Monday, June 12, 2023

Kanger Valley National Park

Kanger Valley National Park UPSC

Kanger Valley National Park, also known as Kanger Ghati National Park, is a protected area located in the Indian state of Chhattisgarh. It was established in 1982 and covers an area of approximately 200 square kilometers (77 square miles). 


The name of Kanger Ghati National Park is derived from the Kangar river, which flows in the region. The park is famous for the Bastar hill myna, the state bird of Chhattisgarh.


Kanger Valley National Park is known for its rich biodiversity and scenic beauty. It is home to dense forests, deep valleys, streams, waterfalls, and limestone caves, making it a popular tourist destination. The park is characterized by its tropical moist deciduous and tropical dry deciduous forests, which harbor a wide variety of flora and fauna.


One of the main attractions of Kanger Valley National Park is the Kutumsar, Kailash and Dandak Caves, which are limestone caves known for their stalactite and stalagmite formations. These caves are considered to be one of the longest natural caves in the world.


Table of Contents

  • Kanger Valley National Park Location
  • Kanger Valley National Park History
  • Kanger Valley National Park Area
  • Kanger Valley National Park Hills
    • Kotamsar Range
    • Koleng Range
  • Kanger Valley National Park River
    • Kangar River
  • Kanger Valley National Park Waterfall
    • Tirathgarh Waterfall
    • Mandawa Waterfall
    • Kanger Dhara Fall
  • Kanger Valley National Park Caves
    • Kutumsar/Kotamsar Caves
    • Kailash Caves
    • Dandak Caves
  • Kanger Valley National Park Flora
  • Kanger Valley National Park Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptiles
  • Top Things to do in Kanger Valley National Park
  • Kanger Valley National Park UPSC Questions


Kanger Valley National Park Location

Kanger Valley National Park is located in the Bastar district of the Indian state of Chhattisgarh. Specifically, it is situated in the Kanger Valley, which is part of the Eastern Ghats mountain range. 


The park is approximately 27 kilometers (17 miles) south-east of Jagdalpur, the district headquarters of Bastar. Jagdalpur is well-connected by road and is the gateway to the park.


Kanger Valley National Park Nearest Airport:

The nearest airport to Kanger Valley National Park is Swami Vivekananda Airport, also known as Raipur Airport. It is located in Raipur, the capital city of Chhattisgarh. The distance between Raipur Airport and Kanger Valley National Park is approximately 260 kilometers.


Kanger Valley National Park Nearest Railway Station:

As for the nearest railway station, Jagdalpur Railway Station serves as the closest railhead to Kanger Valley National Park. It is situated in Jagdalpur, a town in Bastar district. The distance between Jagdalpur Railway Station and the national park is approximately 38 kilometers.




Kanger Valley National Park History

Kanger Valley National Park has a rich history that dates back to ancient times. 


Historical Background: Kanger Valley National Park is situated in the Bastar district of Chhattisgarh, India. The region has a long history of human habitation, with indigenous tribal communities residing in the area for thousands of years. The tribal kingdoms of Nagavanshi and Haihayavanshi ruled over the region, leaving their cultural and architectural influence.


Colonial Era: During the British colonial era, the Bastar region came under the control of the British Raj. However, the local tribes fiercely resisted the colonial rule, engaging in numerous uprisings and revolts. These tribes, including the Gonds and Maria Gonds, have a deep connection to the land and have traditionally lived in harmony with the natural surroundings.


Establishment of National Park: The establishment of Kanger Valley National Park as a protected area took place in 1982. The park was created with the aim of conserving the unique biodiversity and natural beauty of the region. The dense forests, limestone caves, and diverse wildlife found in the area played a significant role in the decision to declare it a national park.




Kanger Valley National Park Area

Kanger Valley National Park spans an approximate area of 200 square kilometers (77 square miles). This area encompasses the diverse ecosystems, dense forests, valleys, waterfalls, and limestone caves that make the park a unique and biodiverse destination. 




Kanger Valley National Park Hills

Kanger Valley National Park comprises two main ranges: the Kotamsar Range in the west and the Koleng Range in the east. These ranges contribute to the diverse topography and landscapes found within the park. 




Kanger Valley National Park River

Kangar River:

The Kanger Valley National Park is traversed by the Kanger River, which is a significant watercourse in the region. The Kanger River is a tributary of the Mahanadi River, one of the major rivers in India. It flows through the park, enhancing its natural beauty and providing water to the surrounding ecosystem. 


The river adds to the overall biodiversity of the Kanger Valley National Park by supporting aquatic life and creating habitats for various species of flora and fauna. 




Kanger Valley National Park Waterfall

Kanger Valley National Park is blessed with several beautiful waterfalls that enhance its scenic charm. Here are some notable waterfalls within or near the park:


(1) Tirathgarh Waterfall:

This is one of the most popular waterfalls in the region, located around 35 kilometers (22 miles) from Jagdalpur, near the entrance of Kanger Valley National Park. The waterfall cascades down from a height of approximately 100 feet (30 meters) and is surrounded by lush greenery.


