Friday, June 2, 2023

Murlen National Park

Murlen National Park UPSC

Murlen National Park is a protected area located in the state of Mizoram, India. It was established in 1991 and covers an area of approximately 200 square kilometers (77 square miles). 


The Murlen National Park is known for its rich biodiversity, including a variety of flora and fauna. It offers opportunities for nature enthusiasts and wildlife lovers to explore its scenic beauty and observe the wildlife.


Table of Contents

  • Murlen National Park Location
  • Murlen National Park History
  • Murlen National Park Area
  • Murlen National Park Hills
    • Mizo Hills
  • Murlen National Park River
    • Tiau River
    • Tuivai River
    • Champhai River
  • Murlen National Park Flora
    • Tropical and Subtropical Forests
    • Montane Forests
    • Orchids
    • Medicinal Plants
    • Mosses and Ferns
    • Epiphytes
  • Murlen National Park Fauna
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptiles
  • Top Things to do in Murlen National Park
  • Murlen National Park UPSC Questions


Murlen National Park Location

Murlen National Park is located in the Champhai district of Mizoram, which is a state in Northeast India. The park is situated in the northeastern part of Mizoram, close to the India-Myanmar border.


The park is nestled in the hilly terrain of the Mizo Hills, characterized by dense forests, steep slopes, and beautiful landscapes. It is surrounded by the Murlen Village on one side and stretches towards the east, bordering Myanmar.


Access to Murlen National Park can be challenging due to its remote location and limited infrastructure. The nearest major town is Champhai, which is approximately 80 kilometers (50 miles) away.  


The park is situated about 245 km east of Aizawl, and is close to the Chin Hills (Myanmar). It lies north of Lengteng Wildlife Sanctuary in the same district (Champhai district).


A combination of road and trekking routes is usually used to reach the park from Champhai or nearby villages.


Murlen National Park Nearest Airport:

  • Shillong Airport (245 km)


Murlen National Park Nearest Railway Station:

  • Silchar Railway Station




Murlen National Park History

Murlen National Park has an interesting history that dates back to its establishment and subsequent recognition as a national park. Here's a brief overview:


Establishment: Murlen National Park was established in 1989 covering an area of 50 Sq.Km. It was initially declared as a wildlife sanctuary to protect the region's rich biodiversity.


Upgradation to National Park: In 1991, Murlen Wildlife Sanctuary was upgraded to a national park to provide enhanced protection and conservation to its diverse flora and fauna. The park's boundaries were expanded, and its area increased to approximately 200 square kilometers.


Biodiversity Exploration: After its establishment, Murlen National Park attracted the attention of researchers and scientists due to its unique ecosystems. Several expeditions were conducted to explore and document the park's biodiversity, leading to the discovery of several new species of plants, birds, and mammals.


Conservation Efforts: The Mizoram Forest Department, along with other conservation organizations and stakeholders, has been actively involved in the conservation and management of Murlen National Park. Efforts have been made to curb poaching, prevent illegal activities, and raise awareness about the importance of protecting the park's natural resources.


Wildlife Conservation Successes: Murlen National Park has played a crucial role in the conservation of various endangered and rare species. Notably, the park is known for its successful conservation efforts for the highly elusive and rare Mizo serpent eagle (Spilornis minimus) and the critically endangered Hoolock gibbon (Hoolock hoolock).




Murlen National Park Area

Murlen National Park covers an approximate area of 200 square kilometers (77 square miles). The park's boundaries have expanded since its establishment as a wildlife sanctuary, and it now encompasses this larger area to provide enhanced protection to the region's biodiversity.


The park is characterized by hilly terrain, dense forests, and diverse ecosystems. Its sprawling landscape offers habitat for a variety of plant and animal species, making it an important conservation area in Mizoram, India.


The altitude of Murlen National Park ranges from approximately 400 meters (1,312 feet) to 1,900 meters (6,233 feet) above mean sea level (MSL).




Murlen National Park Hills

Murlen National Park is located in the Mizo Hills of Mizoram, India. The park is characterized by its hilly terrain, which is part of the larger Mizo Hills landscape. The hills in and around Murlen National Park contribute to the scenic beauty and ecological diversity of the area.


The Mizo Hills ( Lushai Hills) are a part of the larger Patkai range, which extends across the northeastern region of India, including parts of Mizoram, Manipur, and Nagaland. These hills are known for their lush greenery, dense forests, and picturesque landscapes.


Within Murlen National Park, the hills vary in elevation and steepness, creating diverse microhabitats and ecosystems. The hillsides are covered with thick vegetation, including evergreen forests, deciduous forests, and bamboo groves.


