazing grounds for herbivores like deer and a habitat for grassland bird species. These grasslands also support the growth of wildflowers and shrubs.

(4) Aquatic Vegetation:

The water bodies within the reserve, such as rivers, streams, and ponds, support aquatic vegetation. These include species like water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), lotus (Nelumbo nucifera), and various submerged and floating plants.

Kalagarh Tiger Reserve Fauna (Kalagarh Tiger Reserve Animals)

The Kalagarh Tiger Reserve is home to a diverse range of wildlife, including several iconic and endangered species. The reserve's fauna is supported by its varied habitats, including forests, grasslands, and riverine ecosystems. 

Here are some notable fauna species found in the Kalagarh Tiger Reserve:


  • Bengal Tigers
  • Leopards 
  • Asian Elephants
  • Chital
  • Barking Deer
  • Goral
  • Sambar
  • Hog Deer
  • Porcupines
  • Yellow-throated Martens
  • Langurs
  • Wild Boar


  • Kingfishers
  • Wagtails
  • Forktails
  • Pheasants
  • Hornbills
  • Eagles
  • Vultures


  • Gharial
  • Crocodiles
  • King Cobras
  • Rock Pythons
  • Monitor Lizards

Top Things to do in Kalagarh Tiger Reserve

When visiting the Kalagarh Tiger Reserve, there are several exciting activities and experiences you can engage in to make the most of your trip. Here are some of the top things to do in Kalagarh Tiger Reserve:

  • Wildlife Safari
  • Birdwatching
  • Nature Walks
  • Photography
  • River Safari
  • Visit the Corbett Waterfall
  • Nature Interpretation Center
  • Camping and Nature Stay

Kalagarh Tiger Reserve UPSC Questions

Q. Which district is Kalagarh Tiger Reserve in?

A. Kalagarh Tiger Reserve is located in the Lansdowne Division of Pauri Garhwal district in Uttarakhand, India.

Kalagarh Tiger Reserve

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