(2) Mandawa Waterfall: 

Situated within the park, Mandawa Waterfall is a smaller yet picturesque cascade that adds to the natural beauty of the surroundings. It is a popular spot for visitors to relax and enjoy the tranquil ambiance.


(3) Kanger Dhara Fall:

Kangar Dhara is a waterfall which is located inside the Kanger valley national park. It is produced by the Kanger river.




Kanger Valley National Park Caves

Kanger Valley National Park is renowned for its fascinating limestone caves, which are a major attraction for visitors. Some of the notable caves within or near the park are:


(1) Kutumsar/Kotamsar Caves: 

Located within the park, Kutumsar Caves are one of the most famous limestone caves in India. These caves are known for their impressive stalactite and stalagmite formations. Kutumsar Caves are considered to be one of the longest natural caves in the world, with a length of about 1,400 meters. The caves have a unique ecosystem, with blind fish and other specialized creatures adapted to the dark environment.


(2) Kailash Caves:

Situated near the Kutumsar Caves, Kailash Caves are another significant cave system in the area. These caves are known for their stunning stalactites, stalagmites, and various rock formations. Kailash Caves are revered by locals and hold cultural and religious significance.


(3) Dandak Caves:

Dandak Caves are located in the Kanger Valley National Park




Kanger Valley National Park Flora

Kanger Valley National Park boasts a diverse range of flora due to its varied topography, climatic conditions, and rich soil. The park is predominantly covered with tropical moist deciduous forests and tropical dry deciduous forests. 


Here are some of the notable flora species found in Kanger Valley National Park:


Sal (Shorea robusta): Sal trees are one of the dominant tree species in the Kanger Valley National Park. They have large, straight trunks and provide dense canopy cover. Sal trees are highly valued for their timber and are an important component of the forest ecosystem.


Bamboo: Various species of bamboo are found in the Kanger Valley National Park, including Dendrocalamus strictus and Bambusa arundinacea. Bamboo provides habitat and food for several animal species and is widely used by local communities for various purposes.


Terminalia: Terminalia species, such as Terminalia arjuna and Terminalia tomentosa, are commonly found in the Kanger Valley National Park. These trees have distinctive foliage and are important for soil conservation.


Mahua (Madhuca longifolia): Mahua trees are known for their sweet-scented flowers and edible fruits. They are culturally significant and provide food and livelihood resources for local communities.


Teak (Tectona grandis): Teak is a valuable timber species and is found in certain areas of the Kanger Valley National Park. It is highly sought after for its durability and aesthetic appeal.


Indian Gooseberry (Emblica officinalis): Indian gooseberry, also known as Amla, is a medicinal plant found in the Kanger Valley National Park. It is known for its high vitamin C content and various health benefits.




Kanger Valley National Park Fauna (Kanger Valley National Park Animals)

Which animal is protected in Kanger Valley National Park?

Kanger Valley National Park is home to a diverse range of wildlife, including several mammal, bird, reptile, and amphibian species. Here are some of the notable fauna species found in the park:


Mammals:

  • Tigers
  • Leopards
  • Sloth Bear
  • Flying Squirrel
  • Wild Cat
  • Chital
  • Sambar
  • Barking Deer
  • Mouse Deer
  • Jackals
  • Langurs
  • Rhesus Macaque
  • Wild Boar
  • Striped Hyena


Birds:

  • Bastar Hill Maina
  • Spotted Owlet
  • Red Jungle Fowl
  • Racket-tailed Drongos
  • Peacocks
  • Parrots
  • Steppe Eagles
  • Red Spurfowl
  • Bhura Teeter
  • Tree Pie 


Reptiles:

  • Pythons
  • Crocodiles
  • Monitor Lizards
  • Cobra




Top Things to do in Kanger Valley National Park

When visiting Kanger Valley National Park, there are several exciting activities and attractions to explore. Here are some of the top things to do in Kanger Valley National Park:


  • Wildlife Safari
  • Visit the Caves
  • Trekking and Nature Walks
  • Visit Tribal Villages
  • Picnic at Waterfalls
  • Birdwatching
  • Photography
  • Explore Traditional Arts and Crafts




Kanger Valley National Park UPSC Questions

Q. Where is Kanger Valley National Park?/Kanger Valley National Park is located in which state?

A. Kanger Valley National Park is located in the Bastar district of the Indian state of Chhattisgarh. 


Q. What is Kanger Valley National Park famous for?

A. Kanger Valley National Park is famous for several reasons:


  • Biodiversity
  • Limestone Caves
  • Tribal Culture
  • Waterfalls
  • Natural Landscapes
  • Adventure and Outdoor Activities

Kanger Valley National Park

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