The hills in Murlen National Park offer opportunities for trekking, wildlife observation, and enjoying panoramic views of the surrounding landscapes. They are home to a variety of plant and animal species, including orchids, rhododendrons, primates, birds, and other wildlife.




Murlen National Park River

Murlen National Park is not known to have any major rivers flowing directly through it. However, there are smaller streams and rivulets that meander through the park's hilly terrain, contributing to its overall hydrological system.


These smaller water bodies within the park serve as important water sources for wildlife and support the park's diverse ecosystems. They provide drinking water and habitats for various species of animals, birds, and aquatic life.


Moreover, outside the boundaries of Murlen National Park, there are rivers and larger water bodies in the vicinity that play a role in the overall hydrology of the region. Some of the major rivers near Murlen National Park include the Tiau River, Tuivai River and Champhai River.


The Tiau River flows to the east of the park, while the Tuivai River and Champhai River are located to the west and south, respectively. These rivers contribute to the drainage system of the region and may indirectly influence the park's ecosystem through water availability and connectivity with surrounding areas.




Murlen National Park Flora

Murlen National Park in Mizoram, India, boasts a rich and diverse flora. The park's varying elevations, ranging from approximately 400 meters to 1,900 meters above sea level, contribute to the presence of different vegetation types and ecosystems. 


Here are some key features of the park's flora:


(1) Tropical and Subtropical Forests:

In the lower elevations of Murlen National Park, you can find tropical and subtropical evergreen forests. These forests are characterized by dense vegetation with a variety of tree species, including Dipterocarps, figs, laurels, and palms.


(2) Montane Forests: 

As you ascend to higher elevations, the forests transition to montane forests. These forests consist of a mix of broadleaf and coniferous trees. You may find species like oak, rhododendron, magnolia, bamboo, and pine in these areas.


(3) Orchids: 

Murlen National Park is known for its abundance of orchids. The park is home to numerous orchid species, including rare and endemic varieties. Orchids are highly valued for their vibrant colors and unique floral structures.


(4) Medicinal Plants: 

The forests of Murlen National Park are also rich in medicinal plants. Local communities, including tribal groups, have long relied on these plants for traditional medicine and healing practices.


(5) Mosses and Ferns: 

The moist and shaded environments within the park provide ideal conditions for the growth of mosses and ferns. These non-flowering plants add to the overall diversity of the park's flora.


(6) Epiphytes: 

Murlen National Park is host to various epiphytic plants that grow on other plants without harming them. Epiphytes, such as bromeliads and ferns, attach themselves to tree trunks or branches and obtain nutrients from the air and rain.




Murlen National Park Fauna (Murlen National Park Animals)

Which animals are found in Murlen National Park?

Murlen National Park in Mizoram, India, is home to a diverse range of fauna. The park's varied habitats, including forests, hills, and streams, support a rich ecosystem with a variety of wildlife species. 


Here are some notable fauna found in Murlen National Park:


Mammals:

  • Tiger
  • Leopard
  • Malayan Giant Squirrel
  • Himalayan Black Bear
  • Serow
  • Hoolock Gibbon
  • Goral 
  • Sambar 
  • Barking Deer 
  • Wild Boar 
  • Rhesus Macaque


Birds:

  • Mrs. Hume’s Pheasant 
  • Kaleej Pheasant 
  • Bhutan Peacock Pheasant 
  • Red Jungle Fowl 
  • Pied Hornbill 
  • Imperial Pegion 
  • Creted Serpent Eagle
  • Brown Wood Owl 
  • Hoopoe
  • Dove
  • Eagle
  • Pitta
  • Leafbird
  • Magpie
  • Minivet
  • Warbler


Reptiles:

  • Burmese Python
  • Indian Rock Python
  • Reticulated Python
  • King Cobra




Top Things to do in Murlen National Park

When visiting Murlen National Park in Mizoram, India, there are several activities and experiences you can enjoy. Here are some of the top things to do in Murlen National Park:


  • Wildlife Spotting
  • Birdwatching
  • Nature Walks and Trekking
  • Photography
  • Picnicking and Camping
  • Interact with Local Communities
  • Explore Vantawng Falls




Murlen National Park UPSC Questions

Q. Murlen National Park is famous for which animal?

A. Murlen National Park is famous for  Mrs. Hume’s Pheasant, Tiger, Leopard, Malayan Giant Squirrel, Himalayan Black Bear, Hoolock Gibbon etc. animals.


Q. Why is Murlen National Park famous?

A. Murlen National Park in Mizoram, India, is famous for several reasons:

  • Biodiversity Hotspot
  • Endangered Species
  • Orchid Diversity
  • Scenic Landscapes
  • Cultural Heritage

Murlen National Park